Gene Mutations
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Maria Khan ◽  
Chaudhry Altaf ◽  
Hamid Saeed Malik ◽  
Muhammad Abdul Naeem ◽  
Aamna Latif

Background. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is referred to as formation of clots in a deep vein or lodging of thrombus towards the lungs which could be fatal yet preventable. The risk of developing VTE can be increased by various factors. Where there are innumerable acquired causes, the possibility of inherited thrombophilia cannot be ignored. In view of this, we have evaluated all patients with venous thromboembolism for inherited thrombophilia. Objective. To evaluate the frequencies of antithrombin (AT) deficiency, protein C and S deficiencies, Factor V Leiden, and prothrombin gene mutations in patients harboring venous thromboembolism. Materials and Methods. A study comprising of 880 patients who were presented with manifestations of venous thromboembolism was conducted from July 2016 to June 2017. A blood sample collected from patients was screened for thrombophilia defects encompassing AT, protein C and S deficiencies, Factor V Leiden, and prothrombin gene mutations. All acquired causes of thrombosis were excluded. Results. Of 880 patients who underwent screening for thrombophilia, 182 patients demonstrated VTE history. Their age ranged from 1 to 58 years. Males constituted a predominant group. About 45 (24.7%) patients had evidence of heritable thrombophilia. Of these, 20 (10.9%) had AT deficiency, 9 (4.9%) had Factor V Leiden mutation, 6 (3.2%) had protein C deficiency, whereas protein S deficiency and prothrombin gene mutation both were found in 5 (2.7%) patients. Conclusion. Our study illustrated the highest frequency of antithrombin deficiency among other investigated thrombophilia defects.

Changlong He ◽  
Chengcheng Wei ◽  
Jun Wen ◽  
Shi Chen ◽  
Ling Chen ◽  

Abstract Background By comparing the detection rate and type of targeted gene mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) between amplification refractory mutation system PCR (ARMS-PCR) and next-generation sequencing (NGS), the characteristics and application advantages of non-small cell lung cancer detection are explained, providing a basis for clinicians to effectively select the corresponding detection methods. Methods and materials The cases of targeted genes for lung cancer were selected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2016 to October 2020. A sample of 4467 cases was selected, and they were diagnosed with NSCLC by Pathological biopsy. Sample sources include surgical resection, bronchoscope biopsy, metastatic biopsy, blood, sputum, cytology of pleural effusion. Among them, 3665 cases were detected by ARMS-PCR technique, and 802 cases were detected by NGS technology. The detection rate and type of ARMS-PCR and NGS techniques for EGFR gene mutations (including exon 18, exon 19, exon 20, exon 21 and so on) in different NSCLC samples were compared, respectively. Results The total mutation rate of EGFR gene detected by ARMS-PCR was 47.6% while 42.4% detected by NGS which indicated that there was a significant difference between the two methods in detecting total mutation of EGFR gene (P < 0.001). In different exons, the EGFR mutation rate detected by two methods is various. The mutation rate of exon 19 by ARMS-PCR detection was evidently higher than that of NGS detection, while the mutation rate of exons 20 and 21 by ARMS-PCR detection were statistically significantly lower than that of NGS detection. Moreover, the multiple mutation rate detected by NGS was 16.3% which was much higher than the 2.7% detected by ARMS-PCR with statistically different. Conclusion It showed that NGS could direct the drug use for the resistant patients. However, some rare loci could be detected by NGS but the importance and directed meaning are still unknown and the number of rare mutations is rare too. Further research on new biomarkers and technique is still needed for early diagnosis, directing drug use and assessing the therapy prognosis.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2867
Christie Mitri ◽  
Himanshu Sharma ◽  
Harriet Corvol ◽  
Olivier Tabary

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common of rare hereditary diseases in Caucasians, and it is estimated to affect 75,000 patients globally. CF is a complex disease due to the multiplicity of mutations found in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene causing the CFTR protein to become dysfunctional. Correctors and potentiators have demonstrated good clinical outcomes for patients with specific gene mutations; however, there are still patients for whom those treatments are not suitable and require alternative CFTR-independent strategies. Although CFTR is the main chloride channel in the lungs, others could, e.g., anoctamin-1 (ANO1 or TMEM16A), compensate for the deficiency of CFTR. This review summarizes the current knowledge on calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) ANO1 and presents ANO1 as an exciting target in CF.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 5328
Kathryn A. Skelding ◽  
Lisa F. Lincz

Since their introduction several years ago, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi) have become the standard of care for breast and gynaecological cancers with BRCA gene mutations. Given that PARPi act by exploiting defective DNA repair mechanisms within tumour cells, they should be ideally suited to combatting haematological malignancies where these pathways are notoriously defective, even though BRCA mutations are rare. To date, despite promising results in vitro, few clinical trials in humans for haematological malignancies have been performed, and additional investigation is required. Paradoxically, secondary haematological malignancies have arisen in patients after treatment with PARPi, raising concerns about their potential use as therapies for any blood or bone marrow-related disorders. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the biological, pre-clinical, and clinical evidence for and against treating individual haematological malignancies with approved and experimental PARPi. We conclude that the promise of effective treatment still exists, but remains limited by the lack of investigation into useful biomarkers unique to these malignancies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Maryl Lambros ◽  
Ximo Pechuan-Jorge ◽  
Daniel Biro ◽  
Kenny Ye ◽  
Aviv Bergman

Generalists and specialists are types of strategies individuals can employ that can evolve in fluctuating environments depending on the extremity and periodicity of the fluctuation. To evaluate whether the evolution of specialists or generalists occurs under environmental fluctuation regimes with different levels of periodicity, 24 populations of Escherichia coli underwent laboratory evolution with temperatures alternating between 15 and 43°C in three fluctuation regimes: two periodic regimes dependent on culture's cell density and one random (non-periodic) regime with no such dependency, serving as a control. To investigate contingencies on the genetic background, we seeded our experiment with two different strains. After the experiment, growth rate measurements at the two temperatures showed that the evolution of specialists was favored in the random regime, while generalists were favored in the periodic regimes. Whole genome sequencing demonstrated that several gene mutations were selected in parallel in the evolving populations with some dependency on the starting genetic background. Given the genes mutated, we hypothesized that the driving force behind the observed adaptations is the restoration of the internal physiology of the starting strains' unstressed states at 37°C, which may be a means of improving fitness in the new environments. Phenotypic array measurements supported our hypothesis by demonstrating a tendency of the phenotypic response of the evolved strains to move closer to the starting strains' response at the optimum of 37°C, especially for strains classified as generalists.

Rachael E. Quick ◽  
Luke D. Buck ◽  
Sweta Parab ◽  
Zane R. Tolbert ◽  
Ryota L. Matsuoka

The zebrafish is a valuable vertebrate model to study cardiovascular formation and function due to the facile visualization and rapid development of the circulatory system in its externally growing embryos. Despite having distinct advantages, zebrafish have paralogs of many important genes, making reverse genetics approaches inefficient since generating animals bearing multiple gene mutations requires substantial efforts. Here, we present a simple and robust synthetic CRISPR RNA/Cas9-based mutagenesis approach for generating biallelic F0 zebrafish knockouts. Using a dual-guide synthetic CRISPR RNA/Cas9 ribonucleoprotein (dgRNP) system, we compared the efficiency of biallelic gene disruptions following the injections of one, two, and three dgRNPs per gene into the cytoplasm or yolk. We show that simultaneous cytoplasmic injections of three distinct dgRNPs per gene into one-cell stage embryos resulted in the most efficient and consistent biallelic gene disruptions. Importantly, this triple dgRNP approach enables efficient inactivation of cell autonomous and cell non-autonomous gene function, likely due to the low mosaicism of biallelic disruptions. In support of this finding, we provide evidence that the F0 animals generated by this method fully phenocopied the endothelial and peri-vascular defects observed in corresponding stable mutant homozygotes. Moreover, this approach faithfully recapitulated the trunk vessel phenotypes resulting from the genetic interaction between two vegfr2 zebrafish paralogs. Mechanistically, investigation of genome editing and mRNA decay indicates that the combined mutagenic actions of three dgRNPs per gene lead to an increased probability of frameshift mutations, enabling efficient biallelic gene disruptions. Therefore, our approach offers a highly robust genetic platform to quickly assess novel and redundant gene function in F0 zebrafish.

Xiaona Xie ◽  
Yemeng Tang ◽  
Jueqi Sheng ◽  
Pingping Shu ◽  
Xiayan Zhu ◽  

Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) is a leading cause of mobidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, there was a shift in the treatment pattern of immune therapy in LUSC patients; merely a small number of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at advanced stages respond well to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy, and tumor mutation burden (TMB) is a valuable independent indicator of response to immune therapy. However, specific gene mutations and their relationship with TMB and tumor-infiltrating immunocytes in LUSC are still unclear. In the present paper, our team analyzed the somatically mutated genes from the ICGC (International Cancer Genome Consortium) and TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) datasets and discovered that 15 frequent gene mutations occurred in both cohorts, including ZFHX4, MUC16, FLG, TP53, LRP1B, TTN, SYNE1, RYR2, CSMD3, USH2A, MUC17, DNAH5, FAM135B, COL11A1, and RYR3. Interestingly, only mutated TTN was related to higher TMB and prognostic outcomes among the 15 mutated genes. Moreover, according to the CIBERSORT algorithm, we revealed that TTN mutation enhanced the antitumor immune response. In conclusion, TTN may have important clinical implications for relevant immune therapy of lung squamous carcinoma.

Bone Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Lei Qin ◽  
Tailin He ◽  
Sheng Chen ◽  
Dazhi Yang ◽  
Weihong Yi ◽  

AbstractMechanotransduction is a fundamental ability that allows living organisms to receive and respond to physical signals from both the external and internal environments. The mechanotransduction process requires a range of special proteins termed mechanotransducers to convert mechanical forces into biochemical signals in cells. The Piezo proteins are mechanically activated nonselective cation channels and the largest plasma membrane ion channels reported thus far. The regulation of two family members, Piezo1 and Piezo2, has been reported to have essential functions in mechanosensation and transduction in different organs and tissues. Recently, the predominant contributions of the Piezo family were reported to occur in the skeletal system, especially in bone development and mechano-stimulated bone homeostasis. Here we review current studies focused on the tissue-specific functions of Piezo1 and Piezo2 in various backgrounds with special highlights on their importance in regulating skeletal cell mechanotransduction. In this review, we emphasize the diverse functions of Piezo1 and Piezo2 and related signaling pathways in osteoblast lineage cells and chondrocytes. We also summarize our current understanding of Piezo channel structures and the key findings about PIEZO gene mutations in human diseases.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 1639
Hildegard Kehrer-Sawatzki ◽  
Ute Wahlländer ◽  
David N. Cooper ◽  
Victor-Felix Mautner

Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and type 1 NF1 deletions often exhibit more severe clinical manifestations than patients with intragenic NF1 gene mutations, including facial dysmorphic features, overgrowth, severe global developmental delay, severe autistic symptoms and considerably reduced cognitive abilities, all of which are detectable from a very young age. Type 1 NF1 deletions encompass 1.4 Mb and are associated with the loss of 14 protein-coding genes, including NF1 and SUZ12. Atypical NF1 deletions, which do not encompass all 14 protein-coding genes located within the type 1 NF1 deletion region, have the potential to contribute to the delineation of the genotype/phenotype relationship in patients with NF1 microdeletions. Here, we review all atypical NF1 deletions reported to date as well as the clinical phenotype observed in the patients concerned. We compare these findings with those of a newly identified atypical NF1 deletion of 698 kb which, in addition to the NF1 gene, includes five genes located centromeric to NF1. The atypical NF1 deletion in this patient does not include the SUZ12 gene but does encompass CRLF3. Comparative analysis of such atypical NF1 deletions suggests that SUZ12 hemizygosity is likely to contribute significantly to the reduced cognitive abilities, severe global developmental delay and facial dysmorphisms observed in patients with type 1 NF1 deletions.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 5233
Jucimara Colombo ◽  
Marina Gobbe Moschetta-Pinheiro ◽  
Adriana Alonso Novais ◽  
Bruna Ribeiro Stoppe ◽  
Enrico Dumbra Bonini ◽  

Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) is the malignant neoplasm with the highest mortality rate in women and female dogs are good models to study BC. Objective: We investigated the efficacy of liquid biopsy to detect gene mutations in the diagnosis and follow-up of women and female dogs with BC. Materials and Methods: In this study, 57 and 37 BC samples were collected from women and female dogs, respectively. After core biopsy and plasma samples were collected, the DNA and ctDNA of the tumor fragments and plasma were processed for next generation sequencing (NGS) assay. After preprocessing of the data, they were submitted to the Genome Analysis ToolKit (GATK). Results: In women, 1788 variants were identified in tumor fragments and 221 variants in plasma; 66 variants were simultaneously detected in tumors and plasma. Conversely, in female dogs, 1430 variants were found in plasma and 695 variants in tumor fragments; 59 variants were simultaneously identified in tumors and plasma. The most frequently mutated genes in the tumor fragments of women were USH2A, ATM, and IGF2R; in female dogs, they were USH2A, BRCA2, and RRM2. Plasma of women showed the most frequent genetic variations in the MAP3K1, BRCA1, and GRB7 genes, whereas plasma from female dogs had variations in the NF1, ERBB2, and KRT17 genes. Mutations in the AKT1, PIK3CA, and BRIP genes were associated with tumor recurrence, with a highly pathogenic variant in PIK3CA being particularly prominent. We also detected a gain-of-function mutation in the GRB7, MAP3K1, and MLH1 genes. Conclusion: Liquid biopsy is useful to identify specific genetic variations at the beginning of BC manifestation and may be accompanied over the entire follow-up period, thereby supporting the clinicians in refining interventions.

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