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M. Sriram

Abstract: The partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate with granite powder and saw dust ash, quarry dust when it is able for sustainable development is characterized by application, we came to know that a lot of damage is done to environment in the manufacturing of cement that the ton of cement manufacture releases half ton of co2 and control of the granite powder same way granite powder and saw dust is cheaper in cost. In this investigation of granite slurry and saw dust was used to partial substitute in proportions varying from 10%, 20%, 30% by weight to cement in concrete and tested from compressive strength, tensile strength and flexure strength. Concrete cubes measuring. 150 x 150 x 150 mm were cast and their compressive strength, tensile strength and flexure strength is evaluation at 7, 14, 21, 28 days. It was observed that replacement at 10% of cement by weight with granite powder in concrete was the most effective in increasing compressive and flexural strength compare to other ratios. The test results were plotted for 10% ratio of granite slurry and saw dust having great compressive strength, tensile strength and flexure strength compared to 20%, 30% ratio. So it can be concluded that when locally available granite slurry and saw dust is a good partial replacement to concrete and improves compressive, tensile, workability, flexure characteristics of concrete, while simultaneously offsetting the overall cost of concrete substantially. Keywords: Granite waste, saw dust ash, sound absorption, compressive strength, flexibility, workability, Quarry Dust.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Atsunari Kawashima ◽  
Yoshiyuki Yamamoto ◽  
Mototaka Sato ◽  
Wataru Nakata ◽  
Yoichi Kakuta ◽  

AbstractIt is important to identify prognostic and predictive markers of metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) treated with immunocheckpoint inhibitors. We sought to establish a prognostic marker for patients with mUC treated with pembrolizumab based on only blood test results. We included 165 patients with mUC in the discovery cohort and 103 with mUC who were treated with pembrolizumab in the validation cohort. Multivariate and Cox regression analyses were used to analyse the data. In the discovery cohort, the fibrosis-4 index (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–3.76, p = 0.010), albumin–bilirubin score (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.27–2.88, p = 0.002), and neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (HR: 1.84, 95% CI 1.22–2.79, p = 0.004) were independent significant prognostic factors. We established a ‘FAN score’ that included these three aforementioned items, which were assigned one point each. We divided patients into the 0–1 point (n = 116) and 2–3 points (n = 49) groups. The FAN score was a significant prognostic marker for cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.19–1.83, p < 0.001) along with the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status. The FAN score was also a prognostic factor of progression-free survival (PFS) (HR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.01–1.54, p = 0.036) along with the presence of liver metastasis. In the validation cohort, the FAN score was a significant prognostic factor for CSS (HR: 1.48, 95% CI 1.19–1.85, p = 0.001) and PFS (HR: 1.29, 95% CI 1.02–1.62, p = 0.034). We established the FAN score as a prognostic marker for patients with mUC treated with pembrolizumab.

Olivia Almendares ◽  
Jessica L. Prince-Guerra ◽  
Leisha D. Nolen ◽  
Jayleen K.L. Gunn ◽  
Ariella P. Dale ◽  

Point-of-care antigen tests are an important tool for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Antigen tests are less sensitive than real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR). Data on the performance of the BinaxNOW antigen test compared to rRT-PCR and viral culture by symptom and known exposure status, timing during disease or exposure period and demographic variables are limited. During November 3 rd -17 th , 2020, we collected paired upper respiratory swab specimens to test for SARS-CoV-2 by rRT-PCR and Abbott BinaxNOW (BinaxNOW) antigen test at two community testing sites in Pima County, Arizona. We administered a questionnaire to capture symptoms, known exposure status and previous SARS-CoV-2 test results. Specimens positive by either test were analyzed by viral culture. Previously we showed overall BinaxNOW sensitivity was 52.5%. Here we showed BinaxNOW sensitivity increased to 65.7% among currently symptomatic individuals reporting a known exposure. BinaxNOW sensitivity was lower among participants with a known exposure and previously symptomatic (32.4%) or never symptomatic (47.1%) within 14 days of testing. Sensitivity was 71.1% in participants within a week of symptom onset. In participants with a known exposure, sensitivity was highest 8-10 days post-exposure (75%). The positive predictive value for recovery of virus in cell culture was 56.7% for BinaxNOW-positive and 35.4% for rRT-PCR-positive specimens. Result reporting time was 2.5 hours for BinaxNOW and 26 hours for rRT-PCR. Point-of-care antigen tests have a shorter turn-around time compared to laboratory-based nucleic acid amplification tests, which allows for more rapid identification of infected individuals. Antigen test sensitivity limitations are important to consider when developing a testing program.

2021 ◽  
Vol 79 (1) ◽  
Marjan Meurisse ◽  
Adrien Lajot ◽  
Yves Dupont ◽  
Marie Lesenfants ◽  
Sofieke Klamer ◽  

Abstract Background With the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an existing national laboratory-based surveillance system was adapted to daily monitor the epidemiological situation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the Belgium by following the number of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, the number of performed tests and the positivity ratio. We present these main indicators of the surveillance over a one-year period as well as the impact of the performance of the laboratories, regarding speed of processing the samples and reporting results, for surveillance. Methods We describe the evolution of test capacity, testing strategy and the data collection methods during the first year of the epidemic in Belgium. Results Between the 1st of March 2020 and the 28th of February 2021, 9,487,470 tests and 773,078 COVID-19 laboratory confirmed cases were reported. Two epidemic waves occurred, with a peak in April and October 2020. The capacity and performance of the laboratories improved continuously during 2020 resulting in a high level performance. Since the end of November 2020 90 to 95% of the test results are reported at the latest the day after sampling was performed. Conclusions Thanks to the effort of all laboratories a performant exhaustive national laboratory-based surveillance system to monitor the epidemiological situation of SARS-CoV-2 was set up in Belgium in 2020. On top of expanding the number of laboratories performing diagnostics and significantly increasing the test capacity in Belgium, turnaround times between sampling and testing as well as reporting were optimized over the first year of this pandemic.

2021 ◽  
Vicky Ro ◽  
Julia E. McGuinness ◽  
Boya Guo ◽  
Meghna S. Trivedi ◽  
Tarsha Jones ◽  

PURPOSE Increasing usage of multigene panel testing has identified more patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P or LP) variants in low-moderate penetrance genes or variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Our study evaluates the association between genetic test results and contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) among patients with breast cancer. METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort study among women diagnosed with unilateral stage 0-III breast cancer between 2013 and 2020 who underwent genetic testing. We examined whether genetic test results were associated with CPM using multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS Among 707 racially or ethnically diverse women, most had benign or likely benign (B or LB) variants, whereas 12.5% had P or LP and 17.9% had VUS. Racial or ethnic minorities were twice as likely to receive VUS. Patients with P or LP variants had higher CPM rates than VUS or B or LB (64.8% v 25.8% v 25.9%), and highest among women with P or LP variants in high-penetrance genes (74.6%). On multivariable analysis, P or LP compared with B or LB variants were significantly associated with CPM (odds ratio = 4.24; 95% CI, 2.48 to 7.26). CONCLUSION Women with P or LP variants on genetic testing were over four times more likely to undergo CPM than B or LB. Those with VUS had similar CPM rates as B or LB. Our findings suggest appropriate genetic counseling and communication of cancer risk to multiethnic breast cancer survivors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Serhat Çelikten ◽  

In this work, 21 different raw perlite (RP) -based geopolymer mortars (RPGMs) were manufactured. Blast furnace slag (BFS) was replaced by RP in 7 different proportions with respect to the CaO/SiO2 oxide ratio of RP and BFS mixture in the RPGMs. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH= 5, 10, and 15 M) was used as alkaline medium for geopolymer synthesis in the RPGMs. The ultrasound pulse velocity (Upv), flexural strength (ffs) and compressive strength (fcs), water absorption, acid and sulfate durability of the RPGMs are investigated. The test results revealed that the BFS improved the mechanical properties of RPGMs for the low and medium alkaline medium of 5M and 10M, respectively. On the other hand, BFS had negative effect on the mechanical properties of RPGMs produced at a high alkaline medium of 15M. Moreover, the BFS improved the acid and sulfate durability of the RPGMs.

Thrita ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Amira Rahana Abdullahi ◽  
Sani Malami ◽  
Lawal Alhassan Bichi

Background: Malaria is a parasitic infection that is common in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. It is estimated to kill one million individuals annually. Detarium microcarpum (Fabaceae family) is used traditionally for the treatment of malaria, diabetes, hypertension, convulsions, pneumonia, leprosy, and meningitis. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the antiplasmodial potential and safety profile of the methanol extract of D. microcarpum stem bark. Methods: The extract was subjected to phytochemical screening and oral median lethal dose (LD50) estimation. Using curative, suppressive, and prophylactic experimental animal models, antiplasmodial activity was assessed in mice infected with chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei. Biochemical and hematological tests were conducted in rats orally administered with the extract for 28 days. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data, followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. Results: Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, triterpenes, and glycosides were found in the extract through phytochemical analysis. When compared to the negative control group, the extract at the tested doses (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.001) curative, suppressive, and prophylactic effect and significantly (P < 0.001) prolonged the survival time of mice in the treated groups. The extract had an insignificant (P > 0.05) effect on the biochemical and hematological parameters tested. Conclusions: The results suggest that the stem bark extract of D. microcarpum at the doses tested possesses antiplasmodial activity and is relatively safe after short-term use.

2021 ◽  
Diana R Withrow ◽  
Brian Shine ◽  
Jason Oke ◽  
Andres Tamm ◽  
Tim James ◽  

Objective: Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) are used to triage primary care patients with low risk colorectal cancer symptoms for referral to colonoscopy. The aim of this study was to determine whether combining FIT with routine blood test results could improve the performance of FIT in the primary care setting. Design: Results of all consecutive FITs requested by primary care providers between March 2017 and December 2020 were retrieved from the Oxford University Hospital Trust. Demographic factors (age, sex), reason for referral, and results of blood tests within 90 days were also retrieved. Patients were followed up for incident colorectal cancer in linked hospital records. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of FIT alone, FIT paired with blood test results, and several multivariable FIT models, were compared. Results: Among 16,604 eligible patients, 139 colorectal cancers were diagnosed (0.8%). Sensitivity and specificity of FIT alone at a threshold of 10 μg Hb/g were 92.1% and 91.5% respectively. Compared to FIT alone, blood test results did not improve the performance of FIT. Pairing blood test abnormalities with FIT reduced the number of abnormal results needed to detect one cancer but increased the number of cancers missed. Multivariable models retaining FIT, sex, and mean cell volume performed similarly to FIT alone. Conclusion: FIT is a highly sensitive tool for identifying higher risk individuals presenting to primary care with lower risk symptoms. Combining blood test results with FIT does not appear to lead to better discrimination for colorectal cancer than using FIT alone.

2021 ◽  
Vol 601 (10) ◽  
pp. 17-21
Marcin Jachowicz ◽  
Grzegorz Owczarek

The article discusses two types of systems developed at CIOP-PIB, which enable the identification of human falls from a height. The operation of the first system is based on an accelerometric measuring system implemented in the hip belt, which is an element of the equipment protecting against falls from a height. The operation of the second system is based on the analysis of the recorded video. The methods and results of calibration and verification tests of both designed systems, which were used for the preliminary tests, were presented. During these tests, the participant performed specific exercises: sitting down and simulating falling. The comparison of the test results showed a high convergence between the values measured with the acceleration sensors and the values obtained on the basis of the image analysis. The described systems can therefore be used for fall dentification and as initiators of devices for dynamic shortening of the fall path, which will reduce the forces acting on a person during restraining his fall from a height.

2021 ◽  

<p>Smart grid is an essential concept in the transformation of the electricity sector into an intelligent digitalized energy network that can deliver optimal energy from the source to the consumers. Smart grids being self-sufficient systems are constructed through the integration of information, telecommunication, and advanced power technologies with the existing electricity systems. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an important technology driver in smart grids. The application of AI techniques in smart grid is becoming more apparent because the traditional modelling optimization and control techniques have their own limitations. Machine Learning (ML) being a sub-set of AI enables intelligent decision-making and response to sudden changes in the customer energy demands, unexpected disruption of power supply, sudden variations in renewable energy output or any other catastrophic events in a smart grid. This paper presents the comparison among some of the state-of-the-art ML algorithms for predicting smart grid stability. The dataset that has been selected contains results from simulations of smart grid stability. Enhanced ML algorithms such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), Logistic Regression, K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Naïve Bayes (NB), Decision Tree (DT), Random Forest (RF), Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) classifier, XGBoost and Gradient Boosting classifiers have been implemented to forecast smart grid stability. A comparative analysis among the different ML models has been performed based on the following evaluation metrics such as accuracy, precision, recall, F1-score, AUC-ROC, and AUC-PR curves. The test results that have been obtained have been quite promising with the XGBoost classifier outperforming all the other models with an accuracy of 97.5%, recall of 98.4%, precision of 97.6%, F1-score of 97.9%, AUC-ROC of 99.8% and AUC-PR of 99.9%. </p>

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