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2022 ◽  
Vol 89 (S1) ◽  
pp. S15-S22
Thanh Tran ◽  
Karol M. Pencina ◽  
Michael B. Schultz ◽  
Zhuoying Li ◽  
Catherine Ghattas ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 87 (791) ◽  
pp. 133-139
Hiroshi MORITA ◽  
Kimihiro HINO ◽  
Ikuho YAMADA ◽  
Hiroyuki USUI ◽  
Taku NOHARA ◽  

2022 ◽  
Asos Mahmood ◽  
Meredith Ray ◽  
Kenneth D Ward ◽  
Aram Dobalian ◽  
Sang Nam Ahn

Abstract To date, there is no scientific consensus on whether insomnia symptoms increase mortality risk. We investigated longitudinal associations between time-varying insomnia symptoms (difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early-morning awakening, and non-restorative sleep) and all-cause mortality among middle-aged and older adults during 14 years of follow-up. Data were obtained from 2004 through 2018 survey waves of the Health and Retirement Study in the United States for a population-representative sample of 15,511 respondents who were ≥50 years old in 2004. Respondents were interviewed biennially and followed through the end of the 2018 survey wave for the outcome. Marginal structural discrete-time survival analyses were employed to account for time-varying confounding and selection bias. Of the 15,511 cohort respondents (mean [±SD] age at baseline, 63.7 [±10.2] years; 56.0% females), 5,878 (31.9%) died during follow-up. At baseline (2004), 41.6% reported experiencing at least one insomnia symptom. Respondents who experienced one (HR=1.11; 95% CI: 1.03–1.20), two (HR=1.12; 95% CI: 1.01–1.23), three (HR=1.15; 95% CI: 1.05–1.27), or four (HR=1.32; 95% CI: 1.12–1.56) insomnia symptoms had on average a higher hazard of all-cause mortality, compared to those who were symptom-free. For each insomnia symptom, respondents who experienced difficulty initiating sleep (HR=1.12; 95% CI: 1.02–1.22), early-morning awakening (HR=1.09; 95% CI: 1.01–1.18), and nonrestorative sleep (HR=1.17; 95% CI: 1.09–1.26), had a higher hazard of all-cause mortality compared to those not experiencing the symptom. The findings demonstrate significant associations between insomnia symptoms and all-cause mortality, both on a cumulative scale and independently, except for difficulty maintaining sleep. Further research should investigate the underlying mechanisms linking insomnia symptoms and mortality.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Qi Liu ◽  
Chang Liu ◽  
Feifei Hu ◽  
Xuan Deng ◽  
Yumei Zhang

Background and PurposeNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cognitive impairment are common aging-related disorders. This study aims to explore the changes of cognitive function in middle-aged and elderly population with NAFLD from a Jidong impairment cohort.MethodsA total of 1,651 middle-aged and elderly participants (>40 years) without cognitive impairment were recruited into the current study in 2015 and were followed up until to 2019. Abdominal ultrasonography was used for diagnosis of NAFLD. Global cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cognitive impairment was defined as a score <18 for illiterates, a score <21 for primary school graduates, and a score <25 for junior school graduates or above. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between NAFLD and the four-year cognitive changes.ResultsOut of 1,651 participants, 795 (48.2%) of them had NAFLD in 2015. Cognitive impairment occurred in 241 (14.6%) participants in 2019. Patients with NAFLD had higher 4-year incidence of cognitive impairment than non-NAFLD patients did (17.7 vs. 11.7%, p < 0.001). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed significant association of baseline NAFLD with lower MMSE score in 2019 (β = −0.36, p < 0.05). Multivariable logistic analysis found that the adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of baseline NAFLD was 1.45 (1.00–2.11) for cognitive impairment in 2019 (p = 0.05). We also identified effects of baseline NAFLD on subsequent cognitive impairment as modified by age (interaction p < 0.01) and carotid stenosis (interaction p = 0.05) but not by gender.ConclusionsNAFLD is associated with cognitive decline, especially in middle-aged and with carotid stenosis population.

Denis J. Wakeham ◽  
Tony G. Dawkins ◽  
Rachel N. Lord ◽  
Jack S. Talbot ◽  
Freya M. Lodge ◽  

Abstract Purpose We determined the effect of habitual endurance exercise and age on aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), augmentation pressure (AP) and systolic blood pressure (aSBP), with statistical adjustments of aPWV and AP for heart rate and aortic mean arterial pressure, when appropriate. Furthermore, we assessed whether muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) correlates with AP in young and middle-aged men. Methods Aortic PWV, AP, aortic blood pressure (applanation tonometry; SphygmoCor) and MSNA (peroneal microneurography) were recorded in 46 normotensive men who were either young or middle-aged and endurance-trained runners or recreationally active nonrunners (10 nonrunners and 13 runners within each age-group). Between-group differences and relationships between variables were assessed via ANOVA/ANCOVA and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, respectively. Results Adjusted aPWV and adjusted AP were similar between runners and nonrunners in both age groups (all, P > 0.05), but higher with age (all, P < 0.001), with a greater effect size for the age-related difference in AP in runners (Hedges’ g, 3.6 vs 2.6). aSBP was lower in young (P = 0.009; g = 2.6), but not middle-aged (P = 0.341; g = 1.1), runners compared to nonrunners. MSNA burst frequency did not correlate with AP in either age group (young: r = 0.00, P = 0.994; middle-aged: r = − 0.11, P = 0.604). Conclusion There is an age-dependent effect of habitual exercise on aortic haemodynamics, with lower aSBP in young runners compared to nonrunners only. Statistical adjustment of aPWV and AP markedly influenced the outcomes of this study, highlighting the importance of performing these analyses. Further, peripheral sympathetic vasomotor outflow and AP were not correlated in young or middle-aged normotensive men.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Xiao-fei He ◽  
Li-li Li ◽  
Wen-biao Xian ◽  
Ming-yue Li ◽  
Li-ying Zhang ◽  

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