transforming growth factor
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 405-410
Lian Tan ◽  
Xiongxiong Wang ◽  
Danqi Chen ◽  
Li Xu ◽  
Yudong Xu ◽  

Our study investigates whether miR-265 regulates the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into alveolar type II epithelial cells (ATII) through TGF-β1 and promotes lung injury repair in rats with sepsis, thereby inhibiting sepsis progression. 25 patients with sepsis admitted to the Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Department of the hospital and 17 normal controls were included. TGF-β1 level was measured by ELISA. miR-265 level was measured by qRT-PCR and AT II-related genes and proteins expression was analyzed by western blot and qRT-PCR. miR-265 expression was significantly higher in sepsis patients than normal group. Progenitor BMSCs were long and shuttle-shaped after 1 and 3 days of growth. Cultured MSCs had low expression of the negative antigen CD34 (4.32%) and high expression of the positive antigen CD44 (99.87%). TGF-β1 level was significantly increased with longer induction time, while miR-265 expression was significantly decreased in cell culture medium. miR-265 interference significantly decreased TGF-β1 expression. In conclusion, miR-265 inhibits BMSC differentiation to AT II via regulation of TGF-β1, thereby inhibiting sepsis progression.

2022 ◽  
Zixuan Liu ◽  
Mingming Chen ◽  
Yini Sun ◽  
Xu Li ◽  
Liu Cao ◽  

Heparin-binding protein (HBP), as a granule protein secreted by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) participates in the pathophysiological process of sepsis. It has been reported that HBP is a biomarker of sepsis, which is related to the severity of septic shock and organ dysfunction. HBP binds to vascular endothelial cells as one of the primary target sites. However, it is still unclear whether HBP-binding protein receptors exist on the surface of ECs. The effect of HBP on vascular permeability in sepsis and its mechanism needs to be explored. We conducted in vivo and in vitro study. We demonstrated that HBP bound to transforming growth factor-β receptor type 2 (TGF-β-R2) as a ligand. GST pull-down analysis reveals that HBP mainly interacts with the extracellular domain of TGF-β-R2. HBP induced acute lung injury (ALI) and vascular leakage via activation of TGF-β/SMAD2/3 signaling pathway. Permeability assay suggests TGF-β-R2 is necessary for HBP-induced increased permeability. We also defined the role of HBP and its potential membrane receptor TGF-β-R2 in the blood-gas barrier in the pathogenesis of HBP-related ALI.

Solmaz Abdolrahimzadeh ◽  
Martina Formisano ◽  
Carla Marani ◽  
Siavash Rahimi

AbstractHereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) or Osler-Rendu-Weber syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease, characterised by systemic angiodysplasia. Dysfunction of the signalling pathway of β transforming growth factor is the main cause of HHT principally owing to mutations of the genes encoding for endoglin (ENG) and activin A receptor type II-like 1 (ACVRL1). Clinical manifestations can range from mucocutaneous telangiectasia to organ arterio-venous malformations and recurrent epistaxis. The early clinical manifestations may sometimes be subtle, and diagnosis may be delayed. The main ophthalmic manifestations historically reported in HHT are haemorrhagic epiphora, and conjunctival telangiectasia present in 45–65% of cases, however, imaging with wide-field fluorescein angiography has recently shown peripheral retinal telangiectasia in 83% of patients. Optimal management of HHT requires both understanding of the clinical presentations and detection of early signs of disease. Advances in imaging methods in ophthalmology such as wide-field fluorescein angiography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and near infrared reflectance promise further insight into the ophthalmic signs of HHT towards improved diagnosis and early management of possible severe complications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Jaeyeon Wee ◽  
Hyang Kim ◽  
Sang-Jin Shin ◽  
Taeyong Lee ◽  
Seung Yeol Lee

Abstract Background Organogenesis from tonsil-derived mesenchymal cells (TMSCs) has been reported, wherein tenogenic markers are expressed depending on the chemical stimulation during tenogenesis. However, there are insufficient studies on the mechanical strain stimulation for tenogenic cell differentiation of TMSCs, although these cells possess advantages as a cell source for generating tendinous tissue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mechanical strain and transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-β3) on the tenogenic differentiation of TMSCs and evaluate the expression of tendon-related genes and extracellular matrix (ECM) components, such as collagen. Results mRNA expression of tenogenic genes was significantly higher when the mechanical strain was applied than under static conditions. Moreover, mRNA expression of tenogenic genes was significantly higher with TGF-β3 treatment than without. mRNA expression of osteogenic and chondrogenic genes was not significantly different among different mechanical strain intensities. In cells without TGF-β3 treatment, double-stranded DNA concentration decreased, while the amount of normalized collagen increased as the intensity of mechanical strain increased. Conclusions Mechanical strain and TGF-β3 have significant effects on TMSC differentiation into tenocytes. Mechanical strain stimulates the differentiation of TMSCs, particularly into tenocytes, and cell differentiation, rather than proliferation. However, a combination of these two did not have a synergistic effect on differentiation. In other words, mechanical loading did not stimulate the differentiation of TMSCs with TGF-β3 supplementation. The effect of mechanical loading with TGF-β3 treatment on TMSC differentiation can be manipulated according to the differentiation stage of TMSCs. Moreover, TMSCs have the potential to be used for cell banking, and compared to other mesenchymal stem cells, they can be procured from patients via less invasive procedures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 444
Angelos Kaspiris ◽  
Olga D. Savvidou ◽  
Elias S. Vasiliadis ◽  
Argyris C. Hadjimichael ◽  
Dimitra Melissaridou ◽  

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), which is the most common phacomatoses, is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by clinical presentations in various tissues and organs, such as the skin, eyes and nervous and skeletal systems. The musculoskeletal implications of NF1 include a variety of deformities, including scoliosis, kyphoscoliosis, spondylolistheses, congenital bony bowing, pseudarthrosis and bone dysplasia. Scoliosis is the most common skeletal problem, affecting 10–30% of NF1 patients. Although the pathophysiology of spinal deformities has not been elucidated yet, defects in bone metabolism have been implicated in the progression of scoliotic curves. Measurements of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in the lumbar spine by using dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computer tomography (QCT) have demonstrated a marked reduction in Z-score and osteoporosis. Additionally, serum bone metabolic markers, such as vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase, have been found to be abnormal. Intraoperative and histological vertebral analysis confirmed that alterations of the trabecular microarchitecture are associated with inadequate bone turnover, indicating generalized bone metabolic defects. At the molecular level, loss of function of neurofibromin dysregulates Ras and Transforming Growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling and leads to altered osteoclastic proliferation, osteoblastic activity and collagen production. Correlation between clinical characteristics and molecular pathways may provide targets for novel therapeutic approaches in NF1.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 924
Julia Hauptstein ◽  
Leonard Forster ◽  
Ali Nadernezhad ◽  
Jürgen Groll ◽  
Jörg Teßmar ◽  

In 3D bioprinting for cartilage regeneration, bioinks that support chondrogenic development are of key importance. Growth factors covalently bound in non-printable hydrogels have been shown to effectively promote chondrogenesis. However, studies that investigate the functionality of tethered growth factors within 3D printable bioinks are still lacking. Therefore, in this study, we established a dual-stage crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based bioink that enabled covalent tethering of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF‑β1). Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were cultured over three weeks in vitro, and chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs within bioink constructs with tethered TGF‑β1 was markedly enhanced, as compared to constructs with non-covalently incorporated TGF‑β1. This was substantiated with regard to early TGF‑β1 signaling, chondrogenic gene expression, qualitative and quantitative ECM deposition and distribution, and resulting construct stiffness. Furthermore, it was successfully demonstrated, in a comparative analysis of cast and printed bioinks, that covalently tethered TGF‑β1 maintained its functionality after 3D printing. Taken together, the presented ink composition enabled the generation of high-quality cartilaginous tissues without the need for continuous exogenous growth factor supply and, thus, bears great potential for future investigation towards cartilage regeneration. Furthermore, growth factor tethering within bioinks, potentially leading to superior tissue development, may also be explored for other biofabrication applications.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 430
Dirk Andreas Ridder ◽  
Lana Louisa Urbansky ◽  
Hagen Roland Witzel ◽  
Mario Schindeldecker ◽  
Arndt Weinmann ◽  

Although knowledge on inflammatory signaling pathways driving cancer initiation and progression has been increasing, molecular mechanisms in hepatocarcinogenesis are still far from being completely understood. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of the MAPKKK Tak1 in mice recapitulates important steps of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, including the occurrence of cell death, steatohepatitis, dysplastic nodules, and HCCs. However, overactivation of Tak1 in mice upon deletion of its deubiquitinase Cyld also results in steatohepatitis and HCC development. To investigate Tak1 and Cyld in human HCCs, we created a tissue microarray to analyze their expression by immunohistochemistry in a large and well-characterized cohort of 871 HCCs of 561 patients. In the human liver and HCC, Tak1 is predominantly present as its isoform Tak1A and predominantly localizes to cell nuclei. Tak1 is upregulated in diethylnitrosamine-induced mouse HCCs as well as in human HCCs independent of etiology and is further induced in distant metastases. A high nuclear Tak1 expression is associated with short survival and vascular invasion. When we overexpressed Tak1A in Huh7 cells, we observed increased tumor cell migration, whereas overexpression of full-length Tak1 had no significant effect. A combined score of low Cyld and high Tak1 expression was an independent prognostic marker in a multivariate Cox regression model.

2022 ◽  
Ming Wen ◽  
Qiaowei Pan ◽  
Elodie Jouanno ◽  
Jerome Montfort ◽  
Margot Zahm ◽  

The evolution of sex determination (SD) mechanisms in teleost fishes is amazingly dynamic, as reflected by the variety of different master sex-determining genes identified, even sometimes among closely related species. Pangasiids are a group of economically important catfishes in many South-Asian countries, but little is known about their sex determination system. Here, we generated novel genomic resources for 12 Pangasiid species and provided a first characterization of their SD system. Based on an Oxford Nanopore long-read chromosome-scale high quality genome assembly of the striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, we identified a duplication of the anti-Mullerian hormone receptor type II gene (amhr2), which was further characterized as being sex-linked in males and expressed only in testicular samples. These first results point to a male-specific duplication on the Y chromosome (amhr2by) of the autosomal amhr2a. Sequence annotation revealed that the P. hypophthalmus Amhr2by is truncated in its N-terminal domain, lacking the cysteine-rich extracellular part of the receptor that is crucial for ligand binding, suggesting a potential route for its neofunctionalization. Short-read genome sequencing and reference-guided assembly of 11 additional Pangasiid species, along with sex-linkage studies, revealed that this truncated amhr2by duplication is also conserved as a male-specific gene in many Pangasiids. Reconstructions of the amhr2 phylogeny suggested that amhr2by arose from an ancient duplication / insertion event at the root of the Siluroidei radiation that is dated around 100 million years ago. Altogether these results bring multiple lines of evidence supporting that amhr2by is an ancient and conserved master sex-determining gene in Pangasiid catfishes, a finding that highlights the recurrent usage of the transforming growth factor β pathway in teleost sex determination and brings another empirical case towards the understanding of the dynamics or stability of sex determination systems.

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