cancer stem cell
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Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 122
Natpaphan Yawut ◽  
Il-Rae Cho ◽  
Phatcharaporn Budluang ◽  
Sirichat Kaowinn ◽  
Chutima Kaewpiboon ◽  

Overexpression of cancer upregulated gene (CUG) 2 induces cancer stem cell-like phenotypes, such as enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, sphere formation, and doxorubicin resistance. However, the precise mechanism of CUG2-induced oncogenesis remains unknown. We evaluated the effects of overexpression of CUG2 on microRNA levels using a microRNA microarray. Levels of miR-3656 were decreased when CUG2 was overexpressed; on the basis of this result, we further examined the target proteins of this microRNA. We focused on Jumonji C domain-containing protein 5 (JMJD5), as it has not been previously reported to be targeted by miR-3656. When CUG2 was overexpressed, JMJD5 expression was upregulated compared to that in control cells. A 3′ untranslated region (UTR) assay revealed that an miR-3656 mimic targeted the JMJD5 3′UTR, but the miR-3656 mimic failed to target a mutant JMJD5 3′UTR, indicating that miR-3656 targets the JMJD5 transcript. Administration of the miR-3656 mimic decreased the protein levels of JMD5 according to Western blotting. Additionally, the miR-3656 mimic decreased CUG2-induced cell migration, evasion, and sphere formation and sensitized the cells to doxorubicin. Suppression of JMJD5, with its small interfering RNA, impeded CUG2-induced cancer stem cell-like phenotypes. Thus, overexpression of CUG2 decreases miR-3656 levels, leading to upregulation of JMJD5, eventually contributing to cancer stem cell-like phenotypes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Qimei Lin ◽  
Jiasong Cao ◽  
Xiaoling Du ◽  
Kuo Yang ◽  
Yongmei Shen ◽  

Treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains a major clinical challenge. We previously showed that estrogenic effects contribute to CRPC progression and are primarily caused by the increased endogenous estradiol produced via highly expressed aromatase. However, the mechanism of aromatase upregulation and its role in CRPC are poorly described. In this study, we report that HeyL is aberrantly upregulated in CRPC tissues, and its expression is positively correlated with aromatase levels. HeyL overexpression increased endogenous estradiol levels and estrogen receptor-α (ERα) transcriptional activity by upregulating CYP19A1 expression, which encodes aromatase, enhancing prostate cancer stem cell (PCSC) properties in PC3 cells. Mechanistically, HeyL bound to the CYP19A1 promoter and activated its transcription. HeyL overexpression significantly promoted bicalutamide resistance in LNCaP cells, which was reversed by the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. In PC3 cells, the HeyL-aromatase axis promoted the PCSC phenotype by upregulating autophagy-related genes, while the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) suppressed the aromatase-induced PCSC phenotype. The activated HeyL-aromatase axis promoted PCSC autophagy via ERα-mediated estrogenic effects. Taken together, our results indicated that the HeyL-aromatase axis could increase endogenous estradiol levels and activate ERα to suppress PCSC apoptosis by promoting autophagy, which enhances the understanding of how endogenous estrogenic effects influence CRPC development.

Xiaobo Nie ◽  
Huiyang Liu ◽  
Wenling Ye ◽  
Xiaoyun Wei ◽  
Lili Fan ◽  

Molly E. Heft Neal ◽  
J. Chad Brenner ◽  
Mark E. P. Prince ◽  
Steven B. Chinn

Head and Neck cancer survival has continued to remain around 50% despite treatment advances. It is thought that cancer stem cells play a key role in promoting tumor heterogeneity, treatment resistance, metastasis, and recurrence in solid malignancies including head and neck cancer. Initial studies identified cancer stem cell markers including CD44 and ALDH in head and neck malignancies and found that these cells show aggressive features in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Recent evidence has now revealed a key role of the tumor microenvironment in maintaining a cancer stem cell niche and promoting cancer stem cell plasticity. There is an increasing focus on identifying and targeting the crosstalk between cancer stem cells and surrounding cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME) as new therapeutic potential, however understanding how CSC maintain a stem-like state is critical to understanding how to therapeutically alter their function. Here we review the current evidence for cancer stem cell plasticity and discuss how interactions with the TME promote the cancer stem cell niche, increase tumor heterogeneity, and play a role in treatment resistance.

Bioengineered ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 1686-1701
Hua Yang ◽  
Linmei Wang ◽  
Yingbin Zheng ◽  
Guiming Hu ◽  
Hongyan Ma ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 094-099
Khalida I. Noel ◽  
Rana M. Raoof ◽  
Nibras H. Khamees

Background: In the previous theories of cancer, they considered that cancer was a homogeneous which mean that the tumor had only tumor cells and for this reason the treatment for any tumor directed to kill these tumor cells. But, with rising of the metastatic cases of cancer patients, another theory have been raised, that the cancer is a heterogeneous disease which composed of tumor cells that previously the chemotherapy and other cancer therapies directed toward them, in addition there is another group of cells, called cancer stem cells (CSCs), these are more aggressive than the tumor cells that can force the poor microenvironment of the cancer tissue and survive and also they are undifferentiated cells so can undergo mitosis to produce more tumor cells and another group of cancer stem cells in contrast to the tumor cells, which considered a post mitotic and not divided. Objective: Demonstrate some of cancer stem cell markers that considered an important indicators of early cancer development and lately to detect cases of metastasis. Conclusion: The theory of the presence of cancer stem cells is more acceptable and applicable and so the cancer therapy must be directed to these groups of cancer stem cells.

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