total nitrogen
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2022 ◽  
Vol 210 ◽  
pp. 105898
Xin Zhang ◽  
Meng-Jia Li ◽  
Chao Yang ◽  
Lin-Qing Zhan ◽  
Wei Wu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 204 ◽  
pp. 111940
Hao Lu ◽  
Liuyan Yang ◽  
Yifan Fan ◽  
Xin Qian ◽  
Tong Liu

Pedosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 39-48
Pengfei DANG ◽  
Congfeng LI ◽  
Tiantian HUANG ◽  
Chen LU ◽  
Yajun LI ◽  

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 208
Małgorzata Szostek ◽  
Ewa Szpunar-Krok ◽  
Renata Pawlak ◽  
Jadwiga Stanek-Tarkowska ◽  
Anna Ilek

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of conventional, simplified, and organic farming systems on changes in the content of soil organic carbon, organic matter fractions, total nitrogen, and the enzymatic activity. The research was conducted from 2016–2018 on arable land in the south-eastern part of Poland. The selected soils were cultivated in conventional tillage (C_Ts), simplified tillage (S_Ts), and organic farming (O_Fs) systems. The analyses were performed in soil from the soil surface layers (up to 25 cm depth) of the experimental plots. The highest mean contents of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and organic matter fractions were determined in soils subjected to the simplified tillage system throughout the experimental period. During the study period, organic carbon concentration on surface soil layers under simplified tillage systems was 31 and 127% higher than the soil under conventional tillage systems and organic farming systems, respectively. Also, the total nitrogen concentration in those soils was more than 40% and 120% higher than conventional tillage systems and organic farming systems, respectively. Moreover, these soils were characterised by a progressive decline in SOC and Nt resources over the study years. There was no significant effect of the analysed tillage systems on the C:N ratio. The tillage systems induced significant differences in the activity of the analysed soil enzymes, i.e., dehydrogenase (DH) and catalase (CAT). The highest DH activity throughout the experiment was recorded in the O_Fs soils, and the mean value of this parameter was in the range of 6.01–6.11 μmol TPF·kg−1·h−1. There were no significant differences in the CAT values between the variants of the experiment. The results confirm that, regardless of other treatments, such as the use of organic fertilisers, tillage has a negative impact on the content of SOC and organic matter fractions in the O_Fs system. All simplifications in tillage reducing the interference with the soil surface layer and the use of organic fertilisers contribute to improvement of soil properties and enhancement of biological activity, which helps to maintain its productivity and fertility.

Jiachao Yao ◽  
Yu Mei ◽  
Junhui Jiang ◽  
Guanghua Xia ◽  
Jun Chen

In this work, an electrochemical method for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN, including ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite) removal from wastewater using a divided electrolysis cell was developed, and its process optimization was investigated. This process could effectively relieve the common issue of NO3−/NO2− over-reduction or NH4+ over-oxidation by combining cathodic NO3−/NO2− reduction with anodic COD/NH4+ oxidation. The activity and selectivity performances toward pollutant removal of the electrode materials were investigated by electrochemical measurements and constant potential electrolysis, suggesting that Ti electrode exhibited the best NO3−/NO2− reduction and N2 production efficiencies. In-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study the in-situ electrochemical information of pollutants conversion on electrode surfaces and propose their reaction pathways. The effects of main operating parameters (i.e., initial pH value, Cl− concentration, and current density) on the removal efficiencies of COD and TN were studied. Under optimal conditions, COD and TN removal efficiencies from simulated wastewater reached 92.7% and 82.0%, respectively. Additionally, reaction kinetics were investigated to describe the COD and TN removal. Results indicated that COD removal followed pseudo-first-order model; meanwhile, TN removal followed zero-order kinetics with a presence of NH4+ and then followed pseudo-first-order kinetics when NH4+ was completely removed. For actual pharmaceutical wastewater treatment, 79.1% COD and 87.0% TN were removed after 120 min electrolysis; and no NH4+ or NO2− was detected.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 211
Lei Hou ◽  
Zhongyuan Zhou ◽  
Ruyan Wang ◽  
Jianxin Li ◽  
Fei Dong ◽  

In recent years, freshwater resource contamination by non-point source pollution has become particularly prominent in China. To control non-point source (NPS) pollution, it is important to estimate NPS pollution exports, identify sources of pollution, and analyze the pollution characteristics. As such, in this study, we established the modified export coefficient model based on rainfall and terrain to investigate the pollution sources and characteristics of non-point source total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) throughout the Huangqian Reservoir watershed—which serves as an important potable water source for the main tributary of the lower Yellow River. The results showed that: (1) In 2018, the non-point source total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads in the Huangqian Reservoir basin were 707.09 t and 114.42 t, respectively. The contribution ratios to TN export were, from high to low, rural life (33.58%), farmland (32.68%), other land use types (20.08%), and livestock and poultry breeding (13.67%). The contribution ratios to TP export were, from high to low, rural life (61.19%), livestock and poultry breeding (21.65%), farmland (12.79%), and other land use types (4.38%). The non-point source pollution primarily originated from the rural life of the water source protection zone. (2) Non-point source TN and TP pollution loads and load intensities showed significantly different spatial distribution patterns throughout the water source protection area. Specifically, their load intensities and loads were the largest in the second-class protected zone, which is the key source area of non-point source pollution. (3) When considering whether to invest in agricultural land fertilizer control or rural domestic sewage, waste, and livestock manure pollution control, the latter is demonstrably more effective. Thus, in addition to putting low-grade control on agricultural fertilizer loss, to rapidly and effectively improve potable water quality, non-point source pollution should, to a larger extent, also be controlled through measures such as establishing household biogas digesters, introducing village sewage treatment plants, and improving the recovery rate of rural domestic garbage. The research results discussed herein provide a theoretical basis for formulating a reasonable and effective protection plan for the Huangqian Reservoir water source and can potentially be used to do the same for other similar freshwater resources.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 197
Xiuying Yao ◽  
Dandan Yan ◽  
Jingtai Li ◽  
Yao Liu ◽  
Yufeng Sheng ◽  

The invasion and expansion of Spartina alterniflora in coastal salt marsh wetlands have greatly affected the material cycle of the ecosystem. A total of 372 topsoil samples were collected from 124 sites representing two land-cover types by implementing an unprecedented high sampling density study in the Dafeng Milu National Nature Reserve. Classical statistics and geostatistics were used to quantify soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) spatial distribution. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to detect correlations between environmental factors, SOC, and TN. The results showed that SOC and TN have moderate variability. The spatial distributions of SOC and TN were similar, and the highest values were observed in the southwest of the study area. In different land cover types, the SOC and TN in the vegetation coverage areas with Spartina alterniflora as the dominant species were significantly higher than those in bare land. RDA showed that TN and aboveground biomass significantly affected the spatial distribution of SOC, while SOC and AGB dominated the spatial distribution of TN.

S Chowdhury ◽  
D Chakraborty ◽  
MK Rahman

Fifteen soil samples (0-15cm depth) and fifteen betel leaf samples from Bara Moheshkhali, Choto Moheshkhali, Hoanak, Kalmarchora, Shaplapur union of Moheshkhali upazila, Cox’s Bazar district were collected on December-January (2020-2021). It was collected for the purpose of evaluating the color, particle density, moisture content, texture, pH, EC and organic matter content of soils and total nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and sulfur of the soils and total protein content, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulfur of leaves. Maximum sampled soil was containing yellowish red color when moist and showed brown color when dried. Some of them were flood plain soil and that’s why showed grey color during dry and moist condition. Mean particle density was 2.49 g/cm3 and mean moisture content was 13.95%. Average sand, silt and clay were 65.08%, 18.56% and 19.26%, respectively. The texture of the soils was sandy loam to clay loam. The sand was by far the dominant fraction in the soils. Mean pH value was 5.63, organic matter was 0.30% and EC was 99.38μS/cm. Mean total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulfur of the soils were 0.04, 0.46, 0.25 and 0.26%, respectively. The mean concentration of protein, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulfur in the betel leaf samples were 20.56, 3.29, 0.39, 0.79 and 0.20%, respectively. This investigation focuses on the fertility status and physico-chemical properties of soil in betel leaf garden of only hilly island of Bangladesh, Moheshkhali. J. Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2021, 7(1): 25-32

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