Stream Water
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2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 11337
Krzysztof Stępniewski ◽  
Maksym Łaszewski

The influence of various types of agricultural activities on the dynamics of biogenic compounds of flowing water was broadly recognized in many spatial and temporal scales. However, relatively minor attention was paid to the hydrochemical functioning of horticultural catchments despite their importance and dominance in some regions of Europe. Thus, the current study investigated spatial and seasonal variations in inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous compounds in stream water in the Mogielanka River catchment, with 72% covered by apple orchards. Water samples were collected from fifteen sites distributed across the catchment in the monthly timescale from March 2020 to February 2021. Concentrations of NO3−, NO2−, NH4+, and PO43− were determined photometrically, while in situ water temperature, oxygen saturation, electrical conductivity, and pH, were measured with the use of portable devices. The impact of horticulture was mainly documented in the higher concentration of NO3− during the winter months; however, maximum values did not exceed 15 mg·dm−3 and were relatively low in comparison to catchments dominated by arable lands. The authors also found a clear impact of unstratified reservoirs and inflows from wastewater treatment plants on the dynamics of biogenic compounds. The correlations of PO43− with the sums of precipitation suggested, in turn, that increased PO43− concentration mainly results from poor sewage management. The results provided preliminary but unique and spatially extensive insight into the functioning of an orchard-dominated lowland catchment and allowed the researchers to point out the main recommendations for improving water quality in similar regions.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (19) ◽  
pp. 2790
Abdul Hannan ◽  
Jagadeesh Anmala

The classification of stream waters using parameters such as fecal coliforms into the classes of body contact and recreation, fishing and boating, domestic utilization, and danger itself is a significant practical problem of water quality prediction worldwide. Various statistical and causal approaches are used routinely to solve the problem from a causal modeling perspective. However, a transparent process in the form of Decision Trees is used to shed more light on the structure of input variables such as climate and land use in predicting the stream water quality in the current paper. The Decision Tree algorithms such as classification and regression tree (CART), iterative dichotomiser (ID3), random forest (RF), and ensemble methods such as bagging and boosting are applied to predict and classify the unknown stream water quality behavior from the input variables. The variants of bagging and boosting have also been looked at for more effective modeling results. Although the Random Forest, Gradient Boosting, and Extremely Randomized Tree models have been found to yield consistent classification results, DTs with Adaptive Boosting and Bagging gave the best testing accuracies out of all the attempted modeling approaches for the classification of Fecal Coliforms in the Upper Green River watershed, Kentucky, USA. Separately, a discussion of the Decision Support System (DSS) that uses Decision Tree Classifier (DTC) is provided.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 3211-3217
Tyas Mutiara Basuki ◽  
Irfan Budi Pramono

Flood is a natural disaster that frequently happens and causes many material and immaterial losses. During flooding, the suspended sediment is carried along by the streamflow. The amount of sediment transported varies and depends on natural and anthropogenic factors. Limited studies have been conducted regarding the relationship between peak flood volume and its sediment content. Therefore, a study with the purpose to understand the relationship of rainfall characteristics, peak flood volume, and suspended sediment was undertaken in Kedungbulus Catchment in Gombong, Central Java, Indonesia. The size of Kedungbulus catchment is 37.8 km2. To collect the required data, an automatic stream water level recorder was installed in the outlet of the catchment. In addition, an automatic and two conventional rain gauges were set up inside the catchment. Hydrograph and statistical analysis were conducted on 2016-2017 data. The results showed that during the study period, the highest peak flood volume occurred on October 8, 2016. The flood duration was 490 minutes, with the time to peak was 135 minutes. At the highest peak flood volume, the stream water was 5,091,221 m3, and the suspended sediment was around 2,394 tons. Rainfall depth significantly affects the peak flood volume and its suspended sediment. The rainfall intensity and Antecedent Soil Moisture Content (ASMC) weakly correlate with peak flood volume and its suspended sediment content.

2021 ◽  
Vol 49 (1) ◽  
Irene Ule Ngole Sumbele ◽  
Doris Bennen Tabi ◽  
Rene Ning Teh ◽  
Anne Longdoh Njunda

Abstract Background This study aimed at determining urogenital schistosomiasis (UGS) prevalence, intensity, knowledge and risk factors in school-aged children (SAC) in the new endemic focus of Tiko, Cameroon. Methods A cross-sectional study including 389 SAC of both sexes aged 5–15 years was carried out between April and June 2018. A structured questionnaire was used to collect demographic data, clinical and predisposing factors. Urine sample collected was used to detect Schistosoma haematobium eggs by filtration technique and microhaematuria by Heme dipstick COMBI 11. Logistic regression model was used to determine risk factors of UGS. Results The overall prevalence of UGS was 37.0% (CI 32.4–41.9) and 32.6% (CI 28.2–37.5) were positive by egg excretion while 24.4% (CI 20.4–28.9) by haematuria. S. haematobium egg excretion and haematuria were significantly higher in males (P = 0.016; P = 0.049) and children 12–15 years old (P = 0.009; P = 0.002), respectively. The mean number of eggs per 10 mL of urine was 77.6 (10.2) and ranged from 2 to 400. The proportion of light intensity of infection was higher (67.7%, CI 59.2–75.2) with no significant differences by sex, age and residence. However, the older children were more heavily infected when compared to the younger children, who had more of light infection. Overall, the mean knowledge score 1.42 (CI 1.32–1.51) on a scale of 6, was poor and the proportion of good knowledge of the disease (23.14%, CI 19.2–27.6) was low. Stream water contact (AOR = 4.94; P = 0.001) was the only significant risk factor identified. Conclusion Urogenital schistosomiasis is of public health concern among SAC in Tiko, Cameroon. Most participants have poor knowledge about the disease, hence education on vector-borne diseases and the avoidance of stream water contact should be implemented.

2021 ◽  
Yuheng Yang ◽  
Baisha Weng ◽  
Denghua Yan ◽  
Xiaoyan Gong ◽  
Yanyu Dai ◽  

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (17) ◽  
pp. 2402
Carl Swindle ◽  
Parker Shankin-Clarke ◽  
Matthew Meyerhof ◽  
Jean Carlson ◽  
John Melack

Wildfires can change ecosystems by altering solutes in streams. We examined major cations in streams draining a chaparral-dominated watershed in the Santa Ynez Mountains (California, USA) following a wildfire that burned 75 km2 from July 8 to October 5, 2017. We identified changes in solute concentrations, and postulated a relation between these changes and ash leached by rainwater following the wildfire. Collectively, K+ leached from ash samples exceeded that of all other major cations combined. After the wildfire, the concentrations of all major cations increased in stream water sampled near the fire perimeter following the first storm of the season: K+ increased 12-fold, Na+ and Ca2+ increased 1.4-fold, and Mg2+ increased 1.6-fold. Our results suggested that the 12-fold increase in K+ in stream water resulted from K+ leached from ash in the fire scar. Both C and N were measured in the ash samples. The low N content of the ash indicated either high volatilization of N relative to C occurred, or burned material contained less N.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Changjun Gao ◽  
Wei Li ◽  
Lijuan Cui ◽  
Qiongfang Ma ◽  
Jian Cai

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (16) ◽  
pp. 3309
Jian Wu ◽  
Sidong Zeng ◽  
Linhan Yang ◽  
Yuanxin Ren ◽  
Jun Xia

The spatiotemporal characteristics of river water quality are the key indicators for ecosystem health evaluation in basins. Land use patterns, as one of the main driving forces of water quality change, affect stream water quality differently with the variations in the spatiotemporal scales. Thus, quantitative analysis of the relationship between different land cover types and river water quality contributes to a better understanding of the effects of land cover on water quality, the landscape planning of water quality protection, and integrated water resources management. Based on water quality data of 2006–2018 at 18 typical water quality stations in the Yangtze River basin, this study analyzed the spatial and temporal variation characteristics of water quality by using the single-factor water quality identification index through statistical analysis. Furthermore, the Spearman correlation analysis method was adopted to quantify the spatial-scale and temporal-scale effects of various land uses, including agricultural land (AL), forest land (FL), grassland (GL), water area (WA), and construction land (CL), on the stream water quality of dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (CODMn), and ammonia (NH3-N). The results showed that (1) in terms of temporal variation, the water quality of the river has improved significantly and the tributaries have improved more than the main rivers; (2) in the spatial variation respect, the water quality pollutants in the tributaries are significantly higher than those in the main stream, and the concentration of pollutants increases with the decrease of the distance from the estuary; and (3) the correlation between DO and land use is low, while that between NH3-N, CODMn, and land use is high. CL and AL have a negative effect on water quality, while FL and GL have a purifying effect on water quality. In particular, AL and CL have a significant positive correlation with pollutants in water. Compared with NH3-N, CODMn has a higher correlation with land use at a larger scale. The results highlight the spatial scale and seasonal dependence of land use on water quality, which can provide a scientific basis for land management and seasonal pollution control.

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (8) ◽  
pp. 1116
Mark B. Burnham ◽  
Martin J. Christ ◽  
Mary Beth Adams ◽  
William T. Peterjohn

Many factors govern the flow of deposited nitrogen (N) through forest ecosystems and into stream water. At the Fernow Experimental Forest in WV, stream water nitrate (NO3−) export from a long-term reference watershed (WS 4) increased in approximately 1980 and has remained elevated despite more recent reductions in chronic N deposition. Long-term changes in species composition may have altered forest N demand and the retention of deposited N. In particular, the abundance and importance value of Acer saccharum have increased since the 1950s, and this species is thought to have a low affinity for NO3−. We measured the relative uptake of NO3− and ammonium (NH4+) by six important temperate broadleaf tree species and estimated stand uptake of total N, NO3−, and NH4+. We then used records of stream water NO3− and stand composition to evaluate the potential impact of changes in species composition on NO3− export. Surprisingly, the tree species we examined all used both mineral N forms approximately equally. Overall, the total N taken up by the stand into aboveground tissues increased from 1959 through 2001 (30.9 to 35.2 kg N ha−1 yr−1). However, changes in species composition may have altered the net supply of NO3− in the soil since A. saccharum is associated with high nitrification rates. Increases in A. saccharum importance value could result in an increase of 3.9 kg NO3−-N ha−1 yr−1 produced via nitrification. Thus, shifting forest species composition resulted in partially offsetting changes in NO3− supply and demand, with a small net increase of 1.2 kg N ha−1 yr−1 in NO3− available for leaching. Given the persistence of high stream water NO3− export and relatively abrupt (~9 year) change in stream water NO3− concentration circa 1980, patterns of NO3− export appear to be driven by long-term deposition with a lag in the recovery of stream water NO3− after more recent declines in atmospheric N input.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (16) ◽  
pp. 2250
Núria Martínez-Carreras ◽  
Leslie Ogorzaly ◽  
Cécile Walczak ◽  
Christophe Merlin ◽  
Emmanuelle Montargès-Pelletier ◽  

F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPHs) are commonly used as indicators of faecal and viral contamination in waters. Once they enter surface waters, the exact role of suspended solids, sediments and hydro-meteorological factors in their fluvial fate and transport is poorly understood, and long-term studies (e.g., over years) are lacking. In this study, FRNAPH concentrations and genogroup distribution were measured in the Orne River (France) during two years at weekly intervals, and during four storm runoff events. Hydro-meteorological driving factors were investigated at both time scales. FRNAPH concentrations and genogroups at different depths of a riverbank sediment core were also examined to better discriminate the origin of the faecal pollution. During low flows, the FRNAPH and the suspended solid transport were decoupled and the FRNAPH concentrations were mainly correlated with the air and water temperature. During storm runoff events, the FRNAPH concentrations only showed a significant correlation with conductivity, turbidity and water discharge. Despite the uncertainty of the predictions, multi parameter regression models using hydro-meteorological variables were suitable to predict log transformed FRNAPHs’ concentrations at low flows with a standard error of 0.46. Model performance using the storm runoff events dataset was low. This study highlights different driving factors at low flows and during storm runoff events, and the need to measure at both time scales to better understand phage transport dynamics in surface water.

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