degradation products
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2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Hande Yüceer ◽  
Duygu Gezen Ak ◽  
Gülçin Benbir Şenel ◽  
Erdinç Dursun ◽  
Vuslat Yılmaz ◽  
...  

Abstract Objective: Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder long hypothesised to be an autoimmune disease. Complement-mediated immune mechanisms have not been investigated in detail in narcolepsy. Our aim was to establish the significance of classical pathway activation in narcolepsy. Methods: Sera of 42 narcolepsy patients and 26 healthy controls were screened with ELISA to determine the levels of C1q, C3a, C4d and complement component 4 binding protein (C4BP). A home-made ELISA method was developed to detect antibodies to C4BP-alpha (anti-C4BPA). The correlation between complement levels and clinical findings was examined. Results: C1q levels were significantly higher in narcolepsy patients while C4d and C4BP levels were significantly lower compared to healthy controls. C3a levels were comparable among patients and controls. Eleven narcolepsy patients showed serum anti-C4BPA levels. Total rapid eye movements (REM) time, sleep onset latency, REM sleep latency, sleep activity, percentage of wakefulness after sleep onset and Epworth sleepiness scale scores were correlated with levels of different complement factors. Conclusion: Complement-mediated immune mechanisms might partake in narcolepsy pathogenesis. The precise role of autoantibodies on complement level alterations needs to be investigated. Levels of complement factors and degradation products may potentially be utilised as biomarkers to predict the clinical severity of narcolepsy.


Marine Drugs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 69
Author(s):  
Dawei Yu ◽  
Jiayao Feng ◽  
Huimin You ◽  
Shipeng Zhou ◽  
Yan Bai ◽  
...  

Chitosan obtained from abundant marine resources has been proven to have a variety of biological activities. However, due to its poor water solubility, chitosan application is limited, and the degradation products of chitosan oligosaccharides are better than chitosan regarding performance. Chitosan oligosaccharides have two kinds of active groups, amino and hydroxyl groups, which can form a variety of derivatives, and the properties of these derivatives can be further improved. In this review, the key structures of chitosan oligosaccharides and recent studies on chitosan oligosaccharide derivatives, including their synthesis methods, are described. Finally, the antimicrobial and antitumor applications of chitosan oligosaccharides and their derivatives are discussed.


Marine Drugs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 66
Author(s):  
Mingpeng Wang ◽  
Lei Chen ◽  
Zhengyu Lou ◽  
Xueting Yuan ◽  
Guiping Pan ◽  
...  

As a low molecular weight alginate, alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) exhibit improved water solubility, better bioavailability, and comprehensive health benefits. In addition, their biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, non-immunogenicity, and gelling capability make them an excellent biomaterial with a dual curative effect when applied in a drug delivery system. In this paper, a novel alginate lyase, Algpt, was cloned and characterized from a marine bacterium, Paenibacillus sp. LJ-23. The purified enzyme was composed of 387 amino acid residues, and had a molecular weight of 42.8 kDa. The optimal pH of Algpt was 7.0 and the optimal temperature was 45 °C. The analysis of the conserved domain and the prediction of the three-dimensional structure indicated that Algpt was a novel alginate lyase. The dominant degradation products of Algpt on alginate were AOS dimer to octamer, depending on the incubation time, which demonstrated that Algpt degraded alginate in an endolytic manner. In addition, Algpt was a salt-independent and thermo-tolerant alginate lyase. Its high stability and wide adaptability endow Algpt with great application potential for the efficient preparation of AOS with different sizes and AOS-based products.


Microbiology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 168 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Minghui Zhou ◽  
Yan Zhang ◽  
Yajun Chen ◽  
Fangyan Zhang ◽  
Daihu Yang

Aspergillus niger TF05 was applied to decolorize Rose Bengal dye. The effects of carbon source, nitrogen source, metal ion and spore concentration on Rose Bengal treatment with A. niger TF05 were studied. A Plackett–Burman design (PBD) and a uniform design (UD) were used to optimize the decolorization conditions of A. niger TF05 and enhance its decolorization effect. The mechanism of Rose Bengal decolorization by A. niger TF05 was examined by analysing degradation products via UV–visible light spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy and GC-MS. The best decolorization effect was achieved in the single factor test with glucose and ammonium chloride as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Mg2+ was an essential ion that could improve the mould ball state and adsorption efficiency if the spore concentration was maintained at 106 spores ml–1. The optimal decolorization conditions obtained using the PBD and UD methods were 11.5 g l−1 glucose, 6.5 g l−1 ammonium chloride, 0.4 g l−1 magnesium sulphate, pH 5.8, 28 °C, 140 r.p.m. rotational speed, 0.18 g l−1 dye concentration, 0.5 ml of inocula and 120 h decolorization time. Under these conditions, the maximum decolorization rate was 106%. Spectral analysis suggested that the absorption peak of the product changed clearly after decolorization; GC-MS analysis revealed that the intermediate product tetrachlorophthalic anhydride formed after decolorization. The combined use of the PBD and UD methods can optimize multi-factor experiments. A. niger TF05 decolorized Rose Bengal during intracellular enzymatic degradation after adsorption.


2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Hellna Tehubijuluw ◽  
Riki Subagyo ◽  
Yuly Kusumawati ◽  
Didik Prasetyoko

AbstractPhotocatalytic degradation of Methylene Blue (MB) by zinc oxide/zeolite socony mobile-5 (ZnO/ZSM-5) composites was investigated. The ZSM-5 material was synthesized from red mud by a two-step hydrothermal method to which ZnO loadings at different mass ratios were subsequently performed. Characterizations using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to identify the formation of ZSM-5 and ZnO/ZSM-5. ZSM-5 and ZnO/ZSM-5 have cubic microcrystallite morphologies. ZnO loading in the ZnO/ZSM-5 composites was successfully performed and confirmed by the appearance of wurtzite peaks in the XRD spectra that matched the Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards data. The presence of ZnO in ZSM-5 leading resulted in a decrease in the surface area and pore size as confirming by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm experiments. The band gap of the samples was measured using UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The optimum photocatalytic degradation of MB was observed at a ZnO loading of 34% w/w dubbed 34-ZnO/ZSM-5. The influence of the initial concentration of MB was also investigated at 80, 90, and 100 mg L− 1 using 34-ZnO/ZSM-5 and ZSM-5. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry characterization was performed to analyze the degradation products.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nathaniel Bingham ◽  
Qamar Nisa ◽  
Priyanka Gupta ◽  
Neil Young ◽  
Eirini Velliou ◽  
...  

Being non-degradable, vinyl polymers have limited biomedical applicability. Unfortunately, backbone esters incorporated through conventional radical ring-opening methods do not undergo appreciable abiotic hydrolysis under physiologically relevant conditions. Here, PEG acrylate and di(ethylene glycol) acrylamide-based copolymers containing backbone thioesters were prepared through the radical ring-opening copolymerization of the thionolactone dibenzo[c,e]oxepin-5(7H)-thione. The thioesters degraded fully in the presence of 10 mM cysteine at pH 7.4, with the mechanism presumed to involve an irreversible S–N switch. Degradations with N-acetylcysteine and glutathione were reversible through the thiol–thioester exchange polycondensation of R–SC(=O)–polymer–SH fragments with full degradation relying on an increased thiolate:thioester ratio. Treatment with 10 mM glutathione at pH 7.2 (mimicking intracellular conditions) triggered an insoluble–soluble switch of a temperature-responsive copolymer at 37 °C and the release of encapsulated Nile Red (as a drug model) from core-degradable diblock copolymer micelles. Copolymers and their cysteinolytic degradation products were found to be non-cytotoxic, making thioester backbone-functional polymers promising for drug delivery applications.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 409
Author(s):  
Maiko Uehara ◽  
Chinatsu Takasaki ◽  
Satoshi Wakita ◽  
Yasusato Sugahara ◽  
Eri Tabata ◽  
...  

Chitooligosaccharides, the degradation products of chitin and chitosan, possess anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. The enzymatic production of chitooligosaccharides may increase the interest in their potential biomedical or agricultural usability in terms of the safety and simplicity of the manufacturing process. Crab-eating monkey acidic chitinase (CHIA) is an enzyme with robust activity in various environments. Here, we report the efficient degradation of chitin and chitosan by monkey CHIA under acidic and high-temperature conditions. Monkey CHIA hydrolyzed α-chitin at 50 °C, producing N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) dimers more efficiently than at 37 °C. Moreover, the degradation rate increased with a longer incubation time (up to 72 h) without the inactivation of the enzyme. Five substrates (α-chitin, colloidal chitin, P-chitin, block-type, and random-type chitosan substrates) were exposed to monkey CHIS at pH 2.0 or pH 5.0 at 50 °C. P-chitin and random-type chitosan appeared to be the best sources of GlcNAc dimers and broad-scale chitooligosaccharides, respectively. In addition, the pattern of the products from the block-type chitosan was different between pH conditions (pH 2.0 and pH 5.0). Thus, monkey CHIA can degrade chitin and chitosan efficiently without inactivation under high-temperature or low pH conditions. Our results show that certain chitooligosaccharides are enriched by using different substrates under different conditions. Therefore, the reaction conditions can be adjusted to obtain desired oligomers. Crab-eating monkey CHIA can potentially become an efficient tool in producing chitooligosaccharide sets for agricultural and biomedical purposes.


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