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2021 ◽  
Xiaojie Wang ◽  
Xiuwen Li ◽  
Wanxin Wang ◽  
Guangduoji Shi ◽  
Ruipeng Wu ◽  

Abstract Background With the population aging, diabetes and cognitive function decline are increasingly common among older adults worldwide. However, the evidence about the effects and mechanism of prediabetes and diabetes on cognitive function is still limited. The purposes of this longitudinal study were to estimate the longitudinal associations of the onset of prediabetes and diabetes status with cognitive function among Chinese adults aged 45 years or older during an 8-year period; to estimate the clinical risk factors associated with cognitive function among patients with prediabetes and diabetes. Methods Participants were enrolled between 2011 and 2012, and followed up between 2018 and 2019 in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. In this study, we focused on newly diagnosed diabetic status, and those diagnosed with diabetes before or not providing fasting blood samples were excluded. Diabetic status was assessed according to the 2010 American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines. The general cognitive function, demographic characteristics, and clinical and biochemical factors were also measured. Results At baseline, 849 (21.3%) participants were first diagnosed with prediabetes, and 444 (11.1%) were diabetes patients. After adjusting for age, gender, marital status, education level, ever smoking, ever drinking, self-comment about health, hypertension, dyslipidemia, depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and clinical and biochemical measurements at baseline, diabetes status was a significant risk factor for subsequent cognitive decline (unstandardized β estimate=-0.47, 95% CI=-0.91~-0.04). Further stratification analyses found that only triglyceride concentrations were negatively associated with cognitive function among prediabetes patients (unstandardized β estimate=-0.004, 95% CI=-0.007~-0.001), and only creatine reactive protein was significantly associated with cognitive decline among diabetes patients (unstandardized β estimate=-0.065, 95% CI=-0.122~-0.009). Conclusions There is a positive longitudinal association between the onset of diabetes and cognitive decline among middle-aged and elderly Chinese. The management of triglycerides through lifestyle modification for prediabetes and specific adjunctive anti-inflammatory therapy for diabetes could benefit cognitive performance.

Perception ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 030100662110434
Sandhya Kumar ◽  
Surabhi Kumar

The human body has dedicated receptors for sensing temperature and touch, but not wetness. How then is wetness perceived? To test if wetness perception arises from the sensory integration of touch and temperature, and to quantify its measurement in humans, we designed a wetness perception monitor (WPM) which enabled variation of temperature at the fingertips of participants while measuring the pressure exerted on a test surface in the controlled environment of a moisture-free chamber. Thirty randomly selected adults (18+ years) were tested for their perception of dampness/wetness using the WPM. Our data suggest that humans perceive dampness and wetness at average temperatures of 22 ± 0.4°C and 18 ± 0.5°C, respectively, and these sensations are extinguished at temperatures below 16 ± 1°C. Measurements were obtained at an average tactile pressure of 1.5 ± 0.3 kPa. Young adults (18–35 years) sensed wetness at significantly higher temperatures than middle-aged adults (36–55 years) or mature adults (56+ years), who sensed wetness at similar temperatures. We found a surprising sex difference in wetness perception, with females sensing wetness at higher temperatures than males. When the data were screened for outliers, we found that participants whose readings were outside normal ranges, self-reported sensory deficits suggesting that wetness perception could potentially be used as a noninvasive biomarker.

Olga Strizhitskaya ◽  
Marina Petrash ◽  
Inna Murtazina ◽  
Gayane Vartanyan ◽  
Anton Shchukin

Loneliness has been considered a major challenge since long before the pandemic. Changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic included modifications in social communications and activities. Thus, it was expected that loneliness would increase during the pandemic. The first studies of loneliness during the pandemic revealed inconsistent results. We hypothesized that physical isolation led to changes in the quality of relationships; thus, loneliness trends could be different from those predicted. For our study we used methods to measure loneliness: the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale (SELSA-S) for Adults and Older Adults; the Multidimensional Inventory of Loneliness Experience; and demographic data. Participants were middle-aged and older middle-aged adults (n = 457) aged 35–59 (M = 45.5, SD = 6.88, 35.4% males). Participants came from two studies: Study 1 consisted of 280 participants aged 35–59 (M = 44.8; SD = 6.93; 29.6% males), the study was conducted before the pandemic in late 2019; participants in Study 2 were adults (n = 177) aged 35–59 (M = 46.5; SD = 6.68; 44.6% males), data were collected in the fall of 2020. The results did not confirm increase in loneliness; moreover, participants reported lower scores of loneliness in some domains. Regression analyses showed that general experience of loneliness was predicted by different loneliness characteristics in pre-pandemic and pandemic age groups. We found some similar mechanisms that were activated within different situations. Our results confirmed the complex nature of loneliness, they argue that pandemic effects were not limited to increase in loneliness and that the mechanism of loneliness can adjust to environmental factors.

2021 ◽  
Li Ping Cheng ◽  
Shan Hao Chen ◽  
Hai Lou ◽  
Xu Wei Gui ◽  
Xiao Na Shen ◽  

Abstract Background: Investigate factors associated with treatment outcome in patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTMPD). Methods: This retrospective cohort study examined NTMPD patients in Shanghai from January 2014 to December 2018. The distribution and incidence of the different causative species were determined. The outcomes of patients infected with different NTM species were compared. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to determine the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of different factors with treatment failure. Results: The most common species were Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (50%), M. abscessus (28%), and M. kansasii (15%). Over five years, the proportions of M. kansasii and M. abscessus increased, and that of MAC decreased. The treatment success rate was significantly greater for patients infected with M. kansasii (89.9%) than MAC (65.0%, P<0.001) and M. abscessus (36.1%, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated the risk factors for treatment failure were pathogenic NTM species (M. abscessus: aOR=9.355, P<0.001; MAC: aOR=2.970, P=0.021), having an elevated ESR (>60mm/h: aOR=2.658, P<0.001), receipt of retreatment (aOR=2.074, P<0.001), middle-aged and elderly (>60 years-old: aOR=1.739, P=0.021; 45–60 years-old: aOR=1.661, P=0.034). Conclusions: The main bacterial species responsible for NTMPD infections in Shanghai were MAC, M. abscessus, and M. kansasii. Patients with M. kansasii infections had a higher rate of treatment success. Multiple factors including infection by M. abscessu or MAC, an elevated ESR, receiving retreatment, middle-aged and elderly were associated with treatment failure.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Stefan L. Leber ◽  
Simon Fandler-Höfler ◽  
Markus Kneihsl ◽  
Michael Augustin ◽  
Hannes Deutschmann ◽  

We present the case of a middle-aged patient who had four recurrent acute basilar artery occlusions over a period of 3 months, each time successfully treated with mechanical thrombectomy. Extensive stroke work-up showed no obvious stroke etiology aside from a dysplastic right vertebral artery with multifocal stenoses. Treatment with different antiplatelet and anticoagulant regimes did not prevent basilar artery occlusion recurrence. Therefore, transarterial coil occlusion of the V4-segment of the right vertebral artery was performed as ultima ratio without complications. At final discharge, the patient had no persistent neurological deficits. No further cerebrovascular events occurred over a 12-month follow-up period.

2021 ◽  
Hyuk Huh ◽  
Je Hun Song ◽  
Hong Yeop Kim ◽  
Hoseok Koo ◽  
Kyung Don Yoo

Abstract This study aimed to clarify the association between food security and the prevalence of chronic disease. We analyzed the variables of The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010–2012), and VI (2013–2015) while merging data of the food security questionnaire of four years. We included 15,945 participants, performed propensity score matched analysis by quartile of household income (i.e., low, low-mid, high-mid, high) and sex, and presented the results by age group. Systolic blood pressure and proportion of current smokers were significantly higher in the elderly group, compared with the middle-aged group. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), metabolic syndrome, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) did not differ significantly by income level in the elderly group. The food security questionnaire revealed that food security insurance was significantly lower in the low-income level (1st quartile), compared with that in the high-income level (4th quartile). The logistic regression analysis for the association between the prevalence of chronic disease and food insecurity confirmed no significant association with hypertension and DM. Food insecurity might be associated with CKD prevalence, especially in the elderly population.

2021 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Majid Nimrouzi ◽  
Aniseh Saffar Shahroodi ◽  
Mohammad Hossein Sharifi ◽  
Babak Daneshfard

Context: Over the last decades, the prevalence of overweight (BMI > 25) and obesity (BMI > 30) is being the most important health challenge in urban populations. The relationship between obesity and the individual’s temperament has not been studied yet. Evidence Acquisition: This review aimed to study the causes of obesity, especially in middle-aged people, according to the new evidence of conventional medicine and findings of Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) physicians cited in their books. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Iran Medex were also searched with keywords obesity and overweight for recent evidence in conventional medicine. Results: Based on the traditional medicine findings, dystemprament or disequilibrium in Mizaj may promote obesity in middle-aged and elderly people. The attenuation of innate heat and intrinsic moisture in middle age could increase the chance of overweight and obesity. Recent studies in modern nutrition reveal a linear relationship between diminishing the basal metabolic rate and increasing age, especially in middle age. Accordingly, cold/wet-tempered people have more efficient energy homeostasis than hot/dry-tempered people that is similar to individuals with Firmicutes gut microbiota predominance. People living in high altitudes and cold-dry climates maintain their innate heat better than people living in wet climates, which is in accordance with the increasing brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in cold exposure, which decreases the chance of obesity. Conclusions: Based on traditional Persian medicine school, it is hypothesized that increasing age and diminishing innate heat besides the accumulation of phlegm (moisture) in the gastrointestinal tract of middle-aged individuals may be influential in altering gut microbiota and consequently obesity. It seems that there may be a correlation between cold/wet Mizaj and risk factors of obesity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zugui Wu ◽  
Yi Wang ◽  
Zixuan Ye ◽  
Yingxing Guan ◽  
Xiangling Ye ◽  

Background: The influences of age and sex on properties of lumbar erector spinae have not been previously studied. Changes in the performance of lumbar erector spinae properties associated with age represent a valuable indicator of risk for lower-back-related disease.Objective: To investigate the lumbar erector spinae properties with regard to age and sex to provide a reference dataset.Methods: We measured muscle tone and stiffness of the lumbar erector spinae (at the L3–4 level) in healthy men and women (50 young people, aged 20–30 years; 50 middle-aged people, aged 40–50 years; and 50 elderly people, aged 65–75 years) using a MyotonPRO device.Results: In general, there are significant differences in muscle tone and stiffness among young, middle-aged, and elderly participants, and there were significant differences in muscle tone and stiffness between men and women, and there was no interaction between age and sex. The muscle tone and stiffness of the elderly participants were significantly higher than those of the middle-aged and young participants (P &lt; 0.01), and the muscle tone and stiffness of the middle-aged participants were significantly higher than those of the young participants (P &lt; 0.01). In addition, the muscle tone and stiffness of men participants were significantly higher than that of women participants (P &lt; 0.01).Conclusion: Our results indicate that muscle tone and stiffness of the lumbar erector spinae increase with age. The muscle tone and stiffness of the lumbar erector spinae in men are significantly higher than in women. The present study highlights the importance of considering age and sex differences when assessing muscle characteristics of healthy people or patients.

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