proximal tubule
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2022 ◽  
pp. ASN.2021030286
Tilman Breiderhoff ◽  
Nina Himmerkus ◽  
Luca Meoli ◽  
Anja Fromm ◽  
Sebastian Sewerin ◽  

Background The tight junction proteins claudin-2 and claudin-10a form paracellular cation and anion channels, respectively, and are expressed in the proximal tubule. However, the physiological role of claudin-10a in the kidney has been unclear. Methods To investigate the physiologic role of claudin-10a, we generated claudin-10a-deficient mice; confirmed successful knockout by Southern blot, Western blot, and immunofluorescence staining; and analyzed urine and serum of knockout and wild-type animals. We also used electrophysiologic studies to investigate the functionality of isolated proximal tubules, and studied compensatory regulation by pharmacologic intervention, RNA sequencing analysis, Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, and respirometry. Results Mice deficient in claudin-10a were fertile and without overt phenotypes. Upon knockout, claudin-10a was replaced by claudin-2 in all proximal tubule segments. Electrophysiology showed conversion from paracellular anion preference to cation preference and a loss of paracellular Cl- over HCO3- preference. As a consequence, there was tubular retention of calcium and magnesium, higher urine pH, and mild hypermagnesemia. A comparison of other urine and serum parameters under control conditions and sequential pharmacologic transport inhibition, as well as unchanged fractional lithium excretion, suggested compensative measures in proximal and distal tubular segments. Changes in proximal tubular oxygen handling and differential expression of genes regulating fatty acid metabolism indicated proximal tubular adaptation. Western blot and immunofluorescence revealed alterations in distal tubular transport. Conclusions Claudin-10a is the major paracellular anion channel in the proximal tubule and its deletion causes calcium and magnesium hyperreabsorption by claudin-2 redistribution. Transcellular transport in proximal and distal segments and proximal tubular metabolic adaptation compensate for loss of paracellular anion permeability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 848
Rodrigo P. Silva-Aguiar ◽  
Diogo B. Peruchetti ◽  
Lucas S. Florentino ◽  
Christina M. Takiya ◽  
María-Paz Marzolo ◽  

Renal proximal tubule cells (PTECs) act as urine gatekeepers, constantly and efficiently avoiding urinary protein waste through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Despite its importance, little is known about how this process is modulated in physiologic conditions. Data suggest that the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway regulates PTEC protein reabsorption. Here, we worked on the hypothesis that the physiologic albumin concentration and PI3K/AKT pathway form a positive feedback loop to expand endocytic capacity. Using LLC-PK1 cells, a model of PTECs, we showed that the PI3K/AKT pathway is required for megalin recycling and surface expression, affecting albumin uptake. Inhibition of this pathway stalls megalin at EEA1+ endosomes. Physiologic albumin concentration (0.01 mg/mL) activated AKT; this depends on megalin-mediated albumin endocytosis and requires previous activation of PI3K/mTORC2. This effect is correlated to the increase in albumin endocytosis, a phenomenon that we refer to as “albumin-induced albumin endocytosis”. Mice treated with L-lysine present decreased albumin endocytosis leading to proteinuria and albuminuria associated with inhibition of AKT activity. Renal cortex explants obtained from control mice treated with MK-2206 decreased albumin uptake and promoted megalin internalization. Our data highlight the mechanism behind the capacity of PTECs to adapt albumin reabsorption to physiologic fluctuations in its filtration, avoiding urinary excretion.

Hyun-Wook Lee ◽  
Jill W. Verlander ◽  
Gary E Shull ◽  
Autumn N. Harris ◽  
I. David Weiner

The molecular mechanisms regulating ammonia metabolism are fundamental to acid-base homeostasis. Deleting the A splice variant of the Na⁺-bicarbonate cotransporter, electrogenic, isoform 1 (NBCe1-A) partially blocks the effect of acidosis to increase urinary ammonia excretion, and this appears to involve the dysregulated expression of ammoniagenic enzymes in the proximal tubule (PT) in the cortex, but not in the outer medulla (OM). A second NBCe1 splice variant, NBCe1-B, is present throughout the PT, including the OM, where NBCe1-A is not present. The current studies determined the effects of combined renal deletion of NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B on systemic and proximal tubule ammonia metabolism. We generated NBCe1-A/B deletion using Cre-loxP techniques and used Cre-negative mice as controls. Since renal NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B expression is limited to the proximal tubule, Cre-positive mice had proximal tubule NBCe1-A/B deletion (PT-NBCe1-A/B KO). While on basal diet, PT-NBCe1-A/B KO mice had severe metabolic acidosis, yet urinary ammonia excretion was not changed significantly. PT-NBCe1-A/B KO decreased expression of phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phospho­enol­pyruvate carboxy­kinase (PEPCK) and increased expression of glutamine synthetase (GS), an ammonia recycling enzyme, in PT in both the cortex and OM. Exogenous acid-loading increased ammonia excretion in control mice, but PT-NBCe1-A/B KO prevented any increase. PT-NBCe1-A/B KO significantly blunted acid loading-induced changes in PDG, PEPCK, and GS expression in the proximal tubule in both the cortex and OM. We conclude that NBCe1-B, at least in the presence of NBCe1-A deletion, contributes to proximal tubule ammonia metabolism in the OM and thereby to systemic acid-base regulation.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 177
Elena Sendino Garví ◽  
Rosalinde Masereeuw ◽  
Manoe J. Janssen

Nephropathic cystinosis is a rare and severe disease caused by disruptions in the CTNS gene. Cystinosis is characterized by lysosomal cystine accumulation, vesicle trafficking impairment, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Additionally, cystinotic patients exhibit weakening and leakage of the proximal tubular segment of the nephrons, leading to renal Fanconi syndrome and kidney failure early in life. Current in vitro cystinotic models cannot recapitulate all clinical features of the disease which limits their translational value. Therefore, the development of novel, complex in vitro models that better mimic the disease and exhibit characteristics not compatible with 2-dimensional cell culture is of crucial importance for novel therapies development. In this study, we developed a 3-dimensional bioengineered model of nephropathic cystinosis by culturing conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTECs) on hollow fiber membranes (HFM). Cystinotic kidney tubules showed lysosomal cystine accumulation, increased autophagy and vesicle trafficking deterioration, the impairment of several metabolic pathways, and the disruption of the epithelial monolayer tightness as compared to control kidney tubules. In particular, the loss of monolayer organization and leakage could be mimicked with the use of the cystinotic kidney tubules, which has not been possible before, using the standard 2-dimensional cell culture. Overall, bioengineered cystinotic kidney tubules recapitulate better the nephropathic phenotype at a molecular, structural, and functional proximal tubule level compared to 2-dimensional cell cultures.

2022 ◽  
pp. ASN.2021070881
Zihui Yu ◽  
Ziying Xu ◽  
Yuan Liang ◽  
Pengbin Yin ◽  
Yue Shi ◽  

Background: Vitamin C deficiency is found in patients with variable renal diseases. However, the role of vitamin C as an epigenetic regulator in renal homeostasis and pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Methods: We showed that vitamin C deficiency leads to acute tubular necrosis (ATN) using a vitamin C-deficient mouse model (Gulo knock-out). DNA/RNA epigenetic modifications and injured S3 proximal tubule cells were identified in the vitamin C-deficient kidneys using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing, and single-cell RNA sequencing. Results: Integrated evidence suggested that epigenetic modifications affected the proximal tubule cells and fenestrated endothelial cells, leading to tubule injury and hypoxia through transcriptional regulation. Strikingly, loss of DNA hydroxymethylation and DNA hypermethylation in vitamin C-deficient kidneys preceded the histological sign of tubule necrosis, indicating the causality of vitamin C-induced epigenetic modification in ATN. Consistently, prophylactic supplementation of an oxidation-resistant vitamin C derivative, ascorbyl phosphate magnesium, promoted DNA demethylation and prevented the progression of cisplatin-induced ATN. Conclusions: Vitamin C played a critical role in renal homeostasis and pathogenesis in a mouse model, suggesting vitamin supplementation may be an approach to lower risk of kidney injury.

Roberta Ghilosso Bortolini ◽  
Leoni Villano Bonamin ◽  
Carla Holandino

Cadmium is an important toxic environmental heavy metal. Several studies have demonstrated that a major site of cadmium toxicity in humans and in other animals is the proximal tubule of the kidney. A well established model for nefrotoxicity is the use of in vitro technique with proximal tubule epithelial cell lines, as LLC-PK1. Herein, we have the intention to study the possible protective effect of highdiluted CdCl2 solutions. In a blinding way, LLC-PK1 cells were pre-treated with highdiluted cadmium chloride in the potencies 10 cH, 15 cH and 20cH. After 4 days, these cells have received CdCl2 in a pre-determined toxic concentration. The cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. We have identified a protective effect of two CdCl2 highdiluted solutions, 10 cH and 20 cH, when cells were intoxicated by sublethal CdCl2 concentration. The results indicate that probably the highdilutions have an expressive action on cells in sublethal intoxication.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 203
Mariusz Flisiński ◽  
Andrzej Brymora ◽  
Natalia Skoczylas-Makowska ◽  
Anna Stefańska ◽  
Jacek Manitius

Excessive consumption of fructose (FR) leads to obesity, metabolic syndrome (MS) and insulin resistance, which are known risk factors for kidney stones. The epidemiological study has suggested the association between fructose consumption and urolithiasis, but the precise mechanism is still not well understood. Male Wistar rats were assigned for 8 weeks to three groups with different FR content in diet: RD (n = 5)—regular diet with a FR < 3%; F10 (n = 6)—regular diet with an addition of 10% Fr in drinking water; F60 (n = 5)—60% FR as a solid food. Serum concentration of FR, creatinine (Cr), insulin (Ins), triglycerides (Tg), homocysteine (HCS), uric acid (UA), calcium (Ca), phosphate (Pi), magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) were measured. Based on 24 h urine collection the following tests were performed: urine pH, proteinuria (PCR), excretion of N-Acetyl-(D)-Glucosaminidase (NAG), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), uric acid (uUAEx), phosphate (uPiEx), calcium (uCaEx), magnesium (uMgEx) and sodium (uNaEx). The creatinine clearance (CrCl) was calculated. Calcium deposits in kidney sections were examined using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and von Kossa stains. The rats on F10 and F60, as compared to the RD diet, showed a tendency for lower CrCl, higher HCS level and some features of MS as higher Ins and TG levels. Interestingly, F10 (fluid) versus F60 (solid) diet led to higher serum Ins levels. F10 and F60 versus RD demonstrated higher urinary excretion of MCP-1 and NAG which were suggestive for inflammatory injury of the proximal tubule. F10 and F60 as compared to RD showed significantly lower uUAEx, although there were no differences in clearance and fractional excretion of UA. F60 versus RD induced severe phosphaturia (>30×) and natriuria (4×) and mild calciuria. F10 versus RD induced calciuria (3×), phosphaturia (2×) and mild natriuria. Calcium phosphate stones within the tubules and interstitium were found only in rats on FR diet, respectively, in two rats from the F10 group and another two in the F60 group. The rats which developed stones were characterized by significantly higher serum insulin concentration and urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium. A fructose-rich diet may promote development of calcium stones due to proximal tubule injury and metabolic syndrome.

2021 ◽  
William Bell ◽  
Anita Layton

Mitochondria are a key player in several kinds of tissue injury, and are even the ultimate cause of certain diseases. In this work we introduce new models of mitochondrial ATP generation in multiple tissues, including liver hepatocytes and the medullary thick ascending limb in the kidney. Using this model, we predict these tissues' responses to hypoxia, uncoupling, ischemia-reperfusion, and oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction. Our results suggest mechanisms explaining differences in robustness of mitochondrial function across tissues. The medullary thick ascending limb and proximal tubule in the kidney both experience a high metabolic demand, while having lower baseline activity of oxidative phosphorylation relative to the liver. These factors make these tissues susceptible to dysfunction of Complex III. A lower baseline oxygen tension observed in the thick ascending limb makes it susceptible to Complex IV. On the other hand, since the liver lacks these risk factors, and has higher baseline rates of glycolysis, it is less susceptible to all kinds of oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction.

2021 ◽  
pp. ASN.2021040439
Xiaojia Guo ◽  
Leyuan Xu ◽  
Heino Velazquez ◽  
Tian-Min Chen ◽  
Ryan Williams ◽  

Background Repeated administration of cisplatin causes chronic kidney disease (CKD). In previous studies, we reported that the kidney-secreted survival protein renalase and an agonist peptide protected mice from cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Methods To investigate whether kidney-targeted delivery of renalase might prevent cisplatin-induced CKD in a mouse model, we achieved specific delivery of a renalase agonist peptide (RP81) to the renal proximal tubule by encapsulating the peptide in mesoscale nanoparticles (MNPs). We used genetic deletion of renalase, single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis, and Western blotting to determine efficacy and to explore underlying mechanisms. We also measured plasma renalase in patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma receiving their first dose of cisplatin chemotherapy. Results In mice with CKD induced by cisplatin, we observed an approximate 60% reduction of kidney renalase; genetic deletion of renalase was associated with significantly more severe cisplatin-induced CKD. In this severe model of cisplatin-induced CKD, systemic administration of MNP-encapsulated RP81 (RP81-MNP) significantly reduced CKD as assessed by plasma creatinine and histology. It also decreased inflammatory cytokines in plasma and inhibited regulated necrosis in kidney. Single-cell RNA seq analyses revealed that RP81-MNP preserved epithelial components of the nephron and the vasculature, as well as suppressed inflammatory macrophages and myofibroblasts. In patients receiving their first dose of cisplatin chemotherapy, plasma renalase levels trended lower at day 14 post-treatment. Conclusions Kidney-targeted delivery of renalase agonist RP81MNP protects against cisplatin-induced CKD by decreasing cell death and improving the viability of the renal proximal tubule. These findings suggest that such an approach might mitigate the development of CKD in patients receiving cisplatin cancer chemotherapy.

2021 ◽  
Amaury Pereira-Acacio ◽  
João Veloso-Santos ◽  
Luiz Nossar ◽  
Gloria Costa-Sarmento ◽  
Humberto Muzi-Filho ◽  

Abstract Purpose To investigate the mechanisms by which chronic administration of a multideficient diet after weaning alters bodily Na+ handling, and culminates in high systolic blood pressure (SBP) at a juvenile age.Methods From 28 to 93 days of age, weaned male Wistar rats were given a diet with low content and poor-quality protein, low lipid, without vitamin supplementation, which mimics the diets consumed in impoverished regions worldwide. We measured food, energy and Na+ ingestion, together with urinary Na+ excretion, Na+ density (Na+ intake/energy intake), plasma Na+ concentration, SBP), and renal proximal tubule Na+-transporting ATPases. Results Undernourished rats aged 93 days had only one-third of the control body mass, lower plasma albumin, higher SBP, higher energy intake, and higher positive Na+ balance accompanied by decreased plasma Na+ concentration. SBP was normalized with Losartan and with Ang-(3–4), and the combination of the 2 substances induced an accentuated negative Na+ balance as a result of strong inhibition of Na+ ingestion. Na+ density in undernourished rats was higher than in control, irrespective of the treatment, and they had downregulated (Na++K+)ATPase and upregulated Na+-ATPase in proximal tubule cells, which returned to control levels after Losartan or Ang-(3–4).Conclusions Na+ density, not only Na+ ingestion, plays a central role in the pathophysiology of elevated SBP in chronically undernourished rats. The observations that Losartan and Ang-(3–4) normalized SBP together with Na+ distribution and handling give support to the proposal that Ang IIÞAT1R and Ang IIÞAT2R axes have opposite roles within the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system of undernourished juvenile rats.

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