Communication Link
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Sajid Ali Murtaza ◽  
Nazam Siddique ◽  
Javaid Aslam ◽  
Waqas Latif ◽  
Muhammad Wasif ◽  

The AC power system is leading due to its established standards. The depleting thread of fossil fuels, the significant increase in cost and the alarming environmental situation raises concerns. An Islanded DC microgrid, due to its novel characteristics of being able to withstand faulty conditions, has increased the reliability, accuracy, ease of integration, and efficiency of the power system. Renewable energy sources, characteristically DC, have wide usability in a distributive network and, accordingly, less circuitry and conversion stages are required, eliminating the need of reactive power compensation and frequency sync. Constant power loads (CPLs) are the reason for instability in the DC microgrid. Various centralized stability techniques have been proposed in the literature; however, the grid system collapses if there is a fault. To compensate, an efficient distributive control architecture, i.e., droop control method is proposed in this research. The significant advantage of using the droop control technique includes easy implementation, high reliability and flexibility, a reduced circulating current, a decentralized control with local measurements, the absence of a communication link and, thus, it is economic. Moreover, it offers local control for each individual power source in the microgrid. To investigate the stability of the islanded DC microgrid with constant power loads using the droop control technique, a small signal model of the islanded DC microgrid was developed in MATLAB/Simulink. Simulations were carried out to show the efficiency of the proposed controller and analyze the stability of the power system with constant power loads.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Haike Liu ◽  
Huajian Zhang ◽  
Kai Yang ◽  
Jiali Li

With the development of new satellite payload technology, in order to improve the utilization of system resources, research is based on software-defined network (SDN) and network function virtualization (NFV) gateway architecture. Based on this architecture, the system realizes global resource management and overall data distribution, which can solve the problem of resource allocation and maximum/minimum rate guarantee between different VNO terminals under different beams, different gateways, and different satellites. For this, a global bandwidth management method can be used which is mainly a process of management to control the traffic on a communication link. The proposed global resource management and control method can be based on the rate guarantee value of the VNO/terminal configured in the system as the basic limiting condition and reallocate the rate guarantee value limiting parameter according to the resource application status of the online terminal. The method can maximize the resource utilization of the entire satellite communication system and satisfy the resource request of the user terminal as much as possible.

Zhiwu Cui ◽  
Ke Zhou ◽  
Jian Chen

The existing acquisition system has the problem of imperfect communication link, which leads to the weak signal receiving strength of the system. This paper designs an intelligent voice acquisition system based on cloud resource scheduling model. Hardware: select S3C6410 as hardware platform, optimize audio access port, connect IIS serial bus and other components; Software part: extract the frequency agility characteristics of intelligent voice signal, predict the future sample value, establish the communication link with cloud resource scheduling model, obtain the communication rate information, code and generate digital voice data, set the transmission function of intelligent acquisition system with overlay algorithm. Experimental results: the average signal receiving strength of the designed system and the other two intelligent voice intelligent acquisition systems is 106.40 dBm, 91.33 dBm and 90.23 dBm, which proves that the intelligent acquisition system integrated with cloud resource scheduling model has higher use value.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 186
Aleena Swetapadma ◽  
Shobha Agarwal ◽  
Satarupa Chakrabarti ◽  
Soham Chakrabarti ◽  
Adel El-Shahat ◽  

Most of the fault location methods in high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines usemethods which require signals from both ends. It will be difficult to estimate fault location if the signal recorded is not correct due to communication problems.Hence a robust method is required which can locate fault with minimum error. In this work, faults are located using boosting ensembles in HVDC transmission lines based on single terminal direct current (DC) signals. The signals are processed to obtain input features that vary with the fault distance. These input features are obtained by taking maximum of half cycle current signals after fault and minimum of half cycle voltage signals after fault from the root mean square of DC signals. The input features are input to a boosting ensemble for estimating the location of fault. Boosting ensemble method attempts to correct the errors from the previous models and find outputs by combining all models. The boosting ensemble method has been also compared with the decision tree method and thebagging-based ensemble method. Fault locations are estimated using three methods and compared to obtain an optimal method. The boosting ensemble method has better performance than all the other methods in locating the faults. It also validated varying fault resistance, smoothing reactors, boundary faults, pole to ground faults and pole to pole faults. The advantage of the method is that no communication link is needed. Another advantage is that it allowsreach setting up to 99.9% and does not exhibitthe problem of over-fitting. Another advantage is that the percentage error in locating faults is within 1% and has a low realization cost. The proposed method can be implemented in HVDC transmission lines effectively as an alternative to overcome the drawbacks of traveling wave methods.

2022 ◽  
Vol 72 (1) ◽  
pp. 114-121
Sudarsana Reddy Karnati ◽  
Lakshmi Boppanna ◽  
D. R. Jahagirdar

The on-board telemetry system of an aerospace vehicle sends the vehicle performance parameters to the ground receiving station at all instances of its trajectory. During the course of its trajectory, the communication channel of a long range vehicle, experiences various phenomena such as plume attenuation, stage separation, manoeuvring of a vehicle and RF blackout, causing loss of valuable telemetry data. The loss of communication link is inevitable due to these harsh conditions even when using the space diversity of ground receiving systems. Conventional telemetry systems do not provide redundant data for long range aerospace vehicles. This research work proposes an innovative delay data transmission, frame switchover and multiple frames data transmission schemes to improve the availability of telemetry data at ground receiving stations. The proposed innovative schemes are modelled using VHDL and extensive simulations have been performed to validate the results. The functionally simulated net list has been synthesised with 130 nm ACTEL flash based FPGA and verified on telemetry hardware.

2022 ◽  
pp. 380-407
Abdelmadjid Recioui ◽  
Youcef Grainat

The communication infrastructure constitutes the key element in smart grids. There have been great advances to enhance the way data is communicated among the different smart grid applications. The aim of this chapter is to present the data communication part of the smart grid with some pioneering developments in this topic. A succinct review of the state of art projects to improve the communication link is presented. An illustrative simulation using LABVIEW is included with a proposed idea of introducing some newly technologies involved in the current and future generations of wireless communication systems.

2022 ◽  
Carlos E. Arruda ◽  
Joberto S. B. Martins

The Internet of Things (IoT) is considered a major trend in computing and in specific areas such as Smart Cities, Smart Grid, Industry 4.0, and mobile applications based on 5G. Typically, this set of technologies requires the orchestration of heterogeneous resources that are allocated over distinct infrastructures such as Cloud Computing, Cloud of Things, Datacenters, and network backbones. Consistent with this demand, the PSIoT-Orch framework was designed to orchestrate massive IoT traffic and to allocate network resources between Aggregators and Consumers in a Publish / Subscribe strategy. This dissertation aims to build an intelligent module for PSIoT-Orch that is capable of handling data types with different transmission requirements, aiming at the efficient use of a limited communication link. The proposed component uses Reinforcement Learning, more specifically, the SARSA algorithm to dynamically adjust the available bandwidth according to transmission priority. This solution, named PSIoT-SARSA, is validated in a simulation environment under the statistical methods of Analysis of Variance and Response Surface Analysis and, at the end of the study, it is observed that it obtained promising results. The contributions are focused on gathering an approach that allows allocating bandwidth in an intelligent way, allowing efficient scheduling of the IoT flow, in the scenario of the Smart Grid.

2022 ◽  
pp. 942-957
Adnan Rashid ◽  
Osman Hasan

Smart grids provide a digital upgradation of the conventional power grids by alleviating the power outages and voltage sags that occur due to their inefficient communication technologies and systems. They mainly tend to strengthen the efficiency, performance, and reliability of the traditional grids by establishing a trusted communication link between their different components through routing protocols. The conventional methods, i.e., the computer-based simulations and net testing, for analyzing these routing network protocols are error-prone and thus cannot be relied upon while analyzing the safety-critical smart grid systems. Formal methods can cater for the above-mentioned inaccuracies and thus can be very beneficial in analyzing communication protocols used in smart grids. In order to demonstrate the utilization and effectiveness of formal methods in analyzing smart grid routing protocols, we use the UPPAAL model checker to formally model the ZigBee-based routing protocol. We also verify some of its properties, such as, liveness, collision avoidance and deadlock freeness.

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