Alcoholic Fatty Liver
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2021 ◽  
Bastian Ramms ◽  
Dennis P Pollow ◽  
Han Zhu ◽  
Chelsea Nora ◽  
Austin R Harrington ◽  

The transition from lean to obese states involves systemic metabolic remodeling that impacts insulin sensitivity, lipid partitioning, inflammation, and glycemic control. Here, we have taken a pharmacological approach to test the role of a nutrient-regulated chromatin modifier, lysine-specific demethylase (LSD1), in obesity-associated metabolic reprogramming. We show that systemic administration of an LSD1 inhibitor (GSK-LSD1) reduces food intake and body weight, ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and improves insulin sensitivity and glycemic control in mouse models of obesity. GSK-LSD1 has little effect on systemic metabolism of lean mice, suggesting LSD1 has a context-dependent role in promoting maladaptive changes in obesity. Analysis of insulin target tissues identified white adipose tissue as the major site of insulin sensitization by GSK-LSD1, where it reduces adipocyte inflammation and lipolysis. We demonstrate that GSK-LSD1 reverses NAFLD in a non-hepatocyte-autonomous manner, suggesting an indirect mechanism via inhibition of adipocyte lipolysis and subsequent effects on lipid partitioning. Pair-feeding experiments further revealed that effects of GSK-LSD1 on hyperglycemia and NAFLD are not a consequence of reduced food intake and weight loss. These findings suggest that targeting LSD1 could be a strategy for treatment of obesity and its associated complications including type 2 diabetes and NAFLD.

Kessarin Thanapirom ◽  
Tongluk Teerasarntipan ◽  
Sombat Treeprasertsuk ◽  
Ashok Choudhury ◽  
Manoj K. Sahu ◽  

Abstract Background and aims Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is considered a main prognostic event in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). We analyzed the 28-day and 90-day mortality in ACLF patients with or without underlying cirrhosis enrolled in the ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) database. Methods A total of 1,621 patients were prospectively enrolled and 637 (39.3%) of these patients had cirrhosis. Baseline characteristics, complications and mortality were compared between patients with and without cirrhosis. Results Alcohol consumption was more common in cirrhosis than non-cirrhosis (66.4% vs. 44.2%, p < 0.0001), while non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/cryptogenic CLD (10.9% vs 5.8%, p < 0.0001) and chronic HBV reactivation (18.8% vs 11.8%, p < 0.0001) were more common in non-cirrhosis. Only 0.8% of patients underwent liver transplantation. Overall, 28-day and 90-day mortality rates were 39.3% and 49.9%, respectively. Patients with cirrhosis had a greater chance of survival compared to those without cirrhosis both at 28-day (HR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.36–0.63, p < 0.0001) and 90-day (HR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.43–0.72, p < 0.0001), respectively. In alcohol CLD, non-cirrhosis patients had a higher 28-day (49.9% vs. 23.6%, p < 0.001) and 90-day (58.4% vs. 35.2%, p < 0.001) mortality rate than cirrhosis patients. ACLF patients with cirrhosis had longer mean survival than non-cirrhosis patients (25.5 vs. 18.8 days at 28-day and 65.2 vs. 41.2 days at 90-day). Exaggerated systemic inflammation might be the reason why non-cirrhosis patients had a poorer prognosis than those with cirrhosis after ACLF had occurred. Conclusions The 28-day and 90-day mortality rates of ACLF patients without cirrhosis were significantly higher than those with cirrhosis in alcoholic CLD. The presence of cirrhosis and its stage should be evaluated at baseline to guide for management. Thai Clinical Trials Registry, TCTR20191226002.

Paolo Zanoni ◽  
Grigorios Panteloglou ◽  
Alaa Othman ◽  
Joel T Haas ◽  
Roger Meier ◽  

Background: The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) in the liver is the major determinant of LDL-cholesterol levels in human plasma. The discovery of genes that regulate the activity of LDLR helps to identify pathomechanisms of hypercholesterolemia and novel therapeutic targets against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Methods: We performed a genome-wide RNA interference screen for genes limiting the uptake of fluorescent LDL into Huh-7 hepatocarcinoma cells. Top hit genes were validated by in vitro experiments as well as analyses of datasets on gene expression and variants in human populations. Results: The knockdown of 54 genes significantly inhibited LDL uptake. Fifteen of them encode for components or interactors of the U2-spliceosome. Knocking down any one of 11 out of 15 genes resulted in the selective retention of intron 3 of LDLR. The translated LDLR fragment lacks 88% of the full length LDLR and is detectable neither in non-transfected cells nor in human plasma. The hepatic expression of the intron 3 retention transcript is increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as well as after bariatric surgery. Its expression in blood cells correlates with LDL-cholesterol and age. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and three rare variants of one spliceosome gene, RBM25, are associated with LDL-cholesterol in the population and familial hypercholesterolemia, respectively. Compared to overexpression of wild type RBM25, overexpression of the three rare RBM25 mutants in Huh-7 cells led to lower LDL uptake. Conclusions: We identified a novel mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation of LDLR activity in humans and associations of genetic variants of RBM25 with LDL-cholesterol levels.

Abstract Background and aims The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has been alarmingly increased with no lines of effective treatment. Vanillic acid is a naturally occurring polyphenol with promising therapeutic effects. Exercise is well known to be an effective tool against obesity and its consequences. Thus, we aim to study the effect of vanillic acid alone and along with exercise on fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet in a rat model and to investigate possible novel mechanisms involved in their action. Methods In this study, 40 male rats were divided equally into five groups: control (standard chow diet), HFD (high-fat diet), HFD+VA (HFD+ vanillic acid (50 mg/kg/day orally), HFD+EX (HFD+ swimming exercise 5 days/week), HFD+VA+EX (HFD+ vanillic acid+ swimming exercise) for eight weeks. Results Body mass, liver weight, liver enzymes, cholesterol, and triglycerides were significantly decreased in the combined VA+EX group, with marked improvement in hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and consequently HOMA-IR index compared to the HFD group. These improvements were also reflected in the pathological view. VA and swimming, either solely or in combination, markedly increased hepatic and circulating fibroblast growth factor 21. Additionally, VA and swimming increased the immunohistochemical expression of the autophagosomal marker LC3 and decreased the expression of P62, which is selectively degraded during autophagy. Conclusions These results suggest the hepatoprotective effect of VA and swimming exercise against fatty liver and the involvement of FGF21 and autophagy in their effect.

2021 ◽  
yan xu ◽  
Rong LIU

Abstract Background The main cause of chronic liver disease is fatty liver, which includes alcoholic fatty liver and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This study is aimed to establish the prediction model of fatty liver, and provide help for the prevention and treatment of fatty liver, especially NAFLD in the future. Methods Datasets from 2017 to March 2020 NHANES required for the analysis were downloaded from the NHANES web site and R 4.1.1. Software was used for data analysis. A total of 3762 subjects were enrolled in this study, which were divided into model construction group and model validation group in a 2:1 ratio. Results The study selected 6 indicators to build the prediction model, which are as follows: ALT, Platelet count, Creatinine, LDH, HS C-Reactive Protein, Glucose. Then the prediction model was constructed. The area under ROC curve of the model was 0.7471. In the validation population, the area under the ROC curve of the model was 0.7816. Conclusions F score has a good predictive effect on fatty liver, which can be used as an important means for the prevention and treatment of fatty liver, especially NAFLD in the future.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0260313
Atul Goyale ◽  
Anjly Jain ◽  
Colette Smith ◽  
Margarita Papatheodoridi ◽  
Marta Guerrero Misas ◽  

Background/Aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a significant public health issue. Identifying patients with simple steatosis from those with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is crucial since NASH is correlated with increased morbidity and mortality. Serum-based markers, including adipokines and cytokines, are important in the pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD. Here we assessed the usefulness of such markers in patients with NAFLD. Methods This prospective, cross-sectional study included 105 adult patients with varying severity of NAFLD. Twelve serum-based markers were measured by 3 biochip platforms and 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. We also developed a NAFLD individual fibrosis index (NIFI) using the serum-based markers mostly correlated with fibrosis severity. Results Sixty-one out of 105 patients were male (58.1%) with mean age was 53.5 years. Higher Interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased (p = 0.0321) and lower Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) serum levels (p = 0.0031) were associated with higher fibrosis as measured by Fibroscan® in multivariable regression analysis. Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for the NIFI, area under the curve for predicting Fibroscan values ≥ 7.2 kPa was 0.77 (95%CI: 0.67, 0.88, p<0.001), with sensitivity of 89.3%, specificity of 57.9% and a positive likelihood ratio of 2.8. Conclusions Increasing fibrosis severity in NAFLD is associated with differential expression of IL-6 and MMP-9. NIFI could be valuable for the prediction of advanced NAFLD fibrosis and potentially help avoid unnecessary interventions such as liver biopsy in low-risk patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (11) ◽  
Siheng Lin ◽  
Kun Xiao ◽  
Yangyang Liu ◽  
Peizhu Su ◽  
Pingyan Chen ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
H. Naguib ◽  
H. Kassab

Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is proved to be related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, and it is also not rare in individuals without diabetes. The present study attempts to identify the metabolic risk factors of NAFLD among those individuals. Results ALT and HbA1c levels were independently associated with NAFLD development in individuals without diabetes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis identified the optimal cutoff point of ALT (> 19 IU/ml) with AUC = 0.731, 95% CI 0.653–0.809. On the other hand, the optimal cutoff point of HbA1c was identified to be > 5.1% with AUC = 0.665, 95% CI 0.581–0.750. Conclusions Early identification of NAFLD among subjects without diabetes is crucial. In this study, ALT and HbA1c cutoff values had been identified, so we suggest that inclusion of both HbA1c and ALT levels may have significant implications for prediction of NAFLD among individuals without diabetes.

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