cell expansion
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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ada Admin ◽  
Qianxing Hu ◽  
Jinming Mu ◽  
Yuhong Liu ◽  
Yue Yang ◽  
...  

Pancreatic β-cell adapt to compensate for increased metabolic demand during obesity. Although the microRNA (miRNA) pathway has an essential role in β-cell expansion, whether it is involved in adaptive proliferation is largely unknown. First, we report that EGR2 binding to the miR-455 promoter induced miR-455 upregulation in the pancreatic islets of obesity mouse models. Then, in vitro gain- or loss-of-function studies showed that miR-455 overexpression facilitated β-cell proliferation. Knockdown of miR-455 in ob/ob mice via pancreatic intraductal infusion prevented compensatory β-cell expansion. Mechanistically, our results revealed that increased miR-455 expression inhibits the expression of its target cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1), an mRNA binding protein that plays an important role in regulating insulin resistance and cell proliferation. Decreased CPEB1 expression inhibits elongation of the poly-A tail and the subsequent translation of Cdkn1b mRNA, reducing the CDKN1B expression level and finally promoting β-cell proliferation. Taken together, our results show that the miR-455/CPEB1/CDKN1B pathway contributes to adaptive proliferation of β-cells to meet metabolic demand during obesity.


Diabetes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qianxing Hu ◽  
Jinming Mu ◽  
Yuhong Liu ◽  
Yue Yang ◽  
Yue Liu ◽  
...  

Pancreatic β-cell adapt to compensate for increased metabolic demand during obesity. Although the microRNA (miRNA) pathway has an essential role in β-cell expansion, whether it is involved in adaptive proliferation is largely unknown. First, we report that EGR2 binding to the miR-455 promoter induced miR-455 upregulation in the pancreatic islets of obesity mouse models. Then, in vitro gain- or loss-of-function studies showed that miR-455 overexpression facilitated β-cell proliferation. Knockdown of miR-455 in ob/ob mice via pancreatic intraductal infusion prevented compensatory β-cell expansion. Mechanistically, our results revealed that increased miR-455 expression inhibits the expression of its target cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1), an mRNA binding protein that plays an important role in regulating insulin resistance and cell proliferation. Decreased CPEB1 expression inhibits elongation of the poly-A tail and the subsequent translation of Cdkn1b mRNA, reducing the CDKN1B expression level and finally promoting β-cell proliferation. Taken together, our results show that the miR-455/CPEB1/CDKN1B pathway contributes to adaptive proliferation of β-cells to meet metabolic demand during obesity.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
Minmin Du ◽  
Firas Bou Daher ◽  
Yuanyuan Liu ◽  
Andrew Steward ◽  
Molly Tillmann ◽  
...  

Auxin concentration–dependent cell expansion coordinates hypocotyl elongation and apical hook development for soil emergence.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ada Admin ◽  
Qianxing Hu ◽  
Jinming Mu ◽  
Yuhong Liu ◽  
Yue Yang ◽  
...  

Pancreatic β-cell adapt to compensate for increased metabolic demand during obesity. Although the microRNA (miRNA) pathway has an essential role in β-cell expansion, whether it is involved in adaptive proliferation is largely unknown. First, we report that EGR2 binding to the miR-455 promoter induced miR-455 upregulation in the pancreatic islets of obesity mouse models. Then, in vitro gain- or loss-of-function studies showed that miR-455 overexpression facilitated β-cell proliferation. Knockdown of miR-455 in ob/ob mice via pancreatic intraductal infusion prevented compensatory β-cell expansion. Mechanistically, our results revealed that increased miR-455 expression inhibits the expression of its target cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1), an mRNA binding protein that plays an important role in regulating insulin resistance and cell proliferation. Decreased CPEB1 expression inhibits elongation of the poly-A tail and the subsequent translation of Cdkn1b mRNA, reducing the CDKN1B expression level and finally promoting β-cell proliferation. Taken together, our results show that the miR-455/CPEB1/CDKN1B pathway contributes to adaptive proliferation of β-cells to meet metabolic demand during obesity.


eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nannan Guo ◽  
Kelsey D McDermott ◽  
Yu-Tzu Shih ◽  
Haley Zanga ◽  
Debolina Ghosh ◽  
...  

Experience governs neurogenesis from radial-glial neural stem cells (RGLs) in the adult hippocampus to support memory. Transcription factors in RGLs integrate physiological signals to dictate self-renewal division mode. Whereas asymmetric RGL divisions drive neurogenesis during favorable conditions, symmetric divisions prevent premature neurogenesis while amplifying RGLs to anticipate future neurogenic demands. The identities of transcription factors regulating RGL symmetric self-renewal, unlike those that regulate RGL asymmetric self-renewal, are not known. Here, we show in mice that the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 9 (Klf9) is elevated in quiescent RGLs and inducible, deletion of Klf9 promotes RGL activation state. Clonal analysis and longitudinal intravital 2-photon imaging directly demonstrate that Klf9 functions as a brake on RGL symmetric self-renewal. In vivo translational profiling of RGLs lacking Klf9 generated a molecular blueprint for RGL symmetric self-renewal that was characterized by upregulation of genetic programs underlying Notch and mitogen signaling, cell-cycle, fatty acid oxidation and lipogenesis. Together, these observations identify Klf9 as a transcriptional regulator of neural stem cell expansion in the adult hippocampus.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (625) ◽  
Author(s):  
Qian Zhang ◽  
Morgan E. Hresko ◽  
Lora K. Picton ◽  
Leon Su ◽  
Michael J. Hollander ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Pankaj Mogha ◽  
Shruti Iyer ◽  
Abhijit Majumder

Extracellular matrices (ECM) present in our tissues play a significant role in maintaining tissue homeostasis through various physical and chemical cues such as topology, stiffness, and secretion of biochemicals. They are known to influence the behaviour of resident stem cells. It is also known that ECM type and coating density on cell culture plates strongly influence in vitro cellular behaviour. However, the influence of ECM protein coating on long term mesenchymal stem cell expansion has not been studied yet. To address this gap, we cultured bone-marrow derived hMSCs for multiple passages on the tissue culture plastic plates coated with 25 μg/ml of various ECM proteins. We found that cells on plates coated with ECM proteins had much higher proliferation compared to the regular tissue culture plates. Further, gelatin coated plates helped the cells to grow faster compared to collagen, fibronectin, and laminin coated plates. Additionally, the use of Gelatin showed less size heterogeneity among the cells when expanded from passages P3 to P9. Gelatin also helped in maintaining cellular stiffness which was not observed across other ECM proteins. In summary, in this research, we have shown that gelatin which is the least expensive compared to other ECM proteins provides a better platform for mesenchymal stem cell expansion.


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