Experimental studies of the non-stationary heat exchange in the system «environment I – body II» have been carried out. It is established that in the body II, which consists of the fluid and thin-walled metal envelope, the characteristic features of the regular thermal mode occur, i.e., cooling (heating) rate of the body II- m = const; heat transfer coefficient between the water (environment I) and body II is practically stable α1 = const; uneven temperatures distribution coefficient in the body II ψ = const.
This new notion of the heat transfer regularities in the body II is planned to apply for further development of the experimental-calculation method for the forecasting of the heat exchange intensity in the compound fluid media with limited information regarding thermophysical and rheological properties.
With the rapid development of artificial intelligence, various machine learning algorithms have been widely used in the task of football match result prediction and have achieved certain results. However, traditional machine learning methods usually upload the results of previous competitions to the cloud server in a centralized manner, which brings problems such as network congestion, server computing pressure and computing delay. This paper proposes a football match result prediction method based on edge computing and machine learning technology. Specifically, we first extract some game data from the results of the previous games to construct the common features and characteristic features, respectively. Then, the feature extraction and classification task are deployed to multiple edge nodes.Finally, the results in all the edge nodes are uploaded to the cloud server and fused to make a decision. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method.
The first three papers featured in Issue 4/2021 of Balgarski ezik present results of the work on a project titled Everyday Life in the Middle Ages according to Lexical Data from Bulgarian and Romanian – a bilateral effort between the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the Romanian Academy.
Mariyana Tsibranska-Kostova’s paper Magic and its Faces (the 61st Canon of Trullo in Slavic Translations) proposes an analysis of several representatives of the lexical-semantic group of performers of magical practices according to three translations of the canon. The author discusses the word-formation structure of the lexical group as well as the semantic adaptation of Greek names for unknown realia. The text of the 61st Canon of Trullo is published as an appendix.
Elka Mircheva provides a discussion on the topic of Bad Thoughts are Worse than Illness (to the Analysis of Medieval Texts) by analysing examples of illness in Pope Gregory the Great’s Dialogues which have been interpreted by earlier studies as cases of psychological conditions. The author’s analysis points to the fact that some of these occurrences are evidence of the influence of bad thoughts resulting in unacceptable reprehen-sible behaviour.
Vanya Micheva’s paper Names for Living Places in the Bulgarian Language Picture of the World in the Middle Ages deals with the linguistic and semantic realisations of the concept of living places in the Old Bulgarian classical and original works from the 9th – 11th centuries and in the works of Patriarch Euthymius. The author traces the process of enrichment of the names for living places and the changes in the conceptual content of the studied lexemes.
Tatyana Braga’s paper A Little-known Damaskin from the Karlovo-Adzhar School of Calligraphy and Art: Odessa Damascus № 36 (62) – Palaeography, Codicology, Dating offers a meticulous palaeographic and codicological description of a Bulgarian written monument, the Odessa Damaskin № 36 (62) from the manuscript collection of V.I. Grigorovich.
Nadka Nikolova’s paper Общ язик с виражение народно. The Language Norms in the Translation of A. Granitski’s За Тръговско писмописанїе (On Commercial Letter Writing), 1858 presents the results of a study on Anastas Granitski’s contribution to the establishment of the structural basis and spelling and language norms of the Bulgarian literary language of the Revival period. On the basis of her observations on adjectives, numerals, pronouns and verbs, the author comes to the conclusion that the text reveals significant convergence of written and spoken language.
Maria Mitskova addresses some Issues in the Verb Morphology of Bulgarian Dialects in the Studies of Three European Slavicists from the First Half of the 19th Century – Vuk Karadžić, Victor Grigorovich, Stefan Verković. The paper emphasises the contribution of the first Slavicists whose work marks the origination of the scientific interest in one of the most characteristic features of Bulgarian verbs.
Elena Kanevska-Nikolova and Simeon Marinov present a study on the Names for Women’s Outerwear in the Rhodope Folk Clothing based on ma-terial excerpted from various ethnographic, regional historical and dialectological studies. The authors examine ambiguous and synonymous terms, main word-formation patterns, as well as the etymology of some of the names under study. They go on to analyse the terminological unity of many names for women’s outerwear characteristic of both confessional groups to which the Bulgarian population in the Rhodopes belong.
Georgi Mitrinov’s paper Is there a Pomak Dialect in Bulgaria? is a critical look at a study by Emel Balakchi dealing with the Bulgarian Rhodope dialects. The author addresses Balakchi’s attempt at presenting the Rhodope dialects as Pomak dialects, while ignoring the presence of a native Bulgarian Christian population in the Rhodopes. Using numerous examples, Georgi Mitrinov reveals the study’s lack of scientific competence and objectivity in presenting the characteristic features of the Bulgarian Rhodope dialects.
The issue concludes with a paper that remains outside its thematic scope. Stative Predicates in Contemporary Linguistic Theories by Svetlozara Leseva, Hristina Kukova and Ivelina Stoyanova offers a critical overview of the thematic classes of stative verbs based on a contrastive study of several thematic classifications. The authors analyse the different views of the properties of stative predicates from an aspectual and semantic perspective.
Complex mechanical systems used in the mining industry for efficient raw materials extraction require proper maintenance. Especially in a deep underground mine, the regular inspection of machines operating in extremely harsh conditions is challenging, thus, monitoring systems and autonomous inspection robots are becoming more and more popular. In the paper, it is proposed to use a mobile unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) platform equipped with various data acquisition systems for supporting inspection procedures. Although maintenance staff with appropriate experience are able to identify problems almost immediately, due to mentioned harsh conditions such as temperature, humidity, poisonous gas risk, etc., their presence in dangerous areas is limited. Thus, it is recommended to use inspection robots collecting data and appropriate algorithms for their processing. In this paper, the authors propose red-green-blue (RGB) and infrared (IR) image fusion to detect overheated idlers. An original procedure for image processing is proposed, that exploits some characteristic features of conveyors to pre-process the RGB image to minimize non-informative components in the pictures collected by the robot. Then, the authors use this result for IR image processing to improve SNR and finally detect hot spots in IR image. The experiments have been performed on real conveyors operating in industrial conditions.
Audiogenic epilepsy (AE), developing in rodent strains in response to sound, is widely used as the model of generalized convulsive epilepsy, while the molecular mechanisms determining AE are currently poorly understood. The brain region that is crucial for AE development isthe inferior and superior colliculi (IC, SC). We compared IC-SC gene expression profiles in rats with different AE susceptibility using transcriptome analysis.The transcriptomes were obtained from the IC-SC of Wistar rats (with no AE), Krushinsky-Molodkina (KM) strain rats (100% AE susceptible), and ”0” strain rats (with no AE) selected from F2 KM x Wistar hybrids for AE absence. KM gene expression displayed characteristic differences inboth of the strains that were not susceptible to AE. There was increased expression of a number of genes responsible for positive regulation of the MAPK signaling cascade, as well as of genes responsible for the production of interferon and several other cytokines. An increase in the expression levels of theTTR gene was found in KM rats, as well as significantly lower expression of the Msh3 gene (involved in post-replicative DNA repair systems). AE was also describedin the 101/HY mouse strain with a mutation in the locus controlling DNA repair. The DNA repair system defects could be the primary factor leading to the accumulation of mutations, which, in turn, promote AE.
Keywords: udiogenic seizure, KM strain, transcriptome, TTR gene, Msh3 gene, DNA repair
The article describes the historical stages of learning the language of the Ukrainian press. Attention to the language of journalism is due to the fact that the selection and use of language is characterized by a combination of two requirements – the desire to strengthen both the logical and emotional side of expression. The study of the language of journalism, namely the language of Ukrainian newspapers, has a history. The appearance of a significant number of articles on this topic was facilitated by language discussions on language culture, which in some way also affected the language of the press.
In the 20’s of the 20th century the language of the press stood out as a separate variety. It is determined that the basis of its development was the vernacular. It was found that the «newspaper language» developed in close connection with the language practice of the intelligentsia and influenced the prestige of the national language.
The language of the media is dynamic in nature, so it responds most quickly to all changes in public consciousness and reflects the state of the latter, influencing its formation. In the language of the media it is easy to see the new trends in approaches to language learning that can be traced in modern linguistics.
The role of the media in modern society is difficult to overestimate. They have a powerful potential for the state of public opinion, as most of their ideas about the world people get from newspapers and magazines. Characteristic features of the mass media are their publicity, i.e. an unlimited number of consumers; indirect, divided in space and time interaction of communicators; unidirectional influence from the communicator to the recipient, the impossibility of changing their roles
The study of the language of the media in recent years has also become particularly relevant. This is due to at least two factors: the situation of the functioning of literary language at the turn of the century and the priority for modern linguistics tendency to consider language material from a communicative standpoint, given the representation of language knowledge in human consciousness and patterns of language communication.
Introduction. Tat protein is a major factor of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) transcription regulation and has other activities. Tat is characterized by high variability, with some amino acid substitutions, including subtypespecific ones, being able to influence on its functionality. HIV type 1 (HIV-1) sub-subtype A6 is the most widespread in Russia. Previous studies of the polymorphisms in structural regions of the A6 variant have shown numerous characteristic features; however, Tat polymorphism in A6 has not been studied.Goals and tasks. The main goal of the work was to analyze the characteristics of Tat protein in HIV-1 A6 variant, that is, to identify substitutions characteristic for A6 and A1 variants, as well as to compare the frequency of mutations in functionally significant domains in sub-subtype A6 and subtype B.Material and methods. The nucleotide sequences of HIV-1 sub-subtypes A6, A1, A2, A3, A4, subtype B and the reference nucleotide sequence were obtained from the Los Alamos international database.Results and discussion. Q54H and Q60H were identified as characteristic substitutions. Essential differences in natural polymorphisms between sub-subtypes A6 and A1 have been demonstrated. In the CPP-region, there were detected mutations (R53K, Q54H, Q54P, R57G) which were more common in sub-subtype A6 than in subtype B.Conclusion. Tat protein of sub-subtype A6 have some characteristics that make it possible to reliably distinguish it from other HIV-1 variants. Mutations identified in the CPP region could potentially alter the activity of Tat. The data obtained could form the basis for the drugs and vaccines development.
Izmir University of Economics Faculty of Medicine’s aim is to implement a novel and effective system called “Next Generation Medical Education”. This system is designed to provide us a modernized medical education which covers the students’ requirements. This study is designed to investigate different aspects of this educational system from the student’s perspective.
Main characteristic features of the educational system was determined and a survey as well as phone interviews have been conducted in order to determine the views of the students of the faculty regarding these aspects.
The survey and the phone interview results showed that the students are mostly satisfied with current system and all of its components.
We have determined the key aspects of the system as: integrated curriculum, learning to learn, advisorship, e-learning and feedback mechanisms. We believe that the next generation education system adopted by our faculty is a way of transforming medical education in order to train qualified physicians for tomorrow.
Background. The live-attenuated vaccine based on the Yersinia pestis strain EV line NIIEG is still used in Russia, providing protective efficacy against plague. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need for developing new ways to increase the immunogenicity of the Y. pestis EV NIIEG vaccine strain. In this study, the ability of direct action of immunoadjuvant azoximer bromide (polyoxidonium, PO) on the immunobiological properties of vaccine strain Y. pestis EV NIIEG during cultivation on a dense nutrient medium was evaluated. Materials & Methods. Y.pestis EV NIIEG, cultivated at 28 °С for 48 h on LB agar, Miller pH 7.2 ± 0.1 (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) with the addition of PO and without. MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry was deployed for the obtainment of mass-spectra of ribosomal proteins from Y. pestis EV NIIEG cells on the MicroflexTM LT mass spectrometer (Bruker Daltonics, Germany). Protective efficacy was evaluated under subcutaneously challenge guinea pigs and mice BALB's with 400 LD50 doses of the Y. pestis 231, Y. pestis P-13268 Vietnam (MLD=5 CFU). Antibody titers to F1 in serum were determined using an ELISA. Results. The addition of the therapeutic concentration of PO in the cultivation medium induced a significant increase in the immunogenicity of Y. pestis EV NIIEG that resulted in enhancement of serum antibody levels against Y. pestis F1 antigen and several times the growth of protective efficacy in the bubonic plague model on two types of experimental animals. ImD50 of the vaccine strain Y. pestis EV NIIEG, cultivated with PO, was significantly (p < 0,05) lower in comparison to ImD50 for Y. pestis EV NIIEG in standard cultivation conditions. One year of storage at a temperature of 4 °С did not alter the protective properties of the vaccine strain Y. pestis EV NIIEG, cultivated with PO. Conclusions. Morphological studies confirmed the absence of influence PO introduction into the cultivation environment on the safety of the vaccine strain. MALDI-TOF MS profile of the Y. pestis EV NIIEG, cultivated with PO, had peaks characteristic features. The mass peak at m/z 3,061 was significantly down-regulated and new mass peaks at m/z 2,759, m/z 3,533 were determined. These changes are accompanied by the increase of Y. pestis EV NIIEG immunogenicity.
AbstractMetal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs) become irreplaceable in tribology industries, due to their supreme mechanical properties and satisfactory tribological behavior. However, due to the dual complexity of MMNC systems and tribological process, the anti-friction and anti-wear mechanisms are unclear, and the subsequent tribological performance prediction and design of MMNCs are not easily possible: A critical up-to-date review is needed for MMNCs in tribology. This review systematically summarized the fabrication, manufacturing, and processing techniques for high-quality MMNC bulk and surface coating materials in tribology. Then, important factors determining the tribological performance (mainly anti-friction evaluation by the coefficient of friction (CoF) and anti-wear assessment with wear rate) in MMNCs have been investigated thoroughly, and the correlations have been analyzed to reveal their potential coupling/synergetic roles of tuning tribological behavior of MMNCs. Most importantly, this review combined the classical metal/alloy friction and wear theories and adapted them to give a (semi-)quantitative description of the detailed mechanisms of improved anti-friction and anti-wear performance in MMNCs. To guarantee the universal applications of these mechanisms, their links with the analyzed influencing factors (e.g., loading forces) and characteristic features like tribo-film have been clarified. This approach forms a solid basis for understanding, predicting, and engineering MMNCs’ tribological behavior, instead of pure phenomenology and experimental observation. Later, the pathway to achieve a broader application for MMNCs in tribo-related fields like smart materials, biomedical devices, energy storage, and electronics has been concisely discussed, with the focus on the potential development of modeling, experimental, and theoretical techniques in MMNCs’ tribological processes. In general, this review tries to elucidate the complex tribo-performances of MMNCs in a fundamentally universal yet straightforward way, and the discussion and summary in this review for the tribological performance in MMNCs could become a useful supplementary to and an insightful guidance for the current MMNC tribology study, research, and engineering innovations.