Longitudinal Study
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2021 ◽  
pp. 105477382110470
Kyung Hee Lee ◽  
Ji Yeon Lee ◽  
Bora Kim ◽  
Marie Boltz

This longitudinal study aimed to explore the event-specific emotional expressions of persons living with dementia in long-term care during a 6-month period with repeated observations. Emotional expressions at three specific events (mealtime, personal care, and social activity) were videotaped at the beginning, month 3, and month 6. Thirty participants were enrolled, and nine observations were made for each participant. Mixed-effect models were used for statistical analysis. The type of care events, the person who provides care, and the facility type were associated with emotional expressions. Specifically, personal care, interaction with non-nursing providers, and facility type were associated with positive emotional expressions. Negative emotional expressions were related to personal care, interaction with family or volunteer, and facility type. This study provides a better understanding of event-specific emotional expressions and knowledge to support the development of emotion-oriented intervention programs to improve the psychological well-being of persons living with dementia.

2021 ◽  
Vol 65 (4) ◽  
pp. 188-201
Hannes Zacher ◽  
Cort W. Rudolph ◽  
Melina Posch

Abstract. This longitudinal study examines how three dimensions of self-reported work performance, including task proficiency, adaptivity, and proactivity, changed between December 2019 and September 2020 in Germany. Based on event system and transition theories, we expected work performance to decline because of the “lockdown” between early April and early May 2020 and to subsequently increase when restrictions were eased between early May and early September 2020. Additionally, we hypothesized that high levels of core self-evaluations (i. e., employees’ fundamental evaluations about themselves) buffer the decline and strengthen the recovery in work performance. Data were collected from N = 591 full-time employees across eight measurement points. Results based on discontinuous latent growth curve modeling largely supported the expected trajectories in work performance. Moreover, core self-evaluations positively predicted the levels of work performance as well as the slopes indicating recovery in task proficiency and adaptivity, but not proactivity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Alice J. Kim ◽  
Alaina I. Gold ◽  
Laura Fenton ◽  
Matthew J. D. Pilgrim ◽  
Morgan Lynch ◽  

Although several studies have shown small longitudinal associations between baseline loneliness and subsequent dementia risk, studies rarely test whether change in loneliness predicts dementia risk. Furthermore, as both increase with advancing age, genetic and environmental selection processes may confound the putative causal association between loneliness and dementia risk. We used a sample of 2,476 individual twins from three longitudinal twin studies of aging in the Swedish Twin Registry to test the hypothesis that greater positive change in loneliness predicts greater dementia risk. We then used a sample of 1,632 pairs of twins to evaluate the hypothesis that effects of change in loneliness on dementia risk would remain after adjusting for effects of genetic and environmental variance. Phenotypic model results suggest that mild levels of baseline loneliness predict greater dementia risk. Contrary to our hypothesis, change in loneliness did not correlate with dementia risk, regardless of whether genetic and environmental selection confounds were taken into account. Worsening loneliness with age may not confer greater dementia risk.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 103
Cillian McDowell ◽  
Mark Ward ◽  
Christine McGarrigle ◽  
Aisling O'Halloran ◽  
Sarah Gibney ◽  

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and containment strategies employed to limit its spread have profoundly impacted daily life. Emerging evidence shows that mental health worsened compared to pre-pandemic trends. In this study, we examine associations of self-reported changes in physical activities and sedentary behaviors with mental health changes during the COVID-19 pandemic among older Irish adults. Methods: This study used data from Wave 5 (2018) and the COVID-19 study (July–November 2020) of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). Depressive symptoms were measured using the 8-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale; Perceived stress, using the 4‐item Perceived Stress Scale. Participants reported perceived changes in participation in physical activities and sedentary behaviours before and after the outbreak of COVID-19. Linear regressions examined separate associations between changes in physical activities and sedentary behaviours and changes in perceived stress/depressive symptoms. Adjustment included demographics, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, chronic diseases and stress/depressive symptoms at Wave 5. Results: Among 2,645 participants (mean age, 68.2yrs; 56% female), 19.5% (95%CI: 18.2–20.9) reported clinically significant depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared to before the pandemic, reduced and no exercise at home and walking were associated with increased depressive symptoms and stress. A reduction in home DIY (do it yourself) was also associated with both depression and stress while doing no DIY at all was associated with increased stress but not depressive symptoms (all p<.05). Reduced hobbies and reading were associated with higher depressive symptoms, and both reduced and increased screen time were associated with increased depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Greater decreases in mental health were seen among those who reported negative changes in their physical and sedentary activities. These findings have important implications for mental health care both as we transition back to normal life and for responses to future pandemics.

Lucy Simko ◽  
Jack Chang ◽  
Maggie Jiang ◽  
Ryan Calo ◽  
Franziska Roesner ◽  

There is growing use of technology-enabled contact tracing, the process of identifying potentially infected COVID-19 patients by notifying all recent contacts of an infected person. Governments, technology companies, and research groups alike have been working towards releasing smartphone apps, using IoT devices, and distributing wearable technology to automatically track "close contacts" and identify prior contacts in the event an individual tests positive. However, there has been significant public discussion about the tensions between effective technology-based contact tracing and the privacy of individuals. To inform this discussion, we present the results of seven months of online surveys focused on contact tracing and privacy, each with 100 participants. Our first surveys were on April 1 and 3, before the first peak of the virus in the US, and we continued to conduct the surveys weekly for 10 weeks (through June), and then fortnightly through November, adding topical questions to reflect current discussions about contact tracing and COVID-19. Our results present the diversity of public opinion and can inform policy makers, technologists, researchers, and public health experts on whether and how to leverage technology to reduce the spread of COVID-19, while considering potential privacy concerns.

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