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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Han Han ◽  
Yaying Cao ◽  
Chengwu Feng ◽  
Yan Zheng ◽  
Klodian Dhana ◽  
...  

<a>Objective: </a><a></a><a></a><a></a><a></a><a>To evaluate the association of a healthy lifestyle, involving seven low-risk factors mentioned in diabetes management guidelines (no current smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, regular physical activity, healthy diet, less sedentary behavior, adequate sleep duration, and appropriate social connection), with all-cause and cause-specific mortality among individuals with type 2 diabetes.</a> <p>Research Design and Methods: This study included 13,366 participants with baseline type 2 diabetes from the UK Biobank free of CVD or cancer. Lifestyle information was collected through a baseline questionnaire.</p> <p><a>Results: During a median follow-up of 11.7 years, 1,561 deaths were documented, with 625 from cancer, 370 from CVD, 115 from respiratory disease, 81 from digestive disease, and 74 from neurodegenerative disease.</a><a> In multivariate-adjusted model, each lifestyle factor was significantly associated with all-cause mortality and hazard ratios (95% CIs) associated with the lifestyle score (scoring 6-7 vs. 0-2 unless specified) were 0.42 (0.34, 0.52) for all-cause mortality, 0.57 (0.41, 0.80) for cancer mortality, 0.35 (0.22, 0.56) for CVD mortality, 0.26 (0.10, 0.63) for respiratory mortality, and 0.28 (0.14, 0.53) for digestive mortality (scoring 5-7 vs. 0-2). In the population-attributable-risk analysis, 27.1% (95% CI: 16.1, 38.0%) death was attributable to a poor lifestyle (scoring 0-5). </a><a>The association between a healthy lifestyle and all-cause mortality was consistent, irrespective of factors reflecting diabetes severity (diabetes duration, glycemic control, diabetes-related microvascular disease, and diabetes medication)</a>.</p> <p>Conclusions: <a></a><a></a>A healthy lifestyle was associated with a lower risk of mortality due to all-cause, CVD, cancer, respiratory disease, and digestive disease among individuals with type 2 diabetes. <b></b></p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Han Han ◽  
Yaying Cao ◽  
Chengwu Feng ◽  
Yan Zheng ◽  
Klodian Dhana ◽  
...  

<a>Objective: </a><a></a><a></a><a></a><a></a><a>To evaluate the association of a healthy lifestyle, involving seven low-risk factors mentioned in diabetes management guidelines (no current smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, regular physical activity, healthy diet, less sedentary behavior, adequate sleep duration, and appropriate social connection), with all-cause and cause-specific mortality among individuals with type 2 diabetes.</a> <p>Research Design and Methods: This study included 13,366 participants with baseline type 2 diabetes from the UK Biobank free of CVD or cancer. Lifestyle information was collected through a baseline questionnaire.</p> <p><a>Results: During a median follow-up of 11.7 years, 1,561 deaths were documented, with 625 from cancer, 370 from CVD, 115 from respiratory disease, 81 from digestive disease, and 74 from neurodegenerative disease.</a><a> In multivariate-adjusted model, each lifestyle factor was significantly associated with all-cause mortality and hazard ratios (95% CIs) associated with the lifestyle score (scoring 6-7 vs. 0-2 unless specified) were 0.42 (0.34, 0.52) for all-cause mortality, 0.57 (0.41, 0.80) for cancer mortality, 0.35 (0.22, 0.56) for CVD mortality, 0.26 (0.10, 0.63) for respiratory mortality, and 0.28 (0.14, 0.53) for digestive mortality (scoring 5-7 vs. 0-2). In the population-attributable-risk analysis, 27.1% (95% CI: 16.1, 38.0%) death was attributable to a poor lifestyle (scoring 0-5). </a><a>The association between a healthy lifestyle and all-cause mortality was consistent, irrespective of factors reflecting diabetes severity (diabetes duration, glycemic control, diabetes-related microvascular disease, and diabetes medication)</a>.</p> <p>Conclusions: <a></a><a></a>A healthy lifestyle was associated with a lower risk of mortality due to all-cause, CVD, cancer, respiratory disease, and digestive disease among individuals with type 2 diabetes. <b></b></p>


PLoS Medicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (12) ◽  
pp. e1003845
Author(s):  
Esmée A. Bakker ◽  
Duck-chul Lee ◽  
Maria T. E. Hopman ◽  
Eline J. Oymans ◽  
Paula M. Watson ◽  
...  

Background Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is strongly associated with risk reductions of noncommunicable diseases and mortality. Cardiovascular health status may influence the benefits of MVPA. We compare the association between MVPA and incident major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and mortality between healthy individuals, individuals with elevated levels of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and findings A cohort study was performed in the 3 northern provinces of the Netherlands, in which data were collected between 2006 and 2018, with a median follow-up of 6.8 years (Q25 5.7; Q75 7.9). A total of 142,493 participants of the Lifelines Cohort Study were stratified at baseline as (1) healthy; (2) CVRF; or (3) CVD. Individuals were categorized into “inactive” and 4 quartiles of least (Q1) to most (Q4) active based on self-reported MVPA volumes. Primary outcome was a composite of incident MACE and all-cause mortality during follow-up. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and P values. The main analyses were stratified on baseline health status and adjusted for age, sex, income, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, protein, fat and carbohydrate intake, kidney function, arrhythmias, hypothyroid, lung disease, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. The event rates were 2.2% in healthy individuals (n = 2,485 of n = 112,018), 7.9% in those with CVRF (n = 2,214 of n = 27,982) and 40.9% in those with CVD (n = 1,019 of n = 2,493). No linear association between MVPA and all-cause mortality or MACE was found for healthy individuals (P = 0.36) and individuals with CVRF (P = 0.86), but a linear association was demonstrated for individuals with CVD (P = 0.04). Adjusted HRs in healthy individuals were 0.81 (95% CI 0.64 to 1.02, P = 0.07), 0.71 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.89, P = 0.004), 0.72 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.91, P = 0.006), and 0.76 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.96, P = 0.02) for MVPA Q1 to Q4, respectively, compared to inactive individuals. In individuals with CVRF, HRs were 0.69 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.82, P < 0.001), 0.66 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.80, P < 0.001), 0.64 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.77, P < 0.001), and 0.69 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.84, P < 0.001) for MVPA Q1 to Q4, respectively, compared to inactive individuals. Finally, HRs for MVPA Q1 to Q4 compared to inactive individuals were 0.80 (95% CI 0.62 to 1.03, P = 0.09), 0.82 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.06, P = 0.13), 0.74 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.95, P = 0.02), and 0.70 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.93, P = 0.01) in CVD patients. Leisure MVPA was associated with the most health benefits, nonleisure MVPA with little health benefits, and occupational MVPA with no health benefits. Study limitations include its observational nature, self-report data about MVPA, and potentially residual confounding despite extensive adjustment for lifestyle risk factors and health-related factors. Conclusions MVPA is beneficial for reducing adverse outcomes, but the shape of the association depends on cardiovascular health status. A curvilinear association was found in healthy and CVRF individuals with a steep risk reduction at low to moderate MVPA volumes and benefits plateauing at high(er) MVPA volumes. CVD patients demonstrated a linear association, suggesting a constant reduction of risk with higher volumes of MVPA. Therefore, individuals with CVDs should be encouraged that “more is better” regarding MVPA. These findings may help to optimize exercise prescription to gain maximal benefits of a physically active lifestyle.


Diabetologia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jean Strelitz ◽  
Emma R. Lawlor ◽  
Yue Wu ◽  
Annabel Estlin ◽  
Giri Nandakumar ◽  
...  

Abstract Aims/hypothesis Weight loss is often recommended in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. While evidence has shown that large weight loss may lead to diabetes remission and improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, long-term impacts are unclear. We performed a systematic review of studies of weight loss and other weight changes and incidence of CVD among people with type 2 diabetes. Methods Observational studies of behavioural (non-surgical and non-pharmaceutical) weight changes and CVD events among adults with type 2 diabetes, and trials of behavioural interventions targeting weight loss, were identified through searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) until 9 July 2019. Included studies reported change in weight and CVD and/or mortality outcomes among adults with type 2 diabetes. We performed a narrative synthesis of observational studies and meta-analysis of trial data. Results Of 13,227 identified articles, 17 (14 observational studies, three trials) met inclusion criteria. Weight gain (vs no change) was associated with higher hazard of CVD events (HRs [95% CIs] ranged from 1.13 [1.00, 1.29] to 1.63 [1.11, 2.39]) and all-cause mortality (HRs [95% CIs] ranged from 1.26 [1.12, 1.41] to 1.57 [1.33, 1.85]). Unintentional weight loss (vs no change) was associated with higher risks of all-cause mortality, but associations with intentional weight loss were unclear. Behavioural interventions targeting weight loss showed no effect on CVD events (pooled HR [95% CI] 0.95 [0.71, 1.27]; I2 = 50.1%). Risk of bias was moderate in most studies and was high in three studies, due to potential uncontrolled confounding and method of weight assessment. Conclusions/interpretation Weight gain is associated with increased risks of CVD and mortality, although there is a lack of data supporting behavioural weight-loss interventions for CVD prevention among adults with type 2 diabetes. Long-term follow-up of behavioural intervention studies is needed to understand effects on CVD and mortality and to inform policy concerning weight management advice and support for people with diabetes. PROSPERO registration CRD42019127304. Graphical abstract


2021 ◽  
pp. 2101958
Author(s):  
Bastien Lechat ◽  
Sarah Appleton ◽  
Yohannes Adama Melaku ◽  
Kristy Hansen ◽  
R. Doug McEvoy ◽  
...  

Study ObjectivesIncreased mortality has been reported in people with insomnia and in those with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). However, these conditions commonly co-occur and the combined effect of co-morbid insomnia and sleep apnoea (COMISA) on mortality risk is unknown. This study used Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS) data to assess associations between COMISA and all-cause mortality risk.MethodsInsomnia was defined as difficulties falling asleep, maintaining sleep, and/or early morning awakenings from sleep ≥16 times a month and daytime impairment. OSA was defined as an apnoea-hypopnoea index ≥15 events/h sleep. COMISA was defined if both conditions were present. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the association between COMISA and all-cause mortality (n=1210) over 15 years of follow-up.Results5236 participants were included. 2708 (52%) did not have insomnia/OSA (control), 170 (3%) had insomnia-alone, 2221 (42%) had OSA-alone, and 137 (3%) had COMISA. COMISA participants had a higher prevalence of hypertension (ORs [95%CI]; 2.00 [1.39, 2.90]) and cardiovascular disease compared to controls (1.70 [1.11, 2.61]). Insomnia-alone and OSA-alone were associated with higher risk of hypertension but not cardiovascular disease compared to controls. Compared to controls, COMISA was associated with a 47% (HR, 95% CI; 1.47 (1.06, 2.07)) increased risk of mortality. The association between COMISA and mortality was consistent across multiple definitions of OSA and insomnia.ConclusionsCo-morbid insomnia and sleep apnoea was associated with higher rates of hypertension and cardiovascular disease at baseline, and an increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to no insomnia/OSA.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jin-Wen Luo ◽  
Wen-Hui Duan ◽  
Yan-Qiao Yu ◽  
Lei Song ◽  
Da-Zhuo Shi

Background: Insulin resistance (IR) represents a critical regulator in the development and progress of coronary artery disease (CAD). Triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index, a novel surrogate biomarker of IR, has been implicated in several cardiovascular diseases. Accordingly, we conduct a meta-analysis to elucidate the relationship between TyG index and adverse cardiovascular events in patients with CAD.Methods: To identify the studies examining the predictive capacity of the TyG index for adverse cardiovascular events in the setting of CAD, we performed a comprehensive literature retrieval of Scopus, PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science, from the inception of databases to October 5, 2021. We pooled the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) along with 95% CI using a random-effects model. The primary outcome was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including all-cause death, cardiovascular death (CV death), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina or heart failure, and revascularization. The secondary outcomes were all-cause death, CV death, MI, stroke, and revascularization. Additionally, we conducted subgroup analyses stratified by diabetes status, age, body mass index (BMI), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), category of TyG index, sample size, follow-up duration, and study design.Results: About 12 studies involving 28,795 patients with CAD were finally taken into the quantitative analysis. Our findings showed that there was a 2.14-fold higher risk of MACEs among CAD populations in the highest TyG group compared with those in the lowest TyG group (HR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.69–2.71, P &lt; 0.001). A greater risk of MACEs was observed in participants with higher BMI than those with lower BMI (P = 0.03 for interaction). In the analysis of secondary outcomes, we also observed a markedly increased risk of MI, stroke, and revascularization in the highest TyG group compared with the lowest TyG group. No evidence of a significant association between TyG index and CV mortality or all-cause mortality in patients with CAD was identified.Conclusions: The elevated TyG index is a promising predictive factor of adverse cardiovascular events in patients with CAD.Systematic Review Registration:https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO, identifier: CRD42021228521.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Author(s):  
Ruifang Liu ◽  
Fangxing Xu ◽  
Qian Ma ◽  
Yujie Zhou ◽  
Tongku Liu

Background. C-reactive protein (CRP) is one of the most common oxidative indexes affected by many diseases. In recent years, there have been many studies on CRP, but the relationship between CRP levels and the cardiovascular risk in the Chinese young female population is still unclear. The purpose of this work is to explore the predictive value of CRP for the cardiovascular risk in the Chinese young female population. Methods. The study is conducted by 1 : 1 case-control to retrospectively analyze 420 young women with acute coronary syndrome (ACS group) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and 420 young women (control group) who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) to exclude coronary heart disease from January 2007 to December 2016. All patients are divided into three subgroups according to CRP values: subgroup 1: CRP < 1.0   mg / L ( n = 402 ); subgroup 2: 1.0   mg / L ≤ CRP ≤ 3.0   mg / L ( n = 303 ); subgroup 3: CRP > 3.0   mg / L ( n = 135 ). The levels of CRP were observed in the two groups and three subgroups. Results. A total of 840 patients were analyzed. The mean duration of follow-up was 66.37 ± 30.06 months. The results showed that the level of CRP in the ACS group was significantly higher than that in the control group ( 1.30 ± 1.70 vs. 3.33 ± 5.92 , respectively, p < 0.001 ), and patients with higher CRP levels were associated with a significantly increased rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (7.0% vs. 8.9% vs. 19.30%, respectively, p < 0.05 ). After adjustment for baseline covariates, CRP level was still an independent predictor for the incidence of MACE, either as a continuous variable or as a categorical variable. There was a significantly higher rate of all-cause mortality and myocardial infarction in patients with higher CRP values during follow-up. Conclusions. The research results show that high CRP is associated with increased risk of ACS in the Chinese young female population. Risk stratification with CRP as an adjunct to predict clinical risk factors might be useful in the Chinese young female population.


2021 ◽  
pp. 000348942110625
Author(s):  
Liyang Tang ◽  
Celeste Kim ◽  
Connie Paik ◽  
Jonathan West ◽  
Steven Hasday ◽  
...  

Objectives: COVID-19 predominately affects safety net hospitals. Tracheostomies improve outcomes and decrease length of stay for COVID-19 patients. Our objectives are to determine if (1) COVID-19 tracheostomies have similar complication and mortality rates as non-COVID-19 tracheostomies and (2) to determine the effectiveness of our tracheostomy protocol at a safety net hospital. Methods: Patients who underwent tracheostomy at Los Angeles County Hospital between August 2009 and August 2020 were included. Demographics, SARS-CoV-2 status, body mass index (BMI), Charlson Co-morbidity Index (CCI), length of intubation, complication rates, decannulation rates, and 30-day all-cause mortality versus tracheostomy related mortality rates were all collected. Results: Thirty-eight patients with COVID-19 and 130 non-COVID-19 patients underwent tracheostomies. Both groups were predominately male with similar BMI and CCI, though the COVID-19 patients were more likely to be Hispanic and intubated for a longer time ( P = .034 and P < .0001, respectively). Both groups also had similar, low intraoperative complications at 2% to 3% and comparable long-term post-operative complications. However, COVID-19 patients had more perioperative complications within 7 days of surgery ( P < .01). Specifically, they were more likely to have perioperative bleeding at their tracheostomy sites ( P = .03) and long-term post-operative mucus plugging ( P < .01). However, both groups had similar 30-day mortality rates. There were no incidences of COVID-19 transmission to healthcare workers. Conclusions: COVID-19 tracheostomies are safe for patients and healthcare workers. Careful attention should be paid to suctioning to prevent mucus plugging. Level of Evidence: 3


Author(s):  
Amelie Bernier-Jean ◽  
Germaine Wong ◽  
Valeria Saglimbene ◽  
Marinella Ruospo ◽  
Suetonia C. Palmer ◽  
...  

Background and objectivesDietary potassium restriction in people receiving maintenance hemodialysis is standard practice and is recommended in guidelines, despite a lack of evidence. We aimed to assess the association between dietary potassium intake and mortality and whether hyperkalemia mediates this association.Design, setting, participants, & measurementsA total of 8043 adults undergoing maintenance hemodialysis in Europe and South America were included in the DIETary intake, death and hospitalization in adults with end-stage kidney disease treated with HemoDialysis (DIET-HD) study. We measured baseline potassium intake from the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network food frequency questionnaire and performed time-to-event and mediation analyses.ResultsThe median potassium intake at baseline was 3.5 (interquartile range, 2.5–5.0) g/d. During a median follow-up of 4.0 years (25,890 person-years), we observed 2921 (36%) deaths. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, including cardiac disease and food groups, dietary potassium intake was not associated with all-cause mortality (per 1 g/d higher dietary potassium intake: hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.95 to 1.05). A mediation analysis showed no association of potassium intake with mortality, either through or independent of serum potassium (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.00 and hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.06, respectively). Potassium intake was not significantly associated with serum levels (0.03; 95% CI, −0.01 to 0.07 mEq/L per 1 g/d higher dietary potassium intake) or the prevalence of hyperkalemia (≥6.0 mEq/L) at baseline (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.37 per 1 g/d higher dietary potassium intake). Hyperkalemia was associated with cardiovascular death (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.48).ConclusionsHigher dietary intake of potassium is not associated with hyperkalemia or death in patients treated with hemodialysis.


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