chronic colitis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Xiao-fei He ◽  
Li-li Li ◽  
Wen-biao Xian ◽  
Ming-yue Li ◽  
Li-ying Zhang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Chin‐Hsien Lin ◽  
Han‐Yi Lin ◽  
En‐Pong Ho ◽  
Yi‐Ci Ke ◽  
Mei‐Fang Cheng ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 87 ◽  
pp. 104790
Enyin Li ◽  
Ting Wang ◽  
Rui Zhou ◽  
Ziwei Zhou ◽  
Chongyang Zhang ◽  

Molly Pratt ◽  
Jessica D. Forbes ◽  
Natalie C. Knox ◽  
Charles N. Bernstein ◽  
Gary Van Domselaar

Chronic intestinal inflammation and microbial dysbiosis are hallmarks of colorectal cancer (CRC) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanistic relationship between gut dysbiosis and disease has not yet been fully characterized. Although the “trigger” of intestinal inflammation remains unknown, a wealth of evidence supports the role of the gut microbiome as a mutualistic pseudo-organ that significantly influences intestinal homeostasis and is capable of regulating host immunity. In recent years, culture-independent methods for assessing microbial communities as a whole (termed meta-omics) have grown beyond taxonomic identification and genome characterization (metagenomics) into new fields of research that collectively expand our knowledge of microbiomes. Metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metabolomics are meta-omics techniques that aim to describe and quantify the functional activity of the gut microbiome. Uncovering microbial metabolic contributions in the context of IBD and CRC using these approaches provides insight into how the metabolic microenvironment of the GI tract shapes microbial community structure and how the microbiome, in turn, influences the surrounding ecosystem. Immunological studies in germ-free and wild-type mice have described several host-microbiome interactions that may play a role in autoinflammation. Chronic colitis is a precursor to CRC, and changes in the gut microbiome may be an important link triggering the neoplastic process in chronic colitis. In this review, we describe several microbiome-mediated mechanisms of host immune signaling, such as short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and bile acid metabolism, inflammasome activation, and cytokine regulation in the context of IBD and CRC, and discuss the supporting role for these mechanisms by meta-omics data.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 187-204
Emiko Mizoguchi ◽  
Takayuki Sadanaga ◽  
Toshiyuki Okada

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory disorders that affects many individuals throughout their lives. Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are two major forms of IBD. Until the early 1990s, a murine model of spontaneous chronic colitis was unavailable. As a major breakthrough in the basic research field of IBD, three genetically manipulated murine chronic colitis models, including interleukin (IL)-2 knockout (KO), IL-10 KO, and T cell receptor alpha chain (TCRα) KO models, were established in 1993. Since then, complicated immunobiological mechanisms during the development of UC have been gradually discovered by utilizing a wide variety of murine models of IBD, including the TCRα KO mouse model. In particular, it has been recognized that four major factors, including enteric, environmental, and immunological factors as well as enteric microbiota are highly and mutually involved in the pathogenesis of UC. As a pioneer of the TCRα KO murine model of UC, our group has identified that the interactions between the unique TCRα-β+ T cell population and antigen-presenting cells, including dendritic cells and B cells, play a key role for the development and regulation of UC-like chronic colitis, respectively. Here we have summarized clinically proven pathogenic and regulatory factors which have been identified by this novel TCRα KO murine model of UC in the past nearly three decades.

2021 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 14-19
I. T. Maltsev ◽  
A. V. Pleshakova ◽  
F. I. Shalaginova ◽  
N. A. Gaidamak

Among diseases of the digestive system, chronic colitis of various etiologies is the most common.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Hao-Ming Xu ◽  
Hong-Li Huang ◽  
Yan-Di Liu ◽  
Jia-Qi Zhu ◽  
You-Lian Zhou ◽  

Abstract Background Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) replicates ulcerative colitis (UC)-like colitis in murine models. However, the microbial characteristics of DSS-triggered colitis require further clarification. To analyze the changes in gut microbiota associated with DSS-induced acute and chronic colitis. Methods Acute colitis was induced in mice by administering 3% DSS for 1 week in the drinking water, and chronic colitis was induced by supplementing drinking water with 2.5% DSS every other week for 5 weeks. Control groups received the same drinking water without DSS supplementation. The histopathological score and length of the colons, and disease activity index (DAI) were evaluated to confirm the presence of experimental colitis. Intestinal microbiota was profiled by 16S rDNA sequencing of cecal content. Results Mice with both acute and chronic DSS-triggered colitis had significantly higher DAI and colon histopathological scores in contrast to the control groups (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), and the colon was remarkably shortened (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001). The gut microbiota α-diversity was partly downregulated in both acute and chronic colitis groups in contrast to their respective control groups (Pielou index P = 0.0022, P = 0.0649; Shannon index P = 0.0022, P = 0.0931). The reduction in the Pielou and Shannon indices were more obvious in mice with acute colitis (P = 0.0022, P = 0.0043). The relative abundance of Bacteroides and Turicibacter was increased (all P < 0.05), while that of Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Ruminiclostridium, Rikenella, Alistipes, Alloprevotella, and Butyricicoccus was significantly decreased after acute DSS induction (all P < 0.05). The relative abundance of Bacteroides, Akkermansia, Helicobacter, Parabacteroides, Erysipelatoclostridium, Turicibacter and Romboutsia was also markedly increased (all P < 0.05), and that of Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, Alistipes, Enterorhabdus, Prevotellaceae_UCG-001, Butyricicoccus, Ruminiclostridium_6, Muribaculum, Ruminococcaceae_NK4A214_group, Family_XIII_UCG-001 and Flavonifractor was significantly decreased after chronic DSS induction (all P < 0.05). Conclusion DSS-induced acute and chronic colitis demonstrated similar symptoms and histopathological changes. The changes in the gut microbiota of the acute colitis model were closer to that observed in UC. The acute colitis model had greater abundance of SCFAs-producing bacteria and lower α-diversity compared to the chronic colitis model.

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