positive feedback
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2022 ◽  
Vol 307 ◽  
pp. 118227
Yukihiro Kikegawa ◽  
Kazusa Nakajima ◽  
Yuya Takane ◽  
Yukitaka Ohashi ◽  
Tomohiko Ihara

Jason Rodencal ◽  
Scott J. Dixon

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 848
Rodrigo P. Silva-Aguiar ◽  
Diogo B. Peruchetti ◽  
Lucas S. Florentino ◽  
Christina M. Takiya ◽  
María-Paz Marzolo ◽  

Renal proximal tubule cells (PTECs) act as urine gatekeepers, constantly and efficiently avoiding urinary protein waste through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Despite its importance, little is known about how this process is modulated in physiologic conditions. Data suggest that the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway regulates PTEC protein reabsorption. Here, we worked on the hypothesis that the physiologic albumin concentration and PI3K/AKT pathway form a positive feedback loop to expand endocytic capacity. Using LLC-PK1 cells, a model of PTECs, we showed that the PI3K/AKT pathway is required for megalin recycling and surface expression, affecting albumin uptake. Inhibition of this pathway stalls megalin at EEA1+ endosomes. Physiologic albumin concentration (0.01 mg/mL) activated AKT; this depends on megalin-mediated albumin endocytosis and requires previous activation of PI3K/mTORC2. This effect is correlated to the increase in albumin endocytosis, a phenomenon that we refer to as “albumin-induced albumin endocytosis”. Mice treated with L-lysine present decreased albumin endocytosis leading to proteinuria and albuminuria associated with inhibition of AKT activity. Renal cortex explants obtained from control mice treated with MK-2206 decreased albumin uptake and promoted megalin internalization. Our data highlight the mechanism behind the capacity of PTECs to adapt albumin reabsorption to physiologic fluctuations in its filtration, avoiding urinary excretion.

2022 ◽  
Uramogi Wang

Continuous persist activity of the competitive network is related to many functions, such as working memory, oculomotor integrator and decision making. Many competition models with mutual inhibition structures achieve activity maintenance via positive feedback, which requires meticulous fine tuning of the network parameters strictly. Negative derivative feedback, according to recent research, might represent a novel mechanism for sustaining neural activity that is more resistant to multiple neural perturbations than positive feedback. Many classic models with only mutual inhibition structure are not capable of providing negative derivative feedback because double-inhibition acts as a positive feedback loop, and lack of negative feedback loop that is indispensable for negative derivative feedback. Here in the proposal, we aim to derive a new competition network with negative derivative feedback. The network is made up of two symmetric pairs of EI populations that the four population are completely connected. We conclude that the negative derivative occurs in two circumstances, in which one the activity of the two sides is synchronous but push-pull-like in the other, as well as the switch of two conditions in mathematical analysis and numerical simulation.

Yoko Hase ◽  
Takeshi Uyama ◽  
Kiho Nishioka ◽  
Juntaro Seki ◽  
Kota Morimoto ◽  

2022 ◽  
Haiyan Piao ◽  
Lingfeng Fu ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Yue Wang ◽  
Xiangyu Meng ◽  

Abstract Background: Hypoxia and inflammation tumor microenvironment (TME) play a crucial role in tumor development and progression. Although increased understanding of TME contributed to gastric cancer (GC) progression and prognosis, the direct interaction between macrophage and GC cells was not fully understood.Methods: Hypoxia and normoxia macrophage microarrays of GEO database was analyzed. The peripheral blood mononuclear cell acquired from the healthy volunteers. The expression of CXCL8 in GC tissues and cell lines was detected by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), western-blot, Elisa and immunofluorescence. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were evaluated by cell counting kit 8 (CCK8), colony formation, real-time imaging of cell migration and transwell. Luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation were used to identify the interaction between transcription factor and target gene. Especially, a series of truncated and mutation reporter genes were applied to identify precise binding sites.The corresponding functions were verified in the complementation test and in vivo animal experiment.Results: Our results revealed that Hypoxia triggered macrophage secreted C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 8 (CXCL8), which induced GC invasion and proliferation. This macrophage-induced GC progression was CXCL8 activated C-X-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 1/2 (CXCR1/2) on the GC cell membrane subsequently hyperactivated Janus kinase 1/ Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (JAK/STAT1) signaling pathway. Then, the transcription factor STAT1 directly led to the overexpression and secretion of Interleukin 10 (IL-10). Correspondingly, IL-10 induced the M2-type polarization of macrophages through the Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway-dependent mechanism and continued to increase the expression and secretion of CXCL8 through the transcription factor Nuclear Factor Kappa B Subunit 1 (NFKB1, p50). It suggested a positive feedback loop between macrophage and GC. In clinical GC samples, increased CXCL8 predicted a patient's pessimistic outcome.Conclusion: Our work identified a positive feedback loop governing cancer cells and macrophage in GC that contributed to tumor progression and patient outcome.

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