Social Networks
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T Heena Fayaz

Abstract: The way politicians communicate with the electorateand run electoral campaigns was reshaped by the emergence and popularization of contemporary social media (SM), such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram social networks (SN). Due to inherent capabilities of SM, such as the large amount of available data accessed in real time, a new research subject has emerged, focusing on using SM data to predict election outcomes. Despite many studies conducted in the last decade, results are very controversial, and many times challenged. In this context, this work aims to investigate and summarize how research on predicting elections based on SM data has evolved since its beginning, to outline the state of both the art and the practice,and to identify research opportunities within this field. In termsof method, we performed a systematic literature review analyzingthe quantity and quality of publications, the electoral context of studies, the main approaches to and characteristics of the successful studies, as well as their main strengths and challenges, and compared our results with previous reviews. We identified and analyzed 83 relevant studies, and the challenges were identified in many areas such as process, sampling, modeling, performance evaluation and scientific rigor. Main findings include the low success of the most-used approach, namely volume and sentiment analysis on Twitter, and the better results with new approaches, such as regression methods trained with traditional polls. Finally, a vision of future research on integrating advances on process definitions, modeling, and evaluation is also discussed, pointing out, among others, the need for better investigating the application of state-of-art machine learning approaches. Index Terms: Elections, Social Media, Social Networks, Machine Learning, Systematic Review

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-32
Sajid Hasan Apon ◽  
Mohammed Eunus Ali ◽  
Bishwamittra Ghosh ◽  
Timos Sellis

Social networks with location enabling technologies, also known as geo-social networks, allow users to share their location-specific activities and preferences through check-ins. A user in such a geo-social network can be attributed to an associated location (spatial), her preferences as keywords (textual), and the connectivity (social) with her friends. The fusion of social, spatial, and textual data of a large number of users in these networks provide an interesting insight for finding meaningful geo-social groups of users supporting many real-life applications, including activity planning and recommendation systems. In this article, we introduce a novel query, namely, Top- k Flexible Socio-Spatial Keyword-aware Group Query (SSKGQ), which finds the best k groups of varying sizes around different points of interest (POIs), where the groups are ranked based on the social and textual cohesiveness among members and spatial closeness with the corresponding POI and the number of members in the group. We develop an efficient approach to solve the SSKGQ problem based on our theoretical upper bounds on distance, social connectivity, and textual similarity. We prove that the SSKGQ problem is NP-Hard and provide an approximate solution based on our derived relaxed bounds, which run much faster than the exact approach by sacrificing the group quality slightly. Our extensive experiments on real data sets show the effectiveness of our approaches in different real-life settings.

2021 ◽  
Minna Tuominen ◽  
Jenni Tikkanen

Introduction: Social capital is a valuable asset that spawns multiple benefits, but little is known about its origins. This study narrows the gap by exploring the extent to which adolescents’ social capital is shaped by their parents’ social capital, the socioeconomic status (SES) of their families, or that of their neighbourhood. The study also explores which dimensions of adolescent social capital are most sensitive to intergenerational or socioeconomic influence.Methods: The study uses survey data gathered from adolescents aged 12–13 years and their parents (n = 167) in Southwest Finland. For the analysis, adolescents’ social capital was disaggregated into four dimensions: social networks, social trust, tendency to receive help, and tendency to provide help. For each dimension, the associations with the hypothesised predictors were analysed separately using structural equation modelling. Results: The results suggest that parents’ social capital is the most influential predictor to each dimension of adolescents’ social capital establishing stronger associations as compared to the other two predictors. However, it is not the parents’ actual social capital as they report themselves, but their offspring’s perception of their social behaviour. Family’s SES relates to young people’s reciprocal tendency and level of trust only indirectly through parents’ social capital. Conversely, a disadvantaged socioeconomic neighbourhood is directly negatively associated with adolescents’ level of trust and frequency of receiving help. Conclusions: This study suggests that social capital is distinctly, although not exclusively, an intergenerational resource. Parents are critical role models for adolescent children.

2021 ◽  
Endalew Terefe Alene

Abstract City transformation in Sub-Saharan Africa by its nature require massive physical space to accommodate urban development. Accordingly, urban redevelopment program is taken place in many old inner-city settlements to increase the supply of land for commercial and residential development. To this end, these practice often lead to displacement of residents from their original location which in turn affects their livelihoods. The trend and situation of urban development program in Ethiopia and Gondar city is no exception. To this end, this paper assess the effects of urban redevelopment induced displacement and resettlement on social capital in Gondar city. To achieve the objective of the research, a questionnaire survey covering 147 displaced households with interview and field observation was carried out. The findings highlight that, though resettlement has positive effects to the people, the displaced households in Gondar city were lost their neighborhood ties and social networks such as Idir, Equb, Mahiber and Senbetie in their new location. In addition, they also endures several adverse impacts on their basic infrastructure facilities. Therefore, government should understand the social capital impacts in both pre and post relocation phases to improve and strength the displaced households social networks and relationships throughout the entire resettlement process.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
pp. 51-56
Wanying Guo

Today’s psychology of star hunting is not only in the obvious “rice circle,” but also in the TikTok star of the live broadcasting platform such as jitter. For the current era of fast consumption, the popularity of short film and video culture is inevitable. Social networks have stimulated the personalization and motivation of Internet users, and the needs of Internet users have become more and more exquisite and artistic. This paper discusses the causes of online red and the interactive process between online red and its fans, and discusses the production mode, possible harm and Countermeasures of online red.

2021 ◽  
Andrew Kamal

Social is an algorithmic stable coin for social influence, built off of UMA or Universal Market Access Protocols, CloutContracts (CCS), and on the Celo network. It is based off of quantitative algorithmic stabilization provided by a social coin's perceived cryptographic value. Social is a utility and this technology is conceptual. How Social works, is by integrating statistical averages for CCS and social tokens staked within its network. It integrates universal market access in regards to CCS data (CloutContracts is a smart contracts platform for social influencers and creators). Social as an algorithmically pegged stable coin, will eventually create a standard for social influence. Decentralized finance applications might even peg cryptographic value to Social as a utility. Social can integrate decentralized oracles in order to process data much quicker over time, once the network becomes large enough. Since CloutContracts integrates social networks across various different places such as DeSo/BitClout, Minds, Peepeth, Steemit, etc., one can eventually establish some sort of cryptographic metric in regards to social influence, and develop complex algorithms centered around social physics and human behavioral processes. The same type of mathematical models that apply to quantitative algorithms in the stock market for example, can apply to social influence. The same also applies for mathematical models modeled after games like chess and go. Social as a stable coin, creates another complexity that CloutContracts can use to create new mathematical standards around market access data that it already has, and could be quite critical. Social influence as a market, and as some sort of utility, can then be looked at as either a metric, mathematical bet, or speculative model for new forms of political and human societies.

Sofia Gil-Clavel ◽  
Emilio Zagheni ◽  
Valeria Bordone

AbstractQualitative studies have found that the use of Information and Communication Technologies is related to an enhanced quality of life for older adults, as these technologies might act as a medium to access social capital regardless of geographical distance. In order to quantitatively study the association between older people’s characteristics and the likelihood of having a network of close friends offline and online, we use data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe and data from Facebook. Using a novel approach to analyze aggregated and anonymous Facebook data within a regression framework, we show that the associations between having close friends and age, sex, and being a parent are the same offline and online. Migrants who use internet are less likely to have close friends offline, but migrants who are Facebook users are more likely to have close friends online, suggesting that digital relationships may compensate for the potential lack of offline close friendships among older migrants.

Daniel J. Brass

This review of social network analysis focuses on identifying recent trends in interpersonal social networks research in organizations, and generating new research directions, with an emphasis on conceptual foundations. It is organized around two broad social network topics: structural holes and brokerage and the nature of ties. New research directions include adding affect, behavior, and cognition to the traditional structural analysis of social networks, adopting an alter-centric perspective including a relational approach to ego and alters, moving beyond the triad in structural hole and brokerage research to consider alters as brokers, expanding the nature of ties to include negative, multiplex/dissonant, and dormant ties, and exploring the value of redundant ties. The challenge is to answer the question “What's next in social network analysis?” Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, Volume 9 is January 2022. Please see for revised estimates.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Ranjana Roy Chowdhury ◽  
Shivam Gupta ◽  
Sravanthi Chede

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