mental rotation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 128 ◽  
pp. 107134
Qinxue Liu ◽  
Jiayin Wu ◽  
Zongkui Zhou ◽  
Weijun Wang

2022 ◽  
Vol 240 ◽  
pp. 92-102
Maryse Badan Bâ ◽  
Logos Curtis ◽  
Giuseppe Pellizzer

2022 ◽  
Judith Bek ◽  
Stacey Humphries ◽  
Ellen Poliakoff ◽  
Nuala Brady

Motor imagery (MI) supports motor learning and performance, having the potential to be a useful tool for neurorehabilitation. However, MI ability may be impacted by ageing and neurodegeneration, which could limit its therapeutic effectiveness. MI is often assessed through a hand laterality task (HLT), whereby laterality judgements are typically slower for hands presented at orientations corresponding to physically more difficult postures (a “biomechanical constraint” effect). Performance is also found to differ between back and palm views of the hand, suggesting the differential involvement of visual and sensorimotor strategies. While older adults are generally found to be slowed and show increased biomechanical effects, few studies have examined the effects of both ageing and Parkinson’s disease (PD).The present study compared healthy younger (YA), healthy older (OA) and PD groups on HLT performance from both palm and back views, as well as an object-based (letter) mental rotation task. OA and PD groups were slower than YA, particularly when judging laterality from the back view, and exhibited increased biomechanical constraint effects for the palm. While response times were generally similar between OA and PD groups, the PD group showed reduced accuracy in the back view. Moreover, object rotation was slower and less accurate only in the PD group. The results indicate that different mechanisms are involved in mental rotation of hands viewed from the back or palm, consistent with previous findings, and demonstrate particular effects of ageing and PD when judging the back view. Alongside findings from studies of explicit MI, this suggests a greater alteration of visual than kinaesthetic MI with ageing and neurodegeneration, with additional impairment of object-based visual imagery in PD. The findings are also discussed in relation to different perspectives in MI and the integration of visual and kinaesthetic representations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 70 (1) ◽  
pp. 433-450
Akanksha Tiwari ◽  
Ram Bilas Pachori ◽  
Premjit Khanganba Sanjram

2022 ◽  
Vol 25 (8) ◽  
pp. 839-846
A. V. Kazantseva ◽  
R. F. Enikeeva ◽  
Yu. D. Davydova ◽  
R. N. Mustafin ◽  
Z. R. Takhirova ◽  

In the contemporary high-tech society, spatial abilities predict individual life and professional success, especially in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) disciplines. According to neurobiological hypotheses, individual differences in cognitive abilities may be attributed to the functioning of genes involved in the regulation of neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. In addition, genome-wide association studies identified rs17070145 located in the KIBRA gene, which was associated with individual differences in episodic memory. Considering a significant role of genetic and environmental components in cognitive functioning, the present study aimed to estimate the main effect of NGF (rs6330), NRXN1 (rs1045881, rs4971648), KIBRA (rs17070145), NRG1 (rs6994992), BDNF (rs6265), GRIN2B (rs3764030), APOE (rs7412, rs429358), and SNAP25 (rs363050) gene polymorphisms and to assess the effect of gene-environment interactions on individual differences in spatial ability in individuals without cognitive decline aged 18–25 years (N = 1011, 80 % women). Spatial abilities were measured using a battery of cognitive tests including the assessment of “3D shape rotation” (mental rotation). Multiple regression analysis, which was carried out in the total sample controlling for sex, ethnicity and the presence of the “risk” APOE ε4 allele, demonstrated the association of the rs17070145 Т-allele in the KIBRA gene with enhanced spatial ability (β = 1.32; pFDR = 0.037) compared to carriers of the rs17070145 CC-genotype. The analysis of gene-environment interactions revealed that nicotine smoking (β = 3.74; p = 0.010) and urban/rural residency in childhood (β = –6.94; p = 0.0002) modulated the association of KIBRA rs17070145 and АРОЕ (rs7412, rs429358) gene variants with individual differences in mental rotation, respectively. The data obtained confirm the effect of the KIBRA rs17070145 Т-allele on improved cognitive functioning and for the first time evidence the association of the mentioned genetic variant with spatial abilities in humans. A “protective” effect of the APOE ε2 allele on enhanced cognitive functioning is observed only under certain conditions related to childhood rearing.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Maya Danneels ◽  
Ruth Van Hecke ◽  
Laura Leyssens ◽  
Dirk Cambier ◽  
Raymond van de Berg ◽  

PURPOSE: Aside from typical symptoms such as dizziness and vertigo, persons with vestibular disorders often have cognitive and motor problems. These symptoms have been assessed in single-task condition. However, dual-tasks assessing cognitive-motor interference might be an added value as they reflect daily life situations better. Therefore, the 2BALANCE protocol was developed. In the current study, the test-retest reliability of this protocol was assessed. METHODS: The 2BALANCE protocol was performed twice in 20 healthy young adults with an in-between test interval of two weeks. Two motor tasks and five different cognitive tasks were performed in single and dual-task condition. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), the standard error of measurement, and the minimal detectable difference were calculated. RESULTS: All cognitive tasks, with the exception of the mental rotation task, had favorable reliability results (0.26≤ICC≤0.91). The dynamic motor task indicated overall substantial reliability values in all conditions (0.67≤ICC≤0.98). Similar results were found for the static motor task during dual-tasking (0.50≤ICC≤0.92), but were slightly lower in single-task condition (–0.26≤ICC≤0.75). CONCLUSIONS: The 2BALANCE protocol was overall consistent across trials. However, the mental rotation task showed lowest reliability values.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Mara Fabri ◽  
Chiara Pierpaoli ◽  
Nicoletta Foschi ◽  
Gabriele Polonara

This study reconsiders behavioral and functional data from studies investigating the anatomical imitation (AI) and the related mental rotation (MR) competence, carried out by our group in healthy subjects, with intact interhemispheric connections, and in split-brain patients, completely or partially lacking callosal connections. The results strongly point to the conclusion that AI and MR competence requires interhemispheric communication, mainly occurring through the corpus callosum, which is the largest white matter structure in the human brain. The results are discussed in light of previous studies and of future implications.

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