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2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (8) ◽  
pp. 241
Maria Elisa Morelli ◽  
Marco Carrozzi

Headache and neurologic deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis syndrome (HaNDL) is a rare nosographic entity, which mainly affects adults but can also occur in the paediatric age. In the literature, 31 cases in this age group are described. Symptomatology typically lasts about three months with episodes that tend to relapse. An autoimmune pathogenesis has been hypothesized. The paper describes the case of an adolescent who presented with three acute and transient episodes of migraine headache in three days associated with impaired consciousness, focal neurological deficits and CSF lymphocytosis. After treatment with steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the patient did not relapse in the following four months. The treatment indicated in the literature is only supportive (analgesics, antiemetics), however in this case the anti-inflammatory therapy reduced the duration of the episode and the recurrence of further episodes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 051-053
Swati Kapoor ◽  
Ashutosh Bhardwaj ◽  
Gitali Bhagawati ◽  
SM Quadri

Multi inflammatory syndrome (MIS) is a rare complication associated with covid-19 with few cases reported in pediatric age group. This entity is not well studied in adults. We report a case of a young male presented to us in very critical condition and was diagnosed as a case of MIS-A (Multi Inflammatory Syndrome - Adult). He was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids and other supportive measure. By correct and timely diagnosis of this entity, one can prevent fatal outcome.

F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. 1156
Gabriel Madut Akech ◽  
Mercy Naloli ◽  
Paul Sebwami ◽  
Patrick Kazibwe ◽  
Maureen Atwikiriize ◽  

Background: Pneumococcal carriage predisposes children to pneumonia. Pneumonia poses a significant threat to the lives of children below five years old worldwide, contributing to a high number of hospitalizations and death. Morbidity and morbidity are especially common in children under five and the elderly, although any age group can be affected. This study aimed to estimate pneumococcal carriage and determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the pneumococci isolated from mother-baby pairs in Ngora district after the rollout of the pneumococcal vaccine. We hypothesized that high carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in mothers leads to carriage in their babies and hence a greater chance of contracting pneumonia. Methods: Consecutive sampling was used to select 152 mother-baby pairs from community visits and those seeking care at the health facility. We collected nasal swabs from both baby and mother for culture and sensitivity testing using Kirby-Bauer’s agar disc diffusion method. Data was also collected from the mothers who consented to take part in the study, using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results: This study found that there was a low prevalence of pneumococcal carriage in the mother-baby pair in the Ngora district. Only one mother-baby pair (1/152) was found to be colonized with pneumococci in both mother and baby and the rest of S. pneumoniae colonized either the mother or baby. We also observed high rates of microbial resistance to penicillin, which is the first-line drug for the management of pneumonia in Uganda. Also, high resistance patterns were recorded with chloramphenicol (50%) and tetracycline (50%), whereas the lowest resistance was recorded in clindamycin (17%). Conclusions: The relationship between pneumococcal carriage and immunization status suggests that the pneumococcal vaccine is protective against the pneumococcal carriage. Resistance of S. pneumoniae to commonly used antibiotics was high.

Anne Felicia Ambrose ◽  
Anupuma Kurra ◽  
Lana Tsirakidis ◽  
Kate Collins Hunt ◽  
Emmeline Ayers ◽  

Abstract Background COVID-19 guidelines endorse early rehabilitation to improve outcomes in hospitalized patients, but the evidence-base to support this recommendation is lacking. We examined the association between early rehabilitation and in-hospital deaths in COVID-19 patients. Methods Single center retrospective study involving 990 COVID-19 patients (42·4% women, mean age 67.8 years) admitted between March 1, 2020 and May 31, 2020 to a community hospital. Association of rehabilitation during hospitalization with in-hospital mortality was examined using logistic regression analysis adjusted for demographics, length of stay, body mass index, comorbid illnesses, functional status as well as for COVID-19 presentations, treatments, and complications. Results Over the 3-month study period, 475 (48·0%) in-patients were referred for rehabilitation. Patients who received rehabilitation were older (73·7 ± 14·0 vs. 62·3 ± 17·2). There were 61 hospital deaths (12·8%) in the rehabilitation group and 165 (32·0%) in the non-rehabilitation group. Receiving rehabilitation was associated with an 89% lower in-hospital mortality (OR 0·11, 95% CI 0·06–0·19) after adjusting for multiple confounders and COVID-19 disease markers. In sensitivity analyses, the results were significant in sub-populations defined by age group, sex, race, length of hospitalization, or pulmonary presentations. Each additional rehabilitation session was associated with a 29% lower risk of in-hospital mortality (OR per session 0·71, 95% CI 0·64-0·79) in the fully adjusted model. Conclusion Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, receiving early rehabilitation was associated with lower in-hospital mortality. Our findings support implementation of rehabilitation services for COVID-19 patients in acute care settings, but further research from randomized clinical trials is needed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Heydar Ali Balou ◽  
Tofigh Yaghubi Kalurazi ◽  
Farahnaz Joukar ◽  
Soheil Hassanipour ◽  
Mohammad Shenagari ◽  

Background. This study was conducted to evaluate the anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 IgM and IgG antibodies among healthcare workers in Guilan. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 503 healthcare workers. Between April and May 2020, blood samples were collected from the healthcare workers of Razi Hospital in Rasht, Guilan, Iran. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the detection and quantitation of anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 IgM/IgG antibodies by using kits made by Pishtaz Teb Company, Tehran, Iran. Results. From a total of 503 participants, the result of the anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 IgM antibody test was positive in 28 subjects (5.6%) and the anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 IgG antibody test was positive in171 subjects (34%). Participants in the age group of 35–54 years were significantly more likely to have a positive anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 antibody test than the age group of 20–34 years (odds ratio = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.04–2.25, P = 0.029 ). Also, physicians were significantly more likely to have a positive antibody test than office workers (odds ratio = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.04–3.54, P = 0.037 ). The wide range of symptoms was significantly associated with the positive anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 antibody test. The most significant association was observed between fever and a positive anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 antibody test (odds ratio = 3.03, 95% CI: 2.06–4.44, P < 0.001 ). Conclusion. The results of the current study indicated that the seroprevalence of COVID-19 was high among healthcare workers of Guilan Province. It seems that this finding was due to the earlier exposure to COVID-19 and the lack of awareness and preparedness to deal with the pandemic in Iran, compared to other countries.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Abubakar Umar ◽  
Salisu Ismail ◽  
Abdullahi Abdulkarim Aitek ◽  
Aliyu Abdulrahman ◽  
Ibrahim Galadima ◽  

Empyema thoracis is defined as the presence of pus in the pleural space or a purulent pleural effusion. Chronic empyema is characterized by thickened visceral and parietal peels, which hamper the ability of the affected lung to re-expand and require definitive surgical intervention. In a resource constraint environment like ours, open thoracotomy and decortication is the treatment of choice. We review our experience with cases of chronic empyema thoracis that had thoracotomy and decortication. This is a descriptive, retrospective, and observational study. Medical records of patients who had thoracotomy and decortication on account of chronic empyema thoracis in the Cardiothoracic surgery unit of our hospital between 2012 and 2020 were retrieved and reviewed. The information obtained from the records included sex, age, premorbid conditions, aetiology of empyema, cultures of pleural fluids, histology results of the cortex removed, duration of chest tube drainage, duration of hospital stay, postoperative complications, and outcome. One hundred and eighty-five patients diagnosed with empyema thoracis were seen in the study period. Sixty-five patients had thoracotomy and decortication on account of chronic empyema thoracis while the remaining 120 (64.9%) had closed tube thoracostomy drain insertion. Male: female was 5:1, mean age at presentation 24.24 years with age ranging from 2 years to 70 years. Fourteen (23.33%) were in the paediatric age group while the remaining (76.67%) were adults. The aetiology of empyema was pneumonia in 36 (60%). Strept pneumoniae was the commonest organism isolated from pleural fluids of these patients accounting for 23.33%. All patients underwent thoracotomy and decortication. The mean duration before surgery was 17 days with a range of 2 days to 40 days. The average duration of surgery was 2 hours. Chest tube was removed after an average of 7 days (range 5 to 33 days. Twenty-one patients (35%) had complications. The average duration of drainage was 18.87 days and that of hospital stay was 36.74 days. There were 3 mortalities (5%). The mean duration of follow-up was 3 months. Chronic empyema thoracis is still common in our environment and presentation is usually very late. In our series, open thoracotomy and decortication was found to be an excellent procedure with low morbidity and mortality. The majority of our patients had good functional outcome with few complications.

Uchechukwu Levi Osuagwu ◽  
Chikasirimobi G Timothy ◽  
Raymond Langsi ◽  
Emmanuel K Abu ◽  
Piwuna Christopher Goson ◽  

This study investigated risk perception of contracting and dying of SARS-CoV-2 in sub-Sahara Africa during and after the lockdown periods. Two online surveys were conducted one year apart, with participants 18 years and above living in sub-Sahara Africa or the diaspora. Each survey took four weeks. The first survey was taken from 18 April to 16 May 2020, i.e., during the lockdown. The second survey was taken from 14 April to 14 May 2021, i.e., after the lockdown. A cross-sectional study using adopted and modified questionnaires for both surveys were distributed through online platforms. Question about risks perception of contracting and dying of SARS-CoV-2 were asked. The Helsinki declaration was applied, and ethical approvals were obtained. Total responses for both surveys, i.e., both during and after the lockdown, was 4605. The mean age was similar in both surveys (18–28 years). The mean risk perception scores were higher after lockdown by 3.59%. Factors associated with risk perception of COVID-19 were survey period, age group, region of residence, and occupation. Non-health care workers had a lower risk perception of COVID-19. This first comparative study on the level of risk perception of Africans during and after the lockdown shows that one in every three and every four persons in sub-Sahara Africa felt at high risk of contracting COVID-19 and thought they could die from contracting the same, respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Maja Kuzmanovska ◽  
Golubinka Boshevska ◽  
Elizabeta Janchevska ◽  
Teodora Buzharova ◽  
Milica Simova ◽  

Influenza viruses know no boundaries, representing an example of rapid virus evolution combined with pressure exerted by the host’s immune system. Seasonal influenza causes 4–50 million symptomatic cases in the EU/EEA each year, with a global death toll reaching 650,000 deaths. That being the case, in 2014 North Macedonia introduced the sentinel surveillance in addition to the existing influenza surveillance in order to obtain more precise data on the burden of disease, circulating viruses and to implement timely preventive measures. The aims of this study were to give a comprehensive virological and epidemiological overview of four influenza seasons (2016–2020), assess the frequency and distribution of influenza circulating in North Macedonia and to carry out molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) from ILI and SARI patients. Our results showed that out of 1,632 tested samples, 46.4% were influenza positive, with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 accounting for the majority of cases (44%), followed by influenza B (32%) and A(H3N2) (17%). By comparing the sentinel surveillance system to the routine surveillance system, we showed that the newly applied system works efficiently and gives great results in the selection of cases. Statistically significant differences (p = &lt; 0.0000001) were observed when comparing the number of reported ILI cases among patients aged 0–4, 5–14, 15–29, and 30–64 years to the reference age group. The phylogenetic analysis of the HA sequences unveiled the resemblance of mutations circulating seasonally worldwide, with a vast majority of circulating viruses belonging to subclade 6B.1A. The PROVEAN analysis showed that the D187A substitution in the receptor binding site (RBS) of the A(H1N1)pdm09 HA has a deleterious effect on the its function. The A(H3N2) viruses fell into the 3C.2a and 3C.3a throughout the analyzed seasons. Molecular characterization revealed that various substitutions in the A(H3N2) viruses gradually replaced the parental variant in subsequent seasons before becoming the dominant variant. With the introduction of sentinel surveillance, accompanied by the advances made in whole-genome sequencing and vaccine therapeutics, public health officials can now modify their approach in disease management and intervene effectively and in a timely manner to prevent major morbidity and mortality from influenza.

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