competition models
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2022 ◽  
Uramogi Wang

Continuous persist activity of the competitive network is related to many functions, such as working memory, oculomotor integrator and decision making. Many competition models with mutual inhibition structures achieve activity maintenance via positive feedback, which requires meticulous fine tuning of the network parameters strictly. Negative derivative feedback, according to recent research, might represent a novel mechanism for sustaining neural activity that is more resistant to multiple neural perturbations than positive feedback. Many classic models with only mutual inhibition structure are not capable of providing negative derivative feedback because double-inhibition acts as a positive feedback loop, and lack of negative feedback loop that is indispensable for negative derivative feedback. Here in the proposal, we aim to derive a new competition network with negative derivative feedback. The network is made up of two symmetric pairs of EI populations that the four population are completely connected. We conclude that the negative derivative occurs in two circumstances, in which one the activity of the two sides is synchronous but push-pull-like in the other, as well as the switch of two conditions in mathematical analysis and numerical simulation.

Mariana Burca ◽  
Virginie Beaucousin ◽  
Pierre Chausse ◽  
Ludovic Ferrand ◽  
Benjamin A. Parris ◽  

Abstract. This research addressed current controversies concerning the contribution of semantic conflict to the Stroop interference effect and its reduction by a single-letter coloring and cueing procedure. On the first issue, it provides, for the first time, unambiguous evidence for a contribution of semantic conflict to the (overall) Stroop interference effect. The reported data remained inconclusive on the second issue, despite being collected in a considerable sample and analyzed with both classical (frequentist) and Bayesian inferential approaches. Given that in all past Stroop studies, semantic conflict was possibly confounded with either response conflict (e.g., when semantic-associative items [ SKYblue] are used to induce semantic conflict) or with facilitation (when color-congruent items [ BLUEblue] are used as baseline to derive a magnitude for semantic conflict), its genuine contribution to the Stroop interference effect is the most critical result reported in the present study. Indeed, it leaves no doubt – in complete contrast to dominant single-stage response competition models (e.g., Roelofs, 2003 ) – that selection occurs at the semantic level in the Stroop task. The immediate implications for the composite (as opposed to unitary) nature of the Stroop interference effect and other still unresolved issues in the Stroop literature are outlined further.

2021 ◽  
Jonathan D Blount ◽  
Hannah M Rowland ◽  
Christopher Mitchell ◽  
Michael P Speed ◽  
Graeme D Ruxton ◽  

In a variety of aposematic species, the conspicuousness of an individual's warning signal and the quantity of its chemical defence are positively correlated. This apparent honest signalling in aposematism is predicted by resource competition models which assume that the production and maintenance of aposematic defences compete for access to antioxidant molecules that have dual functions as pigments directly responsible for colouration and in protecting against oxidative lipid damage. Here we study a model aposematic system - the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) and make use of the variable phytochemistry of its larval host-plant, milkweeds (Asclepiadaceae), to manipulate the concentration of sequestered cardenolides. We test two fundamental assumptions of resource competition models: that (1) the possession of secondary defences is associated with costs in the form of oxidative lipid damage and reduced antioxidant defences; and (2) that oxidative damage or decreases in antioxidant defences can reduce the capacity of individuals to produce aposematic displays. Monarch caterpillars that sequestered the highest concentrations of cardenolides exhibited higher levels of oxidative lipid damage as adults. The relationship between warning signals, cardenolide concentrations and oxidative damage differed between the sexes. In male monarchs conspicuousness was explained by an interaction between oxidative damage and sequestration: as males sequester more cardenolides, those with high levels of oxidative damage become less conspicuous, while those that sequester lower levels of cardenolides equally invest in conspicuous with increasing oxidative damage. There was no significant effect of oxidative damage or concentration of sequestered cardenolides on female conspicuousness. Our results demonstrate physiological linkage between the production of coloration and protection from autotoxicity, that warning signals can be honest indicators of defensive capability, and that the relationships are different between the sexes.

2021 ◽  
Alberto Scarampi

In the framework of resource-competition models, it has been argued that the number of species stably coexisting in an ecosystem cannot exceed the number of shared resources. However, plankton seems to be an exception of this so-called "competitive-exclusion principle". In planktic ecosystems, a large number of different species stably coexist in an environment with limited resources. This contradiction between theoretical expectations and empirical observations is often referred to as "The Paradox of the Plankton". This project aims to investigate biophysical models that can account for the large biodiversity observed in real ecosystems in order to resolve this paradox. A model is proposed that combines classical resource competition models, metabolic trade-offs and stochastic ecosystem assembly. Simulations of the model match empirical observations, while relaxing some unrealistic assumptions from previous models.

S.K. Yadav ◽  
Dinesh K Sharma ◽  
Ayodele Julius Alade ◽  
A.K. Shukla

In this study, three novel regression models are introduced for estimating and forecasting peppermint yield production. Several indices of the goodness of fit are used to assess the quality of the suggested models. The proposed models for yield production are compared to current regression models that are well-known. Primary data from the Banki block of the Barabanki District of Uttar Pradesh State in India was used to validate the efficiency conditions for the suggested models to outperform the competition models. The empirical results suggest that the proposed models for estimating and predicting peppermint yield production are more efficient than competing estimators.

Albert Kim ◽  
David Allen ◽  
Simon Couch

1. Neighborhood competition models are powerful tools to measure the effect of interspecific competition. Statistical methods to ease the application of these models are currently lacking. 2. We present the forestecology package providing methods to i) specify neighborhood competition models, ii) evaluate the effect of competitor species identity using permutation tests, and iii) measure model performance using spatial cross-validation. Following Allen (2020), we implement a Bayesian linear regression neighborhood competition model. 3. We demonstrate the package’s functionality using data from the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute’s large forest dynamics plot, part of the ForestGEO global network of research sites. Given ForestGEO’s data collection protocols and data formatting standards, the package was designed with cross-site compatibility in mind. We highlight the importance of spatial cross-validation when interpreting model results. 4. The package features i) tidyverse-like structure whereby verb-named functions can be modularly “piped” in sequence, ii) functions with standardized inputs/outputs of simple features ‘sf‘ package class, and iii) an S3 object-oriented implementation of the Bayesian linear regression model. These three facts allow for clear articulation of all the steps in the sequence of analysis and easy wrangling and visualization of the geospatial data. Furthermore, while the package only has Bayesian linear regression implemented, the package was designed with extensibility to other methods in mind.

Catherine E. De Vries ◽  
Sara B. Hobolt ◽  
Sven-Oliver Proksch ◽  
Jonathan B. Slapin

This chapter looks at competition between parties. First, the chapter outlines the ways in which party systems are described and categorized, in terms of the number of parties (in other words, fragmentation) and their ideological position (polarization). The chapter then addresses the theological models that aim to explain party competition. The chapter uses the simple spatial model here which predicts that parties position themselves close to the centre of politics to appeal to the modern voter. It then looks at competition models. These models expect parties to champion issues they ‘own’. The chapter also looks at valence models which focus on competence, leadership traits and other non-party characteristics of candidates and parties. The chapter ends with a discussion of mainstream parties, looking at how they seek to respond to the rise of challenger parties.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (3) ◽  
pp. 1432
Huifang Jiao ◽  
Xuan Wang ◽  
Chi To Ng ◽  
Lijun Ma

In this study, we develop a series of consumer-valuation-based models to investigate the pricing and return policies of the sellers in a competitive e-commerce market. Differing from the competition models in literature, a novel two-dimensional valuation structure is built, which considers the valuations of a consumer on two products and the valuation differentiation of all consumers on each product. We consider both monopoly and duopoly (competitive) markets. In each market, two models are respectively developed, one with and one without the return policies. We derive the solutions for the four models, and conduct some analytical and numerical investigations. The results show that return policy with a partial refund is always chosen by the sellers in both monopoly and duopoly markets. Return policy benefits the seller in a monopoly market, but may not benefit the sellers in a duopoly market. In the duopoly models, one seller can be considered as a monopoly seller who meets a new competitor. Our results show that the monopoly seller will reduce its price by no more than 20% when there comes a competitor, and, counter-intuitively, it will meanwhile adopt a severer return policy to the consumers.

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