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Author(s):  
Edina Klein ◽  
Janek Weiler ◽  
Michael Wagner ◽  
Minja Čelikić ◽  
Christof M. Niemeyer ◽  
...  

Abstract Wastewater treatment using aerobic granular sludge has gained increasing interest due to its advantages compared to conventional activated sludge. The technology allows simultaneous removal of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in a single reactor system and is independent of space-intensive settling tanks. However, due to the microscale, an analysis of processes and microbial population along the radius of granules is challenging. Here, we introduce a model system for aerobic granular sludge on a small scale by using a machine-assisted microfluidic cultivation platform. With an implemented logic module that controls solenoid valves, we realized alternating oxic hunger and anoxic feeding phases for the biofilms growing within. Sampling during ongoing anoxic cultivation directly from the cultivation channel was achieved with a robotic sampling device. Analysis of the biofilms was conducted using optical coherence tomography, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and amplicon sequencing. Using this setup, it was possible to significantly enrich the percentage of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) belonging to the family Rhodocyclaceae in the community compared to the starting inoculum. With the aid of this miniature model system, it is now possible to investigate the influence of a multitude of process parameters in a highly parallel way to understand and efficiently optimize aerobic granular sludge-based wastewater treatment systems.Key points• Development of a microfluidic model to study EBPR.• Feast-famine regime enriches polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs).• Microfluidics replace sequencing batch reactors for aerobic granular sludge research.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 142-148
Author(s):  
Nico Manzonelli ◽  
Taylor Brown ◽  
Antonio Avellandea-Ruiz ◽  
William Bagley ◽  
Ian Kloo

Traditionally, a significant part of assessing information operations (IO) relies on subject matter experts’ time- intensive study of publicly available information (PAI). Now, with massive amounts PAI made available via the Internet, analysts are faced with the challenge of effectively leveraging massive quantities of PAI to draw meaningful conclusions. This paper presents an automated method for collecting and analyzing large amounts of PAI from China that could better inform assessments of IO campaigns. We implement a multi-model system that involves data acquisition via web scraping and analysis using natural language processing (NLP) techniques with a focus on topic modeling and sentiment analysis. After conducting a case study on China’s current relationship with Taiwan and comparing the results to validated research by a subject matter expert, it is clear that our methodology is valuable for drawing general conclusions and pinpointing important dialogue over a massive amount of PAI.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Isabel Beerman ◽  
Hagai Yanai ◽  
Christopher Dunn ◽  
Bongsoo Park ◽  
Christopher Coletta ◽  
...  

Age-associated changes in human hematopoiesis have been mostly recapitulated in mouse models; but not much has been explored in rats, a physiologically closer model to humans. To establish whether rat hematopoiesis closely mirrors humans’, we examined the peripheral blood of rats throughout their lifespan. Significant age-associated changes showed distinctive population shifts predictive of age. A divergence between predicted versus chronological age changes was indicative of fragility; thus, these data may be a valuable tool to identify underlying diseases or as a surrogate predictor for intervention efficacy. Notably, several blood parameters and DNA methylation alterations defined specific leverage points during aging, supporting non-linear aging effects and highlighting a roadmap for interventions at these junctures. Overall, we present a simple set of rat blood metrics that can provide a window into their health and inform the implementation of interventions in a model system physiologically relevant for humans.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1009394
Author(s):  
Yushi Yang ◽  
Francesco Turci ◽  
Erika Kague ◽  
Chrissy L. Hammond ◽  
John Russo ◽  
...  

Collective behaviour in living systems is observed across many scales, from bacteria to insects, to fish shoals. Zebrafish have emerged as a model system amenable to laboratory study. Here we report a three-dimensional study of the collective dynamics of fifty zebrafish. We observed the emergence of collective behaviour changing between ordered to randomised, upon adaptation to new environmental conditions. We quantify the spatial and temporal correlation functions of the fish and identify two length scales, the persistence length and the nearest neighbour distance, that capture the essence of the behavioural changes. The ratio of the two length scales correlates robustly with the polarisation of collective motion that we explain with a reductionist model of self–propelled particles with alignment interactions.


PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12770
Author(s):  
Jason S. Presnell ◽  
Elizabeth Wirsching ◽  
Virginia M. Weis

Exaiptasia diaphana, a tropical sea anemone known as Aiptasia, is a tractable model system for studying the cellular, physiological, and ecological characteristics of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Aiptasia is widely used as a proxy for coral-algal symbiosis, since both Aiptasia and corals form a symbiosis with members of the family Symbiodiniaceae. Laboratory strains of Aiptasia can be maintained in both the symbiotic (Sym) and aposymbiotic (Apo, without algae) states. Apo Aiptasia allow for the study of the influence of symbiosis on different biological processes and how different environmental conditions impact symbiosis. A key feature of Aiptasia is the ease of propagating both Sym and Apo individuals in the laboratory through a process called pedal laceration. In this form of asexual reproduction, small pieces of tissue rip away from the pedal disc of a polyp, then these lacerates eventually develop tentacles and grow into new polyps. While pedal laceration has been described in the past, details of how tentacles are formed or how symbiotic and nutritional state influence this process are lacking. Here we describe the stages of development in both Sym and Apo pedal lacerates. Our results show that Apo lacerates develop tentacles earlier than Sym lacerates, while over the course of 20 days, Sym lacerates end up with a greater number of tentacles. We describe both tentacle and mesentery patterning during lacerate development and show that they form through a single pattern in early stages regardless of symbiotic state. In later stages of development, Apo lacerate tentacles and mesenteries progress through a single pattern, while variable patterns were observed in Sym lacerates. We discuss how Aiptasia lacerate mesentery and tentacle patterning differs from oral disc regeneration and how these patterning events compare to postembryonic development in Nematostella vectensis, another widely-used sea anemone model. In addition, we demonstrate that Apo lacerates supplemented with a putative nutrient source developed an intermediate number of tentacles between un-fed Apo and Sym lacerates. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that pedal lacerates progress through two different, putatively nutrient-dependent phases of development. In the early phase, the lacerate, regardless of symbiotic state, preferentially uses or relies on nutrients carried over from the adult polyp. These resources are sufficient for lacerates to develop into a functional polyp. In the late phase of development, continued growth and tentacle formation is supported by nutrients obtained from either symbionts and/or the environment through heterotrophic feeding. Finally, we advocate for the implementation of pedal lacerates as an additional resource in the Aiptasia model system toolkit for studies of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Yajuan Wang ◽  
Huizhi Zhu ◽  
Jiabing Tong ◽  
Zegeng Li

Objectives. This study sought to examine whether ligustrazine was capable of inhibiting phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity and improving lung function in a rat model of asthma. Methods. Rats were initially sensitized using ovalbumin (OVA) and then were challenged daily with aerosolized OVA beginning 14 days later (30 min/day) to generate a rat model of asthma. Changes in airway function following methacholine (MCh) injection were evaluated by monitoring lung resistance ( R L ) and dynamic lung compliance ( C dyn ) values using an AniRes2005 analytic system. In addition, serum IgE was measured via ELISA, while PDE expression was evaluated via qPCR and western blotting. Key Findings. Ligustrazine significantly impaired allergen-induced lung hyperresponsivity and inflammation in this asthma model system. Ligustrazine treatment was also associated with reduced expression of PDEs including PDE4 in the lungs of these rats. Conclusions. Ligustrazine suppresses airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsivity in this rat model system, and these changes are associated with decreased PDE expression at the protein and mRNA levels.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Guan-Hong Wang ◽  
Robert M. Brucker

AbstractA germ-free rearing system is a crucial method for host–microbiota interactions using Nasonia as a model system. The previous rearing media in 2012 introduced toxic factors like bleach and antibiotics, required significant effort and volume of media preparation, and the rearing protocols in 2012 and 2016 often resulted in embryos, larvae, and enclosing pupae drowning, underfed, or desiccating. In this work, we optimize the germ-free rearing media that excludes the toxic factors and provide a substrate for the developing animals to have constant access to media without the risk of drowning or desiccation. The new process resulted in an increase in full maturation of larvae to adults from 33 to 65%, with no effect on the rate of growth or final adult size. This significantly improves the applicability of germ-free rearing of Nasonia and potentially other parasitoids.


Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 136
Author(s):  
Isa de Boer ◽  
Ceri J. Richards ◽  
Christoffer Åberg

Drug delivery using nano-sized carriers holds tremendous potential for curing a range of diseases. The internalisation of nanoparticles by cells, however, remains poorly understood, restricting the possibility for optimising entrance into target cells, avoiding off-target cells and evading clearance. The majority of nanoparticle cell uptake studies have been performed in the presence of only the particle of interest; here, we instead report measurements of uptake when the cells are exposed to two different types of nanoparticles at the same time. We used carboxylated polystyrene nanoparticles of two different sizes as a model system and exposed them to HeLa cells in the presence of a biomolecular corona. Using flow cytometry, we quantify the uptake at both average and individual cell level. Consistent with previous literature, we show that uptake of the larger particles is impeded in the presence of competing smaller particles and, conversely, that uptake of the smaller particles is promoted by competing larger particles. While the mechanism(s) underlying these observations remain(s) undetermined, we are partly able to restrain the likely possibilities. In the future, these effects could conceivably be used to enhance uptake of nano-sized particles used for drug delivery, by administering two different types of particles at the same time.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Justina Versockienė ◽  
Neda Jonutytė-Trembo ◽  
Vitalij Novickij ◽  
Eglė Lastauskienė

Abstract Background Prions are proteinaceous infectious particles that act as pathogens and cause the development of lethal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and other animals. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widespread model system in which mechanisms of prion induction and elimination have been identified. New and safe substances and methods are being sought to cure cells of prion proteins. It is particularly important that by treating cells from prions and restoring them from the [PSI+] to the [psi−] form, the primary growth of the cells is restored. One of the main objectives of this study was to determine the growth dynamics of S. cerevisiae cells with different [PSI+] prion variants, cells that have lost [PSI+] prion variants, and cells that never had [PSI+] prion variants. Results In this research, we applied GuHCl and combined GuHCl and PEF treatment against [PSI+] prion. We evaluated cells culture growth dynamics – optical density and doubling time and determined that method of [PSI+] prion elimination does not affect cell doubling time. Also, we found that both elimination methods affect the optical density reached by [psi−] cells. However, the cells in which the [PSI+] prion has been eliminated by GuHCl alone are able to reach the same optical density as unaffected [psi−] cells and higher optical density than the affected [psi−] cells by GuHCl alone. Conclusions These findings indicate the potential long-term positive effect of [PSI+] prion on cell growth, which persists after [PSI+] removal.


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