alcoholic fatty liver disease
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2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (3) ◽  
pp. 310-331
Lampros Chrysavgis ◽  
Ilias Giannakodimos ◽  
Panagiota Diamantopoulou ◽  
Evangelos Cholongitas

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Qi Liu ◽  
Chang Liu ◽  
Feifei Hu ◽  
Xuan Deng ◽  
Yumei Zhang

Background and PurposeNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cognitive impairment are common aging-related disorders. This study aims to explore the changes of cognitive function in middle-aged and elderly population with NAFLD from a Jidong impairment cohort.MethodsA total of 1,651 middle-aged and elderly participants (>40 years) without cognitive impairment were recruited into the current study in 2015 and were followed up until to 2019. Abdominal ultrasonography was used for diagnosis of NAFLD. Global cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cognitive impairment was defined as a score <18 for illiterates, a score <21 for primary school graduates, and a score <25 for junior school graduates or above. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between NAFLD and the four-year cognitive changes.ResultsOut of 1,651 participants, 795 (48.2%) of them had NAFLD in 2015. Cognitive impairment occurred in 241 (14.6%) participants in 2019. Patients with NAFLD had higher 4-year incidence of cognitive impairment than non-NAFLD patients did (17.7 vs. 11.7%, p < 0.001). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed significant association of baseline NAFLD with lower MMSE score in 2019 (β = −0.36, p < 0.05). Multivariable logistic analysis found that the adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of baseline NAFLD was 1.45 (1.00–2.11) for cognitive impairment in 2019 (p = 0.05). We also identified effects of baseline NAFLD on subsequent cognitive impairment as modified by age (interaction p < 0.01) and carotid stenosis (interaction p = 0.05) but not by gender.ConclusionsNAFLD is associated with cognitive decline, especially in middle-aged and with carotid stenosis population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 310-317
Debasish Dutta

Background: NAFLD is a condition defined by excessive fat accumulation in the form of triglycerides (steatosis) in the liver (> 5% of hepatocytes histologically). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increasingly being recognized as a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality among 15-40% of the general population. Aim of the study: To evaluate the clinical profile of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with metabolic syndrome.Methods:The present cross-sectional, retro-spective study was conducted as outdoor patient basis in the Department of Medicine, Jashore medical college hospital & a private diagnostic centre, Jashore.. A total of 74 cases were included for the study. All patients in the study underwent routine investigations including complete blood counts, blood sugar, liver function tests, HBsAg, anti-HCV, lipid profile andUSG of whole abdomen. The data was collected during OPD treatment and was recorded in predesigned and pretested proforma and analyzed.Results:Mean age of the patient was 53.70±7.22 years. On physical examination findings showed the mean BMI was 27.6±4.39 kg/m2, mean waist circumference was 74.22±7.44 cm. Mean diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) was 92.87±6.25 and mean systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 132.0±18.17. Maximum 52% patients had triglycerides >150 mg/dl while low serum HDL level was seen in 37% patients and increased waist circumference was found in 32% patients. Altered ALT ≥41 IU was observed in 10 (62.50%) of Grade II of patients with NAFLD with metabolic syndrome. Central obesity was observed in 12 (75.00%) of Grade II patients with NAFLD with metabolic syndrome. While 14 (87.50%) Grade II of patients with NAFLD with metabolic syndrome showed impaired fasting glucose (>110 mg/dl). Hypertriglyceridemia (>150 mg/dl) in 12 (70.58%) seen in Grade I of patients with NAFLD without metabolic syndrome.Conclusion:Higher prevalence of all the components of metabolic syndrome in cases of NAFLD was observed. It can be concluded that symptoms and signs of NAFLD are non-specific and occur later in the course of the disease hence the physician should have a high index of suspicion in order to detect NAFLD early in the course of the disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Mandeep K. Arora ◽  
Sudhanshu Pandey ◽  
Ritu Tomar ◽  
Jagannath Sahoo ◽  
Dinesh Kumar ◽  

Abstract Background High-fat diet (HFD) possesses a major cause of cardiovascular disease, and hepatosteatosis. Unfortunately, long-term use of statins has a theoretical possibility of worsening of hepatic histology in the patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The objective of the study was to explore hepatoprotective potential of policosanol as an alternative to statins in experimental NAFLD. For the same, young male Wistar rats were fed with HFD for 8 weeks to induce NAFLD. 48 adult Wistar rats were distributed into six investigational groups: normal control, HFD control, and four treatment groups, receiving policosanol (50 and 100 mg/kg/day), atorvastatin (30 mg/kg/day), and silymarin (100 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks along with HFD. Result HFD consumption caused profound hepatotoxicity evident by hepatic oxidative stress, increased Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin content. Treatment with policosanol (100 mg/kg) markedly reduced the elevated SGOT, SGPT, and ALP levels in HFD-fed rats. Moreover, policosanol significantly reduced hepatic oxidative stress manifest by reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased glutathione (GSH) level. The treatment with policosanol (100 mg/kg) was found to be more active in attenuating the HFD-induced hepatotoxicity as compared to policosanol (50 mg/kg) and atorvastatin (30 mg/kg). Moreover, we observed that the hepatoprotective potential of policosanol was comparable to the silymarin. Conclusions The results of the study clearly indicated that the policosanol could be considered an intriguing approach for the treatment of NAFLD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Speranta Iacob ◽  
Susanne Beckebaum ◽  
Razvan Iacob ◽  
Cristian Gheorghe ◽  
Vito Cicinnati ◽  

Recurrent or de novo non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) following liver transplantation (LT) is a frequent event being increasingly recognized over the last decade, but the influence of recurrent NASH on graft and patient outcomes is not yet established. Taking into consideration the long term survival of liver transplanted patients and long term complications with associated morbidity and mortality, it is important to define and minimize risk factors for recurrent NAFLD/NASH. Metabolic syndrome, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus are life style risk factors that can be potentially modified by various interventions and thus, decrease the risk of recurrent NAFLD/NASH. On the other hand, genetic factors like recipient and/or donor PNPLA3, TM6SF2, GCKR, MBOAT7 or ADIPOQ gene polymorphisms proved to be risk factors for recurrent NASH. Personalized interventions to influence the different metabolic disorders occurring after LT in order to minimize the risks, as well as genetic screening of donors and recipients should be performed pre-LT in order to achieve diagnosis and treatment as early as possible.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 315-320
Guoying Zhang ◽  
Yuewu Yan ◽  
Xujiao Feng

Purpose: To determine the effect of diosmetin on young, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats. Methods: Five groups of SD rats were used: control group, high-fat diet group, low-dose diosmetin group, medium-dose diosmetin group, and high-dose diosmetin group, each with 10 rats. After 3 months, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β) and TNF-α) were assayed. Protein expressions of p-AMPKα, CPT-1 and PPAR-α, AMPKα, SREBP-1c and FAS were assayed. Results: In the high-fat diet group, the levels of p-AMPKα, CPT-1 and PPAR-α were lower than the corresponding control values, while p-AMPKα, CPT-1 and PPAR-α levels were dose-dependently higher in all diosmetin groups than in NAFLD group (p < 0.05). There were higher levels of SREBP-1c and FAS in the high-fat diet group than in control group, while SREBP-1c and FAS levels in all diosmetin groups were dose-dependently lower than the corresponding levels in NAFLD group. Serum IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α levels in NAFLD group were raised, relative to control values (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Diosmetin alleviates NAFLD lesions induced by high-fat diet, slows down liver cell apoptosis, and inhibits inflammation via activation of AMPK pathway. Thus, diosmetin has potentials for use in the repair of hepatic damage induced by high-fat diet.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 880-888
A. V. Nelidova ◽  
M. A. Livzan ◽  
N. A. Nikolaev ◽  
T. S. Krolevets

The association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular risk is currently one of the actively studied areas. The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty  liver disease continues to grow worldwide. In the structure of mortality rate of patients with non-alcoholic fatty  liver disease,  the first place is occupied by cardiovascular events: stroke and myocardial infarction. Studies have shown that the presence of severe liver fibrosis (F3-4) in NAFLD not only increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but also increases the risk  of  overall  mortality  by  69%  due  to mortality from cardiovascular causes. The degree of increased risk is associated with the degree of activity of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Despite the large number of works on this topic, we do not have a clear opinion on the impact on cardiovascular risk, interaction and the contribution of various factors, as well as algorithms for managing patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This article describes the pathogenetic factors of formation of cardiovascular risks in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, proposed the idea of stratification of cardiovascular risks in these patients, taking into account changes in the structure of the liver (fibrosis) and function (clinical and biochemical activity) and also it describes the main directions of drug therapy, taking into account the common pathogenetic mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular diseases. The role of obesity, local fat depots, adipokines, and endothelial dysfunction as the leading pathogenetic factors of increased cardiovascular risk in patients with NAFLD is discussed. Among pathogenetically justified drugs in conditions of poly and comorbidity, hypolipidemic (statins, fibrates), angiotensin II receptor antagonists, beta-blockers, etc. can be considered. According to numerous studies, it becomes obvious that the assessment of cardiovascular risks in patients with NAFLD will probably allow prescribing cardiological drugs, selecting individualized therapy regimens, taking into account the form of NAFLD, and on the other hand, building curation taking into account the identified cardiovascular risks.

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