Cardiovascular Disease
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A. A. Suprunovich ◽  
A. Ya. Bedrov ◽  
A. A. Vrabiy ◽  
A. A. Moiseev ◽  
A. V. Baykova ◽  

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The main contribution to the structure of mortality from CVD is made by atherosclerosis. Indications for surgical treatment of patients with diseases caused by atherosclerotic lesions of the arteries are set taking into account the degree of their stenosis. Angiography has been considered the gold standard for screening patients with CVD for many years. Numerous studies carried out over the past several decades have revealed the weak side of this method in assessing the significance of borderline stenosis. Therefore, to analyze such changes, functional tests were introduced to clarify the indications for surgical intervention. Currently, criteria for the significance of stenosis of the iliac, renal and coronary arteries have been determined. The significance of stenosis of the arteries supplying the brain and intestines is still a matter of debate and requires further study.

2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (4) ◽  
pp. 288-297
Tanya Kuper ◽  
Olusegun Famure ◽  
Jamie Greenfield ◽  
Yanhong Li ◽  
Syed Ibrahim ◽  

Introduction: Proteinuria is recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in kidney transplant recipients, but previous studies have not considered the impact of changes in urine protein over time. Research Question and Design: We used time-dependent, multivariable Cox proportional hazards models in this observational cohort study of adult kidney transplant recipients to evaluate whether proteinuria measured by dipstick on random spot urine samples starting from 1-month post-transplant was associated with the risk of major adverse cardiac events and graft loss. Results: A total of 144 major adverse cardiac events, defined as acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, revascularization, or all-cause mortality, were observed in 1106 patients over 5728.7 person-years. Any level of proteinuria greater or equal to trace resulted in a two-fold increase in the risk of major adverse cardiac events (hazard ratio 2.00 [95% confidence interval 1.41, 2.84]). This relationship was not found to be dose-dependent (hazard ratios of 2.98, 1.76, 1.63, and 1.54 for trace, 1+, 2+, and 3+ urine protein, respectively). There was an increased risk of graft failure with greater urine protein concentration (hazard ratios 2.22, 2.85, 6.41, and 19.71 for trace, 1+, 2+, and 3+, respectively). Conclusion: Urine protein is associated with major adverse cardiac events and graft loss in kidney transplant recipients. The role of interventions to reduce proteinuria on decreasing the risk of adverse cardiovascular and graft outcomes in kidney transplant recipients requires further study.

2021 ◽  
Bryn Hummel ◽  
Mara Yerkes ◽  
Ralf E Harskamp ◽  
Henrike Galenkamp ◽  
Anton E Kunst ◽  

Abstract Objective We studied the association between the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including the restrictive measures, and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women and men. Next, we analysed whether changes in these metabolic risk factors were mediated by psychological and behavioural mechanisms. Design In this natural experiment, we assessed changes from baseline in metabolic CVD risk factors in the exposed group (whose follow-up measurements were taken during the pandemic), and compared these to the changes in the control group (whose follow-up measurements were taken before the pandemic). Participants This study used data from 6962 participants from six different ethnic groups (Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Ghanaian, Turkish and Moroccan) of the HELIUS study, based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We included women and men without prior CVD, who participated in both the baseline (2011-2015) and follow-up measurements (2019-2021). Outcome measures Changes between baseline and follow-up measurements in six metabolic CVD risk factors were calculated for systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results The exposed group experienced somewhat less favourable changes over time in SBP, DBP and FPG (the latter only in women) than the control group, while temporal changes in HbA1c and eGFR were more favourable among the control group. For instance, SBP was 1.119 mmHg [0.046, 2.193] higher in exposed than non-exposed women, and 1.380 [0.288, 2471] in men. Changes in SBP and DBP were partially mediated by changes in behavioural factors, most notably BMI and alcohol consumption. Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic, including the restrictive lockdown measures, is associated with a deterioration of several CVD risk factors in women and men. These findings may aid in decision making concerning the management of and the recovery following the pandemic

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Eirin B. Haug ◽  
Amanda R. Markovitz ◽  
Abigail Fraser ◽  
Håvard Dalen ◽  
Pål R. Romundstad ◽  

AbstractA history of preterm or small (SGA) or large (LGA) for gestational age offspring is associated with smoking and unfavorable levels of BMI, blood pressure, glucose and lipids. Whether and to what extent the excess cardiovascular risk observed in women with these pregnancy complications is explained by conventional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is not known. We examined the association between a history of SGA, LGA or preterm birth and cardiovascular disease among 23,284 parous women and quantified the contribution of individual CVRFs to the excess cardiovascular risk using an inverse odds weighting approach. The hazard ratios (HR) between SGA and LGA offspring and CVD were 1.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15, 1.48) and 0.89 (95% CI 0.76, 1.03), respectively. Smoking explained 49% and blood pressure may have explained ≈12% of the excess cardiovascular risk in women with SGA offspring. Women with preterm birth had a 24% increased risk of CVD (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06, 1.45), but we found no evidence for CVRFs explaining any of this excess cardiovascular risk. While smoking explains a substantial proportion of excess cardiovascular risk in women with SGA offspring and blood pressure may explain a small proportion in these women, we found no evidence that conventional CVRFs explain any of the excess cardiovascular risk in women with preterm birth.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Wei-Lan Li ◽  
Nan-Hui Zhang ◽  
Shu-Wang Ge ◽  
Gang Xu

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> High risk of early death, especially contributed to cardiovascular disease, exists in patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). And the burden of cardiovascular disease is able to be lightened by an increase in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3 PUFA). A diet high in omega-3 PUFA in the general population is protective, although it is inconclusive about its beneficial role in the CKD population. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> From the 1999 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), we can collect 2,990 participants who suffered from CKD, who were classified into 4 groups: &#x3c;0.86, 0.87–1.30, 1.31–1.92, and 1.93–9.65 g/day based on NHANES 24-h dietary recall questionnaire dietary omega-3 PUFA. Moreover, their mortality details were available to be obtained by linking NHANES to the National Death Index. The associations between dietary omega-3 PUFA and mortality were evaluated by constructing multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Over 8 years of a median follow-up, 864 deaths were recorded. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for all-cause mortality of the diseased people with CKD in the 2nd (0.87–1.30 g/day), 3rd (0.87–1.30 g/day), and 4th (1.93–9.65 g/day) quartiles of dietary omega-3 PUFA were 0.94 (0.72, 1.23), 0.74 (0.54, 1.02), and 0.67 (0.48, 0.93), respectively, versus those with the lowest quartile of dietary omega-3 PUFA intake (&#x3c;0.86 g/day) (<i>p</i> for trend = 0.011). <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> There may be a inverse relation of dietary omega-3 PUFA intake and all-cause mortality in patients with CKD. Therefore, an increase of dietary omega-3 PUFA may be encouraged to be used clinically in patients with CKD.

2021 ◽  
Xingqi Cao ◽  
Jingyun Zhang ◽  
Chao Ma ◽  
Xueqin Li ◽  
Chia-Ling Kuo ◽  

Background: While childhood and adulthood traumatic experiences have been linked to subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD), the relationship between life course traumas and CVD and the underpinning pathways are poorly understood. This study aimed to: (1) examine the associations of childhood, adulthood, and lifetime traumas with CVD; (2) examine the associations between diverse life course traumatic profiles and CVD; and (3) examine the extent to which Phenotypic Age (PhenoAge), a well-developed phenotypic aging measure, mediates these associations. Methods: We included 104,939 participants from the UK Biobank who completed the 2016 online mental health questionnaire. CVD outcomes including ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke were ascertained. Childhood, adulthood, and lifetime traumas were categorized into three subgroups (mild, moderate, and severe), respectively. Four life course traumatic profiles were defined as non-severe traumas across life course, non-severe childhood and severe adulthood traumas, severe childhood and non-severe adulthood traumas, and severe traumas across life course based on both childhood and adulthood traumas. PhenoAge was measured using an equation previously developed. Multivariable logistic models and formal mediation analyses were performed. Results: Of 104,939 participants, 7,398 (7.0%) were diagnosed with CVD. Subgroups of childhood, adulthood, and lifetime traumas were associated with CVD, respectively. Furthermore, life course traumatic profiles were significantly associated with CVD. For instance, compared with subgroups experiencing non-severe traumas across life course, those who experienced non-severe childhood and severe adulthood traumas, severe childhood and non-severe adulthood traumas, and severe traumas across life course had higher odd of CVD, with odds ratios of 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00, 1.15), 1.17 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.25), and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.24, 1.43), respectively. Formal mediation analyses suggested that PhenoAge partially mediated the above associations. For instance, PhenoAge mediated 5.8% of increased CVD events in subgroups who experienced severe childhood traumas, relative to those experiencing mild childhood traumas. Conclusions: Childhood, adulthood, and lifetime traumas, as well as diverse life course traumatic profiles, were associated with CVD. Furthermore, phenotypic aging partially mediated these associations. These findings suggest a potential pathway from life course traumas to CVD through phenotypic aging, and underscore the importance of policy programs targeting traumatic events over the life course in ameliorating inequalities in cardiovascular health.

Chanhyun Park ◽  
Angela Chang ◽  
Boon Ng ◽  
Gary Young

RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate how reported comprehension of the Medicare program and its prescription drug benefits affects cost-related medication nonadherence (CRN) among Medicare beneficiaries with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used the 2017 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey Public Use File data and included Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥ 65 years who reported having at least one CVD risk factor (i.e., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity) (n=2,821). A survey-weighted logistic model was used to examine associations between lack of difficulty understanding the Medicare program and its prescription drug benefits and CRN, controlling for beneficiaries’ demographic (e.g., age) and clinical characteristics (e.g, comorbidities). This study further analyzed five subgroups based on the type of CVD risk factors involved. RESULTS: Among Medicare beneficiaries with CVD risk factors, 14.4% reported CRN. Medicare beneficiaries with CVD risk factors who reported difficulty understanding the overall Medicare program and its prescription drug benefits were more likely to report CRN, compared to those who reported easy understanding of the overall Medicare program (OR=1.49; 95% CI=1.09, 2.04; p<0.001) and its prescription drug benefits (OR=2.01; 95% CI=1.51, 2.67; p<0.001). Similar results were obtained for the subgroups with obesity, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived lack of difficulty understanding the Medicare Program and its prescription drug benefits has a positive impact on CRN reduction among Medicare beneficiaries with CVD risk factors, especially those with obesity, hypertension or hyperlipidemia. Monitoring and enhancing Medicare beneficiaries’ overall understanding of the Medicare program may reduce CRN.

Daniel H. Katz ◽  
Usman A. Tahir ◽  
Alexander G. Bick ◽  
Akhil Pampana ◽  
Debby Ngo ◽  

Background: Plasma proteins are critical mediators of cardiovascular processes and are the targets of many drugs. Previous efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of the plasma proteome have been limited by a focus on individuals of European descent and leveraged genotyping arrays and imputation. Here we describe whole genome sequence analysis of the plasma proteome in individuals with greater African ancestry, increasing our power to identify novel genetic determinants. Methods: Proteomic profiling of 1,301 proteins was performed in 1852 Black adults from the Jackson Heart Study using aptamer-based proteomics (SomaScan ® ). Whole genome sequencing association analysis was ascertained for all variants with minor allele count ≥ 5. Results were validated using an alternative, antibody-based, proteomic platform (Olink ® ) as well as replicated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the HERITAGE Family Study. Results: We identify 569 genetic associations between 479 proteins and 438 unique genetic regions at a Bonferroni-adjusted significance level of 3.8 × 10 −11 . These associations include 114 novel locus-protein relationships and an additional 217 novel sentinel variant-protein relationships. Novel cardiovascular findings include new protein associations at the APOE gene locus including ZAP70 (sentinel single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs7412-T, β = 0.61±0.05, p-value = 3.27 × 10 −30 ) and MMP-3 (β = -0.60±0.05, p = 1.67 × 10 −32 ), as well as a completely novel pleiotropic locus at the HPX gene, associated with nine proteins. Further, the associations suggest new mechanisms of genetically mediated cardiovascular disease linked to African ancestry; we identify a novel association between variants linked to APOL1 associated chronic kidney and heart disease and the protein CKAP2 (rs73885319-G, β = 0.34±0.04, p = 1.34 × 10 −17 ) as well as an association between ATTR amyloidosis and RBP4 levels in community dwelling individuals without heart failure. Conclusions: Taken together, these results provide evidence for the functional importance of variants in non-European populations, and suggest new biological mechanisms for ancestry-specific determinants of lipids, coagulation and myocardial function.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 5903
Lucia Mangone ◽  
Pamela Mancuso ◽  
Luigi Tarantini ◽  
Mario Larocca ◽  
Isabella Bisceglia ◽  

The present research describes 25 years of cardiovascular mortality in a cohort of patients in Northern Italy. The study included patients with malignant cancer enrolled in the period of 1996–2019, and describes cardiovascular and cancer mortality in relation to sex, age, year of diagnosis, months of survivorship, tumor site, and standardized mortality ratio (SMR). Out of 67,173 patients, 38,272 deaths (57.7%) were recorded: 4466 from cardiovascular disease (CVD) (6.6%), and 28,579 (42.6%) from cancer. The proportion of CVD death increased from 4.5% in the first two years after diagnosis, to 7.3% after more than 10 years, while the proportion of deaths from cancer decreased from 70.5% to 9.4%. The CVD SMR comparing cancer patients with the general population was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.82–0.92) in 1996–1999, rising to 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84–1.08) in 2015–2019, without differences in terms of sex or age. The risk of dying from CVD was higher compared with the general population (SMR 1.31; 95% CI: 1.24–1.39) only in the first two years after diagnosis. The trend over time underscored that CVD deaths increased in patients with breast, bladder, prostate, and colorectal cancers, and, in the more recent period, for kidney cancer and melanoma patients. Our data confirmed that cardiovascular mortality is an important issue in the modern management of cancer patients, suggesting the need for an extensive interdisciplinary approach.

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