The T2Candida magnetic resonance assay is a direct-from-blood pathogen detection assay that delivers a result within 3–5 h, targeting the most clinically relevant Candida species. Between February 2019 and March 2021, the study included consecutive patients aged >18 years admitted to an intensive care unit or surgical high-dependency unit due to gastrointestinal surgery or necrotizing pancreatitis and from whom diagnostic blood cultures were obtained. Blood samples were tested in parallel with T2Candida and 1,3-β-D-glucan. Of 134 evaluable patients, 13 (10%) were classified as having proven intraabdominal candidiasis (IAC) according to the EORTC/MSG criteria. Two of the thirteen patients (15%) had concurrent candidemia. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value, respectively, were 46%, 97%, 61%, and 94% for T2Candida and 85%, 83%, 36%, and 98% for 1,3-β-D-glucan. All positive T2Candida results were consistent with the culture results at the species level, except for one case of dual infection. The performance of T2Candida was comparable with that of 1,3-β-D-glucan for candidemic IAC but had a lower sensitivity for non-candidemic IAC (36% vs. 82%). In conclusion, T2Candida may be a valuable complement to 1,3-β-D-glucan in the clinical management of high-risk surgical patients because of its rapid results and ease of use.
Background & Objective: Undiagnosed malarial infectionis associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Laboratory investigations leading to rapid, accurate and timely diagnosis of malaria is still a challenge. This study was done to assess the utility of abnormal White blood cell differential fluorescence (WDF) scattergram for diagnosis of malaria. Our aim was to study the utility of WDF scattergram for early detection of malarial parasite.
Methods: All EDTA anti-coagulated blood samples received in laboratory during a period from Dec 2019 to May 2020 were analyzed on anautomated hematology analyzer, Sysmex XN 1000. All abnormal WDF scattergrams pertaining to plasmodium specie were critically evaluated and recorded. Review of Leishman-stained peripheral smears as well as immune-chromatographic assay by rapid test devices (RTD) was done. Accordingly, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for detection of malaria by abnormal scattergram were calculated.
Results: Out of total 1, 26,000of samples analyzed, abnormal WDF scattergrams were detected in 96 cases. Amongst these, 95.8% (92) were positive for MP on Leishman-stained peripheral smear as well as on ICT with a p-value of 0.05. WDF scattergram abnormalities typical of malaria showed a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 93.26%. Positive predictive value of 95.8% whereas negative predictive value of 99.9% was detected. Significant findings of hemolysis, platelet clumps, nucleated RBCS (NRBCs) and RBC agglutination were noted in cases (n=4) with abnormal WDF scattergram negative for malaria on peripheral smear.
Conclusion: Interpretation of abnormal WDF scattergram not only increases the early detection rate for malarial parasite but isa strong indicator for presence of hemolysis, RBC agglutination, platelet clumps and leucoerythroblastic blood picture as well.
How to cite this:Rehan M, Khalid A, Nasreen F. White blood cell differential fluorescence abnormal scattergram: A useful indicator for early detection of malarial parasite. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4702
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The present study aimed to identify the predictive value of duration of postoperative hyperlactatemia in screening patients at high risk of recurrent fistula after major definitive surgery (DS) for intestinal fistula.
If the initial postoperative lactate (IPL) > 2 mmol/L, DS was defined as major definitive surgery. The 315 enrolled patients with major DS were divided into group A (2 mmol/L < IPL ≤ 4 mmol/L), group B (mmol/L < IPL ≤ 6 mmol/L), and group C (IPL > 6 mmol/L). The characteristics of patients were collected, and the duration of postoperative hyperlactatemia was analyzed. According to the occurrence of recurrent fistula (RF), patients were further divided into RF group A, and Non-RF group A; RF group B, and Non-RF group B; and RF group C, and Non-RF group C.
The duration of postoperative hyperlactatemia was comparable between the RF group A and the Non-RF group A [12 (IQR: 12–24) vs 24 (IQR: 12–24), p = 0.387]. However, the duration of hyperlactatemia was associated with RF in group B (adjusted OR = 1.061; 95% CI: 1.029–1.094; p < 0.001) and group C (adjusted OR = 1.059; 95% CI: 1.012–1.129; p = 0.017). In group B, the cutoff point of duration of 42 h had the optimal predictive value (area under ROC = 0.791, sensitivity = 0.717, specificity = 0.794, p < 0.001). In group C, the cutoff point of duration of 54 h had the optimal predictive value (area under ROC = 0.781, sensitivity = 0.730, specificity = 0.804, p < 0.001).
The duration of postoperative hyperlactatemia has a value in predicting RF in patients with an IPL of more than 4 mmol/L after major definitive surgery for intestinal fistula.
A number of biomarkers have the potential of differentiating between primary lung tumours and secondary lung tumours from the gastrointestinal tract, however, a standardised panel for that purpose does not exist yet. We aimed to identify the smallest panel that is most sensitive and specific at differentiating between primary lung tumours and secondary lung tumours from the gastrointestinal tract.
A total of 170 samples were collected, including 140 primary and 30 non-primary lung tumours and staining for CK7, Napsin-A, TTF1, CK20, CDX2, and SATB2 was performed via tissue microarray. The data was then analysed using univariate regression models and a combination of multivariate regression models and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves.
Univariate regression models confirmed the 6 biomarkers’ ability to independently predict the primary outcome (p < 0.001). Multivariate models of 2-biomarker combinations identified 11 combinations with statistically significant odds ratios (ORs) (p < 0.05), of which TTF1/CDX2 had the highest area under the curve (AUC) (0.983, 0.960–1.000 95% CI). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were 75.7, 100, 100, and 37.5% respectively. Multivariate models of 3-biomarker combinations identified 4 combinations with statistically significant ORs (p < 0.05), of which CK7/CK20/SATB2 had the highest AUC (0.965, 0.930–1.000 95% CI). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 85.1, 100, 100, and 41.7% respectively. Multivariate models of 4-biomarker combinations did not identify any combinations with statistically significant ORs (p < 0.05).
The analysis identified the combination of CK7/CK20/SATB2 to be the smallest panel with the highest sensitivity (85.1%) and specificity (100%) for predicting tumour origin with an ROC AUC of 0.965 (p < 0.001; SE: 0.018, 0.930–1.000 95% CI).
Objectives To compare the performance of micro-ultrasound (mUS) with multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in detecting clinically significant prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Retrospective data from consecutive patients with any indication for prostate biopsy in 2 academic institutions were included. The operator, blinded to mpMRI, would first scan the prostate and annotate any mUS lesions. All mUS lesions were biopsied. Any mpMRI lesions that did not correspond to mUS lesion upon unblinding were additionally biopsied. Grade group (GG) ≥ 2 was considered clinically significant cancer. The Jeffreys interval method was used to compare performance of mUS with mpMRI with the non-inferiority limit set at −5%. Results Imaging and biopsy were performed in 82 patients with 153 lesions. mUS had similar sensitivity to mpMRI (per-lesion analysis: 78.4% versus 72.5%), but lower specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve. Micro-ultrasound found GG ≥ 2 in 13% of cases missed by mpMRI, while mpMRI found GG ≥ 2 in 11% of cases missed by mUS. The difference 0.020 (95% CI −0.070 to 0.110) was not statistically significant (P = 0.33). Conclusion The sensitivity of mUS in detecting GG ≥ 2 disease was similar to that of mpMRI, but the specificity was lower. Further evaluation with a larger sample size and experienced operators is warranted.
We assessed the diagnostic utility of uric acid for the prediction of preeclampsia. An observational prospective approach was carried out during 2014. Preeclamptic women were classified into 4 groups accordingly to the onset of preeclampsia and the presence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Serum uric acid levels, urea, and creatinine were measured. Receiver operating curves (ROC) of the uric acid levels ratio (UAr) between a dosage before and after the 20th week of gestation were performed. One thousand two hundred and ninety-third pregnant women were enrolled in this study. Eight hundred ten had non-complicated pregnancies, 40 preeclampsia, 33 gestational hypertension, and 20 IUGR without preeclampsia. Uric acid significantly raised after 20 weeks of gestation in women who develop preeclampsia before 34 weeks (Group A) or in those who develop preeclampsia after 37 weeks associated with IUGR (Group C). In women who develop preeclampsia after 34 weeks without IUGR (Groups B and D), uric acid increased after the 30th week of gestation. In all groups, UAr was greater than 1.5. In gestational hypertension, UAr was superior to 1.5 toward the end of gestation, while in IUGR without preeclampsia, the behavior of serum uric acid was similar to non-complicated pregnancies. In all cases, urea and creatinine showed normal values, confirming that patients had no renal compromise. ROC area was 0.918 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.858–0.979) for the preeclampsia group and 0.955 (95% CI: 0.908–1.000) for Group A. UAr at a cut-off point ≥1.5 had a very low positive predictive value, but a high negative predictive value of 99.5% for preeclampsia and it reached 100% for Group A. Thus, a UAr less than 1.5 may be a helpful parameter with a strong exclusion value and high sensitivity for those women who are not expected to develop preeclampsia. Additionally, this low-cost test would allow for better use of resources in developing countries.