Transforming Growth Factor Β
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Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 430
Author(s):  
Dirk Andreas Ridder ◽  
Lana Louisa Urbansky ◽  
Hagen Roland Witzel ◽  
Mario Schindeldecker ◽  
Arndt Weinmann ◽  
...  

Although knowledge on inflammatory signaling pathways driving cancer initiation and progression has been increasing, molecular mechanisms in hepatocarcinogenesis are still far from being completely understood. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of the MAPKKK Tak1 in mice recapitulates important steps of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, including the occurrence of cell death, steatohepatitis, dysplastic nodules, and HCCs. However, overactivation of Tak1 in mice upon deletion of its deubiquitinase Cyld also results in steatohepatitis and HCC development. To investigate Tak1 and Cyld in human HCCs, we created a tissue microarray to analyze their expression by immunohistochemistry in a large and well-characterized cohort of 871 HCCs of 561 patients. In the human liver and HCC, Tak1 is predominantly present as its isoform Tak1A and predominantly localizes to cell nuclei. Tak1 is upregulated in diethylnitrosamine-induced mouse HCCs as well as in human HCCs independent of etiology and is further induced in distant metastases. A high nuclear Tak1 expression is associated with short survival and vascular invasion. When we overexpressed Tak1A in Huh7 cells, we observed increased tumor cell migration, whereas overexpression of full-length Tak1 had no significant effect. A combined score of low Cyld and high Tak1 expression was an independent prognostic marker in a multivariate Cox regression model.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ming Wen ◽  
Qiaowei Pan ◽  
Elodie Jouanno ◽  
Jerome Montfort ◽  
Margot Zahm ◽  
...  

The evolution of sex determination (SD) mechanisms in teleost fishes is amazingly dynamic, as reflected by the variety of different master sex-determining genes identified, even sometimes among closely related species. Pangasiids are a group of economically important catfishes in many South-Asian countries, but little is known about their sex determination system. Here, we generated novel genomic resources for 12 Pangasiid species and provided a first characterization of their SD system. Based on an Oxford Nanopore long-read chromosome-scale high quality genome assembly of the striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, we identified a duplication of the anti-Mullerian hormone receptor type II gene (amhr2), which was further characterized as being sex-linked in males and expressed only in testicular samples. These first results point to a male-specific duplication on the Y chromosome (amhr2by) of the autosomal amhr2a. Sequence annotation revealed that the P. hypophthalmus Amhr2by is truncated in its N-terminal domain, lacking the cysteine-rich extracellular part of the receptor that is crucial for ligand binding, suggesting a potential route for its neofunctionalization. Short-read genome sequencing and reference-guided assembly of 11 additional Pangasiid species, along with sex-linkage studies, revealed that this truncated amhr2by duplication is also conserved as a male-specific gene in many Pangasiids. Reconstructions of the amhr2 phylogeny suggested that amhr2by arose from an ancient duplication / insertion event at the root of the Siluroidei radiation that is dated around 100 million years ago. Altogether these results bring multiple lines of evidence supporting that amhr2by is an ancient and conserved master sex-determining gene in Pangasiid catfishes, a finding that highlights the recurrent usage of the transforming growth factor β pathway in teleost sex determination and brings another empirical case towards the understanding of the dynamics or stability of sex determination systems.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
qinghua Yuan ◽  
Yafei Chang ◽  
Peipei Jiang ◽  
Ling Sun ◽  
Yitong Ma ◽  
...  

Abstract Objective: To investigate the impact of MLL3 polymorphisms and Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathway additional their interactions with type B aortic dissection (AD) risk based on the Chinese population. Methods: We investigated the MLL3 (rs10244604, rs6963460, rs1137721), TGFβ1 (rs1800469), TGFβ2 (rs900), TGFR1 (rs1626340) and TGFR2 (rs4522809) gene polymorphisms analysis. Logistic regression was performed to investigate the association between 7 SNPs and Type B AD. GMDR software was used to analyze gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was employed to evaluate the association of genes and Type B AD risk. Results: Genotypes and alleles distribution in case and control groups showed significant differences (P<0.05). Logistic regression has shown that the Type B AD risk was the highest in those with rs1137721 CT genotype, (OR=4.33, 95%CI=1.51-12.40). Meanwhile, WBC, Drinking, Hypertension, TG, and LDL-C were independent risk factors for Type B AD. Respectively, Logistic regression showed that the Type B AD risk was the highest in those with rs1137721-TT+CT and rs4522809-AA genotype (OR=6.72, 95% CI=1.56-29.84), and was lowest in those with rs1137721-CC and rs4522809-AA+GG genotype (OR=4.38, 95%CI=0.92-20.83). However, 55-month median long-term follow-up were not show significant.Conclusion: MLL3 (rs1137721) with TGFβ1 (rs4522809) polymorphisms may be closely related to the development of Type B AD. Inflammation reaction and lipid metabolism were associated with the morbility of Type B AD. Moreover, there exist gene-gene interactions among these susceptibility genes. These may become new diagnostic and research goal for Type B AD.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chunliang Xie ◽  
Zhoumei Zhang ◽  
Manyi Yang ◽  
Cha Cao ◽  
Yingjun Zhou ◽  
...  

Emerging evidence indicates that probiotics have been proved to influence liver injury and regeneration. In the present study, the effects of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum AR113 on the liver regeneration were investigated in 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx) rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were gavaged with L. plantarum AR113 suspensions (1 × 1010 CFU/mL) both before and after partial hepatectomy. The results showed that L. plantarum AR113 administration 2 weeks before partial hepatectomy can accelerate liver regeneration by increased hepatocyte proliferation and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) expression. Probiotic administration enriched Lactobacillus and Bacteroides and depleted Flavonifractor and Acetatifactor in the gut microbiome. Meanwhile, L. plantarum AR113 showed decline of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidyl serine (PS), and lysophosphatidyl choline (LysoPC) levels in the serum of the rats after the L. plantarum AR113 administration. Moreover, L. plantarum AR113 treated rats exhibited higher concentrations of L-leucine, L-isoleucine, mevalonic acid, and lower 7-oxo-8-amino-nonanoic acid in plasma than that in PHx. Spearman correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between changes in gut microbiota composition and glycerophospholipid. These results indicate that L. plantarum AR113 is promising for accelerating liver regeneration and provide new insights regarding the correlations among the microbiome, the metabolome, and liver regeneration.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bihui Li ◽  
Xing Zhang ◽  
Qianyao Ren ◽  
Li Gao ◽  
Jing Tian

In spite of the promising in vitro and preclinical results, dual PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235, and ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor PP242 both failed to confirm their inhibitory efficacy against renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in clinical settings. Therefore, a better understanding of the molecular mechanism is essential so as to provide possibilities for their use in combination with other agents. In present study, RCC cell lines (UMRC6, 786-0 and UOK121) were treated with NVP-BEZ235, PP242 or Rapamycin, an mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-specific inhibitor. They all suppressed cell proliferation and invasion, induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and the effects were in the order of NVP-BEZ235 &gt; PP242 &gt; Rapamycin. Accordingly, the marked and sustained decrease in speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) expression and phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR kinases was observed in RCC cells treated with NVP-BEZ235 and PP242, whereas only potent inhibition of mTOR activity was induced in Rapamycin-treated cells. In considering the overactivation of c-Jun and IκB-α in human renal tumor tissue, we next investigated the role of JNK and IKK pathways in the response of RCC cells to these compounds. First of all, transforming growth factor β activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-dependent activation of JNK/ (activator protein-1) AP-1 axis in RCC cells was proved by the repression of AP-1 activity with TAK1 or JNK inhibitor. Second, the profound inhibition of TAK1/JNK/AP-1 pathway was demonstrated in RCC cells treated with NVP-BEZ235 or PP242 but not Rapamycin, which is manifested as a reduction in activity of TAK1, c-Jun and AP-1. Meanwhile, subsequent to TAK1 inactivation, the activation of IκB-α was also reduced by NVP-BEZ235 and PP242. Likewise, in vivo, treatment with NVP-BEZ235 and PP242 suppressed the growth of xenografts generated from 786-0 and A498 cells, along with decreased expression of phospho-TAK1, phospho-c-Jun, and phospho-IκB-α. In contrast, Rapamycin elicited no significant inhibitory effects on tumor growth and phosphorylation of TAK1, c-Jun and IκB-α. We conclude that besides PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, NVP-BEZ235, and PP242 simultaneously target TAK1-dependent pathways in RCC cells. Notably, these effects were more marked in the presence of NVP-BEZ235 than PP242, indicating the potential application of NVP-BEZ235 in combination therapy for RCC.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 17-22
Author(s):  
Angelo Cassisa ◽  
Margherita Vannucchi

Morphea profunda or subcutaneous (deep) morphea is a variant of localized morphea, characterized by one or more ill-defined, deep sclerotic plaque. Preferential sites are the abdomen, trunk, sacral area, or extremities. The presence of hyperplastic lymphoid follicles in the context of the sclerotic bands of morphea is rarely described. Localized scleroderma is sustained by a profibrotic inflammatory profile. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), an imbalance between functional subclasses of T-lymphocytes (innate immune cells) has a role in activate collagen deposition. In this case report, we present two cases of morphea profunda with lymphoid follicular hyperplasia. A systematic review of the literature on the pathophysiology of localized scleroderma is also presented, with particular reference to the presence of lymphoid structures.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jia He ◽  
Yue Du ◽  
Gaopeng Li ◽  
Peng Xiao ◽  
Xingzheng Sun ◽  
...  

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a group of chronic interstitial pulmonary diseases characterized by an inexorable decline in lung function with limited treatment options. The abnormal expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in profibrotic macrophages is linked to severe pulmonary fibrosis, but the regulation mechanisms of TGF-β expression are incompletely understood. We found that decreased expression of E3 ubiquitin ligase Fbxw7 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was significantly related to the severity of pulmonary fibrosis in IPF patients. Fbxw7 is identified to be a crucial suppressing factor for pulmonary fibrosis development and progression in a mouse model induced by intratracheal bleomycin treatment. Myeloid cell-specific Fbxw7 deletion increases pulmonary monocyte-macrophages accumulation in lung tissue, and eventually promotes bleomycin-induced collagen deposition and progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Notably, the expression of TGF-β in profibrotic macrophages was significantly upregulated in myeloid cell-specific Fbxw7 deletion mice after bleomycin treatment. C-Jun has long been regarded as a critical transcription factor of Tgfb1, we clarified that Fbxw7 inhibits the expression of TGF-β in profibrotic macrophages by interacting with c-Jun and mediating its K48-linked ubiquitination and degradation. These findings provide insight into the role of Fbxw7 in the regulation of macrophages during the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yonghui Zou ◽  
Yi Xu ◽  
Xiaofeng Chen ◽  
Yaoqi Wu ◽  
Longsheng Fu ◽  
...  

Leucine-rich alpha⁃2 glycoprotein 1 (LRG1) is an important member of the leucine-rich repetitive sequence protein family. LRG1 was mainly involved in normal physiological activities of the nervous system, such as synapse formation, synapse growth, the development of nerve processes, neurotransmitter transfer and release, and cell adhesion molecules or ligand-binding proteins. Also, LRG1 affected the development of respiratory diseases, hematological diseases, endocrine diseases, tumor diseases, eye diseases, cardiovascular diseases, rheumatic immune diseases, infectious diseases, etc. LRG1 was a newly discovered important upstream signaling molecule of transforming growth factor⁃β (TGF⁃β) that affected various pathological processes through the TGF⁃β signaling pathway. However, research on LRG1 and its involvement in the occurrence and development of diseases was still in its infancy and the current studies were mainly focused on proteomic detection and basic animal experimental reports. We could reasonably predict that LRG1 might act as a new direction and strategy for the treatment of many diseases.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhi-wei Liu ◽  
Yi-ming Zhang ◽  
Li-ying Zhang ◽  
Ting Zhou ◽  
Yang-yang Li ◽  
...  

The tumor microenvironment is essential for the formation and development of tumors. Cytokines in the microenvironment may affect the growth, metastasis and prognosis of tumors, and play different roles in different stages of tumors, of which transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) are critical. The two have synergistic and antagonistic effect on tumor regulation. The inhibition of TGF-β can promote the formation rate of tumor, while TGF-β can promote the malignancy of tumor. TNF-α was initially determined to be a natural immune serum mediator that can induce tumor hemorrhagic necrosis, it has a wide range of biological activities and can be used clinically as a target to immune diseases as well as tumors. However, there are few reports on the interaction between the two in the tumor microenvironment. This paper combs the biological effect of the two in different aspects of different tumors. We summarized the changes and clinical medication rules of the two in different tissue cells, hoping to provide a new idea for the clinical application of the two cytokines.


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