gene mutations
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
F. Shafique ◽  
S. Ali ◽  
T. Almansouri ◽  
F. Van Eeden ◽  
N. Shafi ◽  

Abstract A group of inherited blood defects is known as Thalassemia is among the world’s most prevalent hemoglobinopathies. Thalassemias are of two types such as Alpha and Beta Thalassemia. The cause of these defects is gene mutations leading to low levels and/or malfunctioning α and β globin proteins, respectively. In some cases, one of these proteins may be completely absent. α and β globin chains form a globin fold or pocket for heme (Fe++) attachment to carry oxygen. Genes for alpha and beta-globin proteins are present in the form of a cluster on chromosome 16 and 11, respectively. Different globin genes are used at different stages in the life course. During embryonic and fetal developmental stages, γ globin proteins partner with α globin and are later replaced by β globin protein. Globin chain imbalances result in hemolysis and impede erythropoiesis. Individuals showing mild symptoms include carriers of alpha thalassemia or the people bearing alpha or beta-thalassemia trait. Alpha thalassemia causes conditions like hemolytic anemia or fatal hydrops fetalis depending upon the severity of the disease. Beta thalassemia major results in hemolytic anemia, growth retardation, and skeletal aberrations in early childhood. Children affected by this disorder need regular blood transfusions throughout their lives. Patients that depend on blood transfusion usually develop iron overload that causes other complications in the body systems like renal or hepatic impairment therefore, thalassemias are now categorized as a syndrome. The only cure for Thalassemias would be a bone marrow transplant, or gene therapy with currently no significant success rate. A thorough understanding of the molecular basis of this syndrome may provide novel insights and ideas for its treatment, as scientists have still been unable to find a permanent cure for this deadly disease after more than 87 years since it is first described in 1925.

2022 ◽  
pp. 088532822110658
Keying Xue ◽  
Bingqing Luo ◽  
Xiaoqing Li ◽  
Weixian Deng ◽  
Chunyan Zeng ◽  

This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of genetic testing using circulating tumor cells (CTCs) instead of tumor tissues in lung adenocarcinoma to break through its limitation. Separation system for epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and Vimentin expressing CTCs was constructed and used to capture CTCs in the blood samples of 57 patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Genetic mutations of genes involved in targeted therapies were detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in tissues from these patients. Blood CTC samples with the gene mutations identified by tissue-NGS were selected and corresponding gene mutations were detected by Sanger sequencing. The specificity of the CTC separation system was 95.48% and the sensitivity was 90.85%. The average number of CTCs in the blood of patients with lung adenocarcinoma was 12.47/7.5 mL. Comparison of the tissue-NGS with the CTC-Sanger sequencing showed that the consistencies of genetic mutations of EGFR ( n = 24), KRAS ( n = 9), TP53 ( n = 19), BRAF ( n = 1), ERBB2 ( n = 2), and PIK3CA ( n = 3) were 92.31%, 75.00%, 86.36%, 50.00%, 66.67%, and 75.00%, with an overall consistency of 84.06%. The CTC separation system established in this study shows high specificity and sensitivity. CTCs can be used as a suitable alternative to tumor tissues that are difficult to obtain in clinical practice and overcome the difficulties in tumor tissue collection, which is of significance in guiding clinical medication and individualized treatment with significant clinical application value in terms of genetic testing for targeted therapies in tumor treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
Ruth Nussinov ◽  
Chung-Jung Tsai ◽  
Hyunbum Jang

This review offers why same-gene mutations can lead to cancer and neurodevelopmental disorders and why a high risk of cancer.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 128
Keiichi Asano ◽  
Anna Cantalupo ◽  
Lauriane Sedes ◽  
Francesco Ramirez

About 20% of individuals afflicted with thoracic aortic disease have single-gene mutations that predispose the vessel to aneurysm formation and/or acute aortic dissection often without associated syndromic features. One widely studied exception is Marfan syndrome (MFS) in which mutations in the extracellular protein fibrillin-1 cause additional abnormalities in the heart, eyes, and skeleton. Mouse models of MFS have been instrumental in delineating major cellular and molecular determinants of thoracic aortic disease. In spite of research efforts, translating experimental findings from MFS mice into effective drug therapies for MFS patients remains an unfulfilled promise. Here, we describe a series of studies that have implicated endothelial dysfunction and improper angiotensin II and TGFβ signaling in driving thoracic aortic disease in MFS mice. We also discuss how these investigations have influenced the way we conceptualized possible new therapies to slow down or even halt aneurysm progression in this relatively common connective tissue disorder.

Phan Thị Xinh ◽  
Ho Quoc Chuong ◽  
Nguyen Thi Thanh Ha ◽  
Huynh Duong Bich Tram ◽  
Cao Van Dong ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sophia Q. Song ◽  
Andrea Gropman ◽  
Robert W. Benjamin ◽  
Francie Mitchell ◽  
Michaela R. Brooks ◽  

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of autosomal recessive disorders in which enzymes in the cortisol biosynthesis pathways are disrupted by gene mutations. The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency, is characterized by decreased cortisol and aldosterone synthesis and excessive androgen production. Adult height is often compromised in affected patients. Intellectual capability remains intact in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency, based on previous studies. 47,XXY (KS) is a sex chromosomal aneuploidy that manifests with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, tall stature, and variable intellectual and behavioral dysfunction. This clinical report describes an infant with 21-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia and 47,XXY. The results of his neurodevelopmental, endocrine, neurological, and physical therapy evaluations during his first 22 months are included and were normal. This is the first published case investigating the neurodevelopmental profile of a patient with the combination of these two genetic disorders.

2022 ◽  
Kyrah M Thumbadoo ◽  
Birger V Dieriks ◽  
Helen C Murray ◽  
Molly EV Swanson ◽  
Ji Hun Yoo ◽  

Mutations in the UBQLN2 gene cause X-linked dominant amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and/or frontotemporal dementia (FTD) characterised by ubiquilin 2 aggregates in neurons of the motor cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and spinal cord. However, ubiquilin 2 neuropathology is also seen in sporadic and familial ALS or FTD cases not caused by UBQLN2 mutations, particularly C9ORF72-linked cases. This makes the mechanistic role of ubiquilin 2 mutations and the value of ubiquilin 2 pathology for predicting genotype unclear. Here we examine a cohort of 31 genotypically diverse ALS cases with or without FTD, including four cases with UBQLN2 mutations (resulting in p.P497H, p.P506S, and two cases with p.T487I). Using double-, triple-, and six-label fluorescent immunohistochemistry, we mapped the co-localisation of ubiquilin 2 with phosphorylated TDP-43 (pTDP-43), dipeptide repeat aggregates, and p62, in the hippocampus of controls (n=5), or ALS with or without FTD in sporadic (n=19), unknown familial (n=3), SOD1-linked (n=1), C9ORF72-linked (n=4), and UBQLN2-linked (n=4) cases. We differentiate between i) ubiquilin 2 aggregation together with, or driven by, pTDP-43 or dipeptide repeat proteins, and ii) ubiquilin 2 self-aggregation driven by UBQLN2 gene mutations. Together we describe a hippocampal protein aggregation signature that fully distinguishes mutant from wildtype ubiquilin 2 in ALS with or without FTD, whereby mutant ubiquilin 2 is more prone than wildtype to aggregate independently of driving factors. This neuropathological signature can be used to assess the pathogenicity of UBQLN2 gene mutations and to understand the mechanisms of UBQLN2-linked disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2114886119
Wren E. Michaels ◽  
Cecilia Pena-Rasgado ◽  
Rusudan Kotaria ◽  
Robert J. Bridges ◽  
Michelle L. Hastings

CFTR gene mutations that result in the introduction of premature termination codons (PTCs) are common in cystic fibrosis (CF). This mutation type causes a severe form of the disease, likely because of low CFTR messenger RNA (mRNA) expression as a result of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, as well as the production of a nonfunctional, truncated CFTR protein. Current therapeutics for CF, which target residual protein function, are less effective in patients with these types of mutations due in part to low CFTR protein levels. Splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), designed to induce skipping of exons in order to restore the mRNA open reading frame, have shown therapeutic promise preclinically and clinically for a number of diseases. We hypothesized that ASO-mediated skipping of CFTR exon 23 would recover CFTR activity associated with terminating mutations in the exon, including CFTR p.W1282X, the fifth most common mutation in CF. Here, we show that CFTR lacking the amino acids encoding exon 23 is partially functional and responsive to corrector and modulator drugs currently in clinical use. ASO-induced exon 23 skipping rescued CFTR expression and chloride current in primary human bronchial epithelial cells isolated from a homozygote CFTR-W1282X patient. These results support the use of ASOs in treating CF patients with CFTR class I mutations in exon 23 that result in unstable CFTR mRNA and truncations of the CFTR protein.

Yonglin Yi ◽  
Zhengang Qiu ◽  
Zifu Yao ◽  
Anqi Lin ◽  
Yimin Qin ◽  

Platinum-based chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, due to patients developing a resistance to the drug, most experience relapse and their cancer can become untreatable. A large number of recent studies have found that platinum drug sensitivity of various cancers is affected by specific gene mutations, and so with this study, we attempted to find an effective genetic biomarker in SCLC patients that indicates their sensitivity to platinum-based drugs. To do this, we first analyzed whole exome sequencing (WES) and clinical data from two cohorts to find gene mutations related to the prognosis and to the platinum drug sensitivity of SCLC patients. The cohorts used were the Zhujiang cohort (N = 138) and the cohort reported by George et al. (N = 101). We then carried out gene set variation analysis (GSVA) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to investigate possible molecular mechanisms through which these gene mutations affect patient prognosis and platinum drug sensitivity. We found that for SCLC patients, CAMSAP1 mutation can activate anti-tumor immunity, mediate tumor cell apoptosis, inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), improve prognosis, and improve platinum drug sensitivity, suggesting that CAMSAP1 mutation may be a potential biomarker indicating platinum drug sensitivity and patient prognosis in SCLC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 329-335
Panagiotis Halvatsiotis ◽  
Sofia Vassiliu ◽  
Panagiotis Koulouvaris ◽  
Kalliopi Chatzantonaki ◽  
Konstantinos Asonitis ◽  

The aim of this study is to investigate the circulating variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from Athens and from rural areas in Greece during July and August 2021. We also present a rapid review of literature regarding significant SARS-CoV-2 mutations and their impact on public health. A total of 2500 nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected from suspected COVID-19 cases (definition by WHO 2021b). Viral nucleic acid extraction was implemented using an automatic extractor and the RNA recovered underwent qRT-PCR in order to characterize the specimens as positive or negative for SARS-CoV-2. The positive specimens were then used to identify specific Spike gene mutations and characterize the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. For this step, various kits were utilized. From the 2500 clinical specimens, 220 were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 indicating a prevalence of 8.8% among suspected cases. The RT-PCR Ct (Cycle threshold) Value ranged from 19 to 25 which corresponds to medium to high copy numbers of the virus in the positive samples. From the 220 positive specimens 148 (67.3%) were from Athens and 72 (32.7%) from Greek rural areas. As far as the Spike mutations investigated: N501Y appeared in all the samples, D614G mutation appeared in 212 (96.4%) samples with a prevalence of 87.2% in Athens and 98.6% in the countryside, E484K had a prevalence of 10.8% and 12.5% in Athens and the rural areas, respectively. K417N was found in 18 (12.2%) samples from Athens and four (5.6%) from the countryside, P681H was present in 51 (34.5%) Athenian specimens and 14 (19.4%) specimens from rural areas, HV69-70 was carried in 32.4% and 19.4% of the samples from Athens and the countryside, respectively. P681R had a prevalence of 87.2% in Athens and 98.6% in rural areas, and none of the specimens carried the L452R mutation. 62 (28.2%) samples carried the N501Y, P681H, D614G and HV69-70 mutations simultaneously and the corresponding variant was characterized as the Alpha (UK) variant (B 1.1.7). Only six (2.7%) samples from the center of Athens had the N501Y, E484K, K417N and D614G mutations simultaneously and the virus responsible was characterized as the Beta (South African) variant (B 1.351). Our study explored the SARS-CoV-2 variants using RT-PCR in a representative cohort of samples collected from Greece in July and August 2021. The prevalent mutations identified were N501Y (100%), D614G (96.4%), P681R (90.1%) and the variants identified were the Delta (90.1%), Alpha (28.2%) and Beta (2.7%).

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