Segmentation Algorithm
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2022 ◽  
Vol 59 (2) ◽  
pp. 102840
Author(s):  
Xianfeng Ou ◽  
Hanpu Wang ◽  
Wujing Li ◽  
Guoyun Zhang ◽  
Siyuan Chen

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Roberto Fedrigo ◽  
Dan J. Kadrmas ◽  
Patricia E. Edem ◽  
Lauren Fougner ◽  
Ivan S. Klyuzhin ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Positron emission tomography (PET) with prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have shown superior performance in detecting metastatic prostate cancers. Relative to [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) PET images, PSMA PET images tend to visualize significantly higher-contrast focal lesions. We aim to evaluate segmentation and reconstruction algorithms in this emerging context. Specifically, Bayesian or maximum a posteriori (MAP) image reconstruction, compared to standard ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction, has received significant interest for its potential to reach convergence with minimal noise amplifications. However, few phantom studies have evaluated the quantitative accuracy of such reconstructions for high contrast, small lesions (sub-10 mm) that are typically observed in PSMA images. In this study, we cast 3 mm–16-mm spheres using epoxy resin infused with a long half-life positron emitter (sodium-22; 22Na) to simulate prostate cancer metastasis. The anthropomorphic Probe-IQ phantom, which features a liver, bladder, lungs, and ureters, was used to model relevant anatomy. Dynamic PET acquisitions were acquired and images were reconstructed with OSEM (varying subsets and iterations) and BSREM (varying β parameters), and the effects on lesion quantitation were evaluated. Results The 22Na lesions were scanned against an aqueous solution containing fluorine-18 (18F) as the background. Regions-of-interest were drawn with MIM Software using 40% fixed threshold (40% FT) and a gradient segmentation algorithm (MIM’s PET Edge+). Recovery coefficients (RCs) (max, mean, peak, and newly defined “apex”), metabolic tumour volume (MTV), and total tumour uptake (TTU) were calculated for each sphere. SUVpeak and SUVapex had the most consistent RCs for different lesion-to-background ratios and reconstruction parameters. The gradient-based segmentation algorithm was more accurate than 40% FT for determining MTV and TTU, particularly for lesions $$\le$$ ≤  6 mm in diameter (R2 = 0.979–0.996 vs. R2 = 0.115–0.527, respectively). Conclusion An anthropomorphic phantom was used to evaluate quantitation for PSMA PET imaging of metastatic prostate cancer lesions. BSREM with β = 200–400 and OSEM with 2–5 iterations resulted in the most accurate and robust measurements of SUVmean, MTV, and TTU for imaging conditions in 18F-PSMA PET/CT images. SUVapex, a hybrid metric of SUVmax and SUVpeak, was proposed for robust, accurate, and segmentation-free quantitation of lesions for PSMA PET.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Shenming Yu

The study focused on the extraction of cardiovascular two-dimensional angiography sequences and the three-dimensional reconstruction based on the local threshold segmentation algorithm. Specifically, the two-dimensional cardiovascular angiography sequence was extracted first, and Gaussian smoothing was adopted for image preprocessing. Then, optimize maximum between-class variance (OSTU) was compared with the traditional two-dimensional OSTU and fast two-dimensional OSTU and applied in the segmentation of cardiovascular angiography images. It was found that the cardiovascular structure itself was continuous, the contrast agent diffused relatively evenly in the blood vessel, and the gray level of the blood vessel was also continuous. The degree of smoothness was consistent in all directions by Gaussian smoothing, avoiding the direction deviation of the smoothened image. The operation time (0.59 s) of the optimize OSTU was significantly shorter than that of traditional OSTU (35.68 s) and fast two-dimensional OSTU (6.34 s) ( P < 0.05 ). The local threshold segmentation algorithm can realize the continuous edge extraction of blood vessels and accurately reflect the stenosis of blood vessels. The results of blood vessel diameter measurement showed that the diameter from the end of blood vessel to the intersection varied linearly from 5.5 mm to 9.0 mm. In short, the optimize OSTU demonstrated good segmentation effects and fast calculation time; it successfully extracted continuous two-dimensional cardiovascular angiography images and can be used in three-dimensional reconstruction of cardiovascular images.


Tomography ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 59-76
Author(s):  
Bing Li ◽  
Shaoyong Wu ◽  
Siqin Zhang ◽  
Xia Liu ◽  
Guangqing Li

Automatic image segmentation plays an important role in the fields of medical image processing so that these fields constantly put forward higher requirements for the accuracy and speed of segmentation. In order to improve the speed and performance of the segmentation algorithm of medical images, we propose a medical image segmentation algorithm based on simple non-iterative clustering (SNIC). Firstly, obtain the feature map of the image by extracting the texture information of it with feature extraction algorithm; Secondly, reduce the image to a quarter of the original image size by downscaling; Then, the SNIC super-pixel algorithm with texture information and adaptive parameters which used to segment the downscaling image to obtain the superpixel mark map; Finally, restore the superpixel labeled image to the original size through the idea of the nearest neighbor algorithm. Experimental results show that the algorithm uses an improved superpixel segmentation method on downscaling images, which can increase the segmentation speed when segmenting medical images, while ensuring excellent segmentation accuracy.


2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (3) ◽  
pp. 1573-1586
Author(s):  
Haolin Wang ◽  
Lihui Dong ◽  
Wei Song ◽  
Xiaobin Zhao ◽  
Jianxin Xia ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 301-321
Author(s):  
Fuchu Zhang ◽  
Yanpeng Wu ◽  
Miaoqing Xu ◽  
Sanjun Liu ◽  
Changling Peng ◽  
...  

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