Here, we developed a rapid, visual and double-checked Logic Gate detection platform for detection of pathogenic microorganisms by aggregation-induced emission luminogens (AIEgens) in combination with Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated (Cas). DNA light-up AIEgens (1,1,2,2-tetrakis[4-(2-bromo-ethoxy) phenyl]ethene, TTAPE) was non-emissive but the emission was turned on in the presence of large amount of DNA produced by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). When CRISPR/Cas12a was added, all long-stranded DNA were cut leading to the emission quenched. Thus, a method that can directly observe the emission changes with the naked eye has been successfully constructed. The detection is speedy within only 20 min, and has strong specificity to the target. The result can be judged by Logic Gate. Only when the output signal is (1,0), does it represent the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the test object. Finally, the method was applied to the detect pathogenic microorganisms in environmental water samples, which proved that this method has high selectivity, specificity and applicability for the detection of pathogenic microorganisms in environmental water samples.
AbstractWe address the low selectivity problem faced by the electrochemical nitrogen (N2) reduction reaction (NRR) to ammonia (NH3) by exploiting the Mars-van Krevelen (MvK) mechanism on two-dimensional (2D) Ti2N nitride MXene. NRR technology is a viable alternative to reducing the energy and greenhouse gas emission footprint from NH3 production. Most NRR catalysts operate by using an associative or dissociative mechanism, during which the NRR competes with the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), resulting in low selectivity. The MvK mechanism reduces this competition by eliminating the adsorption and dissociation processes at the sites for NH3 synthesis. We show that the new class of 2D materials, nitride MXenes, evoke the MvK mechanism to achieve the highest Faradaic efficiency (FE) towards NH3 reported for any pristine transition metal-based catalyst—19.85% with a yield of 11.33 μg/cm2/hr at an applied potential of − 250 mV versus RHE. These results can be expanded to a broad class of systems evoking the MvK mechanism and constitute the foundation of NRR technology based on MXenes.
The alkaline components in red mud represent one of the crucial factors restricting its application, especially for the construction and building industry. The phase state of alkaline components has a significant influence on the dealkalization of red mud. In this work, an environmentally friendly acid leaching strategy is proposed by controlling the phase transformation of red mud during active roasting pretreatment. With a moderate roasting temperature, the alkaline component is prevented from converting into insoluble phases. After acid leaching with a low concentration of 0.1 M, a high dealkalization rate of 92.8% is obtained. Besides, the leachate is neutral (pH = 7) and the valuable metals in red mud are well preserved, manifesting a high selectivity and efficiency of diluted acid leaching. The calcination experiment further confirms the practicability of the strategy in the construction field, where the cementitious minerals can be formed in large quantities. Compared with the traditional acid leaching routes, the diluted acid leaching strategy in this work is acid saving with low valuable element consumption. Meanwhile, the secondary pollution issue can be alleviated. Hence, the findings in this work provide a feasible approach for the separation and recovery of alkali and resource utilization of red mud.
The article reviews the main physical and physicochemical factors influencing the three-component system “fingerprint powder – prints bearing surface – sweat and grease print substance”. The authors propose new model compositions of fingerprint powders considering the reviewed common patterns: non-magnetic and luminescent magnetic. The features of prints bearing surfaces and developed fingerprint powders have been evaluated by applying electronic microscopy methods (scanning and probe microscopy). The authors have proven that the use of nano- and ultra disperse materials in the developed compositions (carbon nanotubes and shungite) enables to vary the sorption and adhesive capacity of fingerprint powders, which allows detecting fingerprints on varying surfaces with high selectivity toward the sweat and grease print substance and contrasting effect.
AbstractFIIN-2, TAS-120 (Futibatinib) and PRN1371 are highly potent pan-FGFR covalent inhibitors targeting the p-loop cysteine of FGFR proteins, of which TAS-120 and PRN1371 are currently in clinical trials. It is critical to analyze their target selectivity and their abilities to overcome gatekeeper mutations. In this study, we demonstrate that FIIN-2 and TAS-120 form covalent adducts with SRC, while PRN1371 does not. FIIN-2 and TAS-120 inhibit SRC and YES activities, while PRN1371 does not. Moreover, FIIN-2, TAS-120 and PRN1371 exhibit different potencies against different FGFR gatekeeper mutants. In addition, the co-crystal structures of SRC/FIIN-2, SRC/TAS-120 and FGFR4/PRN1371 complexes reveal structural basis for kinase targeting and gatekeeper mutations. Taken together, our study not only provides insight into the potency and selectivity of covalent pan-FGFR inhibitors, but also sheds light on the development of next-generation FGFR covalent inhibitors with high potency, high selectivity, and stronger ability to overcome gatekeeper mutations.
AbstractMembranes with high selectivity offer an attractive route to molecular separations, where technologies such as distillation and chromatography are energy intensive. However, it remains challenging to fine tune the structure and porosity in membranes, particularly to separate molecules of similar size. Here, we report a process for producing composite membranes that comprise crystalline porous organic cage films fabricated by interfacial synthesis on a polyacrylonitrile support. These membranes exhibit ultrafast solvent permeance and high rejection of organic dyes with molecular weights over 600 g mol−1. The crystalline cage film is dynamic, and its pore aperture can be switched in methanol to generate larger pores that provide increased methanol permeance and higher molecular weight cut-offs (1,400 g mol−1). By varying the water/methanol ratio, the film can be switched between two phases that have different selectivities, such that a single, ‘smart’ crystalline membrane can perform graded molecular sieving. We exemplify this by separating three organic dyes in a single-stage, single-membrane process.
A catalytic enantioselective β-O-elimination reaction is reported in the form of a zirconium-catalyzed asymmetric opening of meso-ketene acetals. Furthermore, a regiodivergent β-O-elimination is demonstrated. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions, at low catalyst loadings, and produces chiral monoprotected 1,2-diol building blocks in good yield and enantiomeric excess. The combination with a Mitsunobu reaction then gives access to all 1,2-diol stereoisomers and trans-1,2-aminoalcohols in high enantiomeric purity. A stereochemical analysis supported by DFT calculations reveals that a high selectivity in the hydrozirconation step is also important for achieving high enantioselectivity, although it does not constitute the asymmetric step. This insight is crucial for the future development of related asymmetric β-elimination reactions.