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2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (1) ◽  
pp. 9-34
Malcolm Thompson

Abstract This article argues that the origins of the one-child policy beginning in 1980 in China, and its development into the current system of “comprehensive population management,” are to be found not in any unfolding of a statist or authoritarian logic, or within the parameters of a nominally “socialist” project, but rather in a return to a properly capitalist set of concerns and governmental techniques, the first iteration of which can be traced to the 1920s and 1930s. With regard to the broad set of economic reforms launched in the period 1979–81, it is argued that the one-child policy is absolutely continuous with other reforms across economic sectors (agricultural responsibility systems and urban enterprise reforms) and discontinuous with anything we might understand as population management in the period 1949–76. The “law of value debate” in 1979, which “resolved” a long-standing set of issues concerning national accounting, planning, and accumulation, is found to be—despite its apparently Marxist character, derivation, and vocabulary—the passage through which a capitalist developmental logic was reintroduced into Chinese governing, with significant consequences.

2022 ◽  
Astrid Pacini

The ventilation of intermediate waters in the Labrador Sea has important implications for the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Boundary current-interior interactions regulate the exchange of properties between the slope and the basin, which in turn regulates the magnitude of interior convection and the export of ventilated waters from the subpolar gyre. This thesis characterizes theWest Greenland Boundary Current System near Cape Farewell across a range of spatio-temporal scales. The boundary current system is composed of three velocity cores: (1) the West Greenland Coastal Current (WGCC), transporting Greenland and Arctic meltwaters on the shelf; (2) the West Greenland Current (WGC), which advects warm, saline Atlantic-origin water at depth, meltwaters at the surface, and newly-ventilated Labrador Sea Water (LSW); and (3) the Deep Western Boundary Current, which carries dense overflow waters ventilated in the Nordic Seas. The seasonal presence of the LSW and Atlantic-origin water are dictated by air-sea buoyancy forcing, while the seasonality of the WGCC is governed by remote wind forcing and the propagation of coastally trapped waves from East Greenland. Using mooring data and hydrographic surveys, we demonstrate mid-depth intensified cyclones generated at Denmark Strait are found offshore of the WGC and enhance the overflow water transport at synoptic timescales. Using mooring, hydrographic, and satellite data, we demonstrate that the WGC undergoes extensive meandering due to baroclinic instability that is enhanced in winter due to LSW formation adjacent to the current. This leads to the production of small-scale, anticyclonic eddies that can account for the entirety of wintertime heat loss within the Labrador Sea. The meanders are shown to trigger the formation of Irminger Rings downstream. Using mooring, hydrographic, atmospheric, and Lagrangian data, and a mixing model, we find that strong atmospheric storms known as forward tip jets cause upwelling at the shelfbreak that triggers offshore export of freshwater. This freshwater flux can explain the observed lack of ventilation in the eastern Labrador Sea. Together, this thesis documents previously unobserved interannual, seasonal, and synoptic-scale variability and dynamics within the West Greenland boundary current system that must be accounted for in future modeling.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
M. Jayne Fleener ◽  
Chrystal Coble

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop queer futuring strategies that take into consideration adult learners’ needs in support of transformational and sustainable change for social justice and equity. Design/methodology/approach This paper develops the construct of queer futuring, which engages queer theory perspectives in a critical futures framework. Adult learning theory informs queer futuring strategies to support adults and inform education to sustain transformational changes for social justice and equity. Findings With social justice in mind, queer futuring opens spaces and supports opportunities for adults to engage in learning activities that address historical and layered forms of oppression. Building on learning needs of adults to create meaning and make a difference in the world around them, queer futuring strategies provide tools for activism, advocacy and building new relationships and ways of being-with. Research limitations/implications The sustainability of our current system of growth and financial well-being has already been called into question, and the current pandemic provides tangible evidence of values for contribution, connection and concern for others, even in the midst of political strife and conspiracy theories. These shifting values and values conflict of society point to the questions of equity and narrative inclusivity, challenging and disrupting dominant paradigms and structures that have perpetuated power and authority “over” rather than social participation “with” and harmony. Queer futuring is just the beginning of a bigger conversation about transforming society. Practical implications Queering spaces from the perspective of queer futuring keeps the adult learner and queering processes in mind with an emphasis on affiliation and belonging, identity and resistance and politics and change. Social implications The authors suggest queer futuring makes room for opening spaces of creativity and insight as traditional and reified rationality is problematized, further supporting development of emergentist relationships with the future as spaces of possibility and innovation. Originality/value Queer futuring connects ethical and pragmatic approaches to futuring for creating the kinds of futures needed to decolonize, delegitimize and disrupt hegemonic and categorical thinking and social structures. It builds on queer theory’s critical perspective, engaging critical futures strategies with adult learners at the forefront.

2022 ◽  
Vol 163 (2) ◽  
pp. 65
T. Cassanelli ◽  
Calvin Leung ◽  
M. Rahman ◽  
K. Vanderlinde ◽  
J. Mena-Parra ◽  

Abstract The Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME)/FRB experiment has detected thousands of fast radio bursts (FRBs) due to its sensitivity and wide field of view; however, its low angular resolution prevents it from localizing events to their host galaxies. Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), triggered by FRB detections from CHIME/FRB will solve the challenge of localization for non-repeating events. Using a refurbished 10 m radio dish at the Algonquin Radio Observatory located in Ontario Canada, we developed a testbed for a VLBI experiment with a theoretical λ/D ≲ 30 mas. We provide an overview of the 10 m system and describe its refurbishment, the data acquisition, and a procedure for fringe fitting that simultaneously estimates the geometric delay used for localization and the dispersive delay from the ionosphere. Using single pulses from the Crab pulsar, we validate the system and localization procedure, and analyze the clock stability between sites, which is critical for coherently delay referencing an FRB event. We find a localization of ∼200 mas is possible with the performance of the current system (single-baseline). Furthermore, for sources with insufficient signal or restricted wideband to simultaneously measure both geometric and ionospheric delays, we show that the differential ionospheric contribution between the two sites must be measured to a precision of 1 × 10−8 pc cm−3 to provide a reasonable localization from a detection in the 400–800 MHz band. Finally we show detection of an FRB observed simultaneously in the CHIME and the Algonquin 10 m telescope, the first non-repeating FRB in this long baseline. This project serves as a testbed for the forthcoming CHIME/FRB Outriggers project.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 633
Lukáš Picek ◽  
Milan Šulc ◽  
Jiří Matas ◽  
Jacob Heilmann-Clausen ◽  
Thomas S. Jeppesen ◽  

The article presents an AI-based fungi species recognition system for a citizen-science community. The system’s real-time identification too — FungiVision — with a mobile application front-end, led to increased public interest in fungi, quadrupling the number of citizens collecting data. FungiVision, deployed with a human-in-the-loop, reaches nearly 93% accuracy. Using the collected data, we developed a novel fine-grained classification dataset — Danish Fungi 2020 (DF20) — with several unique characteristics: species-level labels, a small number of errors, and rich observation metadata. The dataset enables the testing of the ability to improve classification using metadata, e.g., time, location, habitat and substrate, facilitates classifier calibration testing and finally allows the study of the impact of the device settings on the classification performance. The continual flow of labelled data supports improvements of the online recognition system. Finally, we present a novel method for the fungi recognition service, based on a Vision Transformer architecture. Trained on DF20 and exploiting available metadata, it achieves a recognition error that is 46.75% lower than the current system. By providing a stream of labeled data in one direction, and an accuracy increase in the other, the collaboration creates a virtuous cycle helping both communities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zhen Liang ◽  
Yuqing Wu ◽  
Lingling Ma ◽  
Yingjie Guo ◽  
Yidong Ran

The genome editing toolbox based on CRISPR/Cas9 has brought revolutionary changes to agricultural and plant scientific research. With the development of stable genetic transformation protocols, a highly efficient genome editing system for foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is required. In the present study, we use the CRISPR/Cas9 single- and multi-gene knockout system to target the SiFMBP, SiDof4, SiBADH2, SiGBSS1, and SiIPK1 genes in the foxtail millet protoplasts to screen out highly efficient targeted sgRNAs. Then, we recovered homozygous mutant plants with most of the targeted genes through an Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of foxtail millet. The mutagenesis frequency in the T0 generation was as high as 100%, and it was passed stably on to the next generation. After screening these targeted edited events, we did not detect off-target mutations at potential sites. Based on this system, we have achieved base editing successfully using two base editors (CBE and ABE) to target the SiALS and SiACC genes of foxtail millet. By utilizing CBE to target the SiALS gene, we created a homozygous herbicide-tolerant mutant plant. The current system could enhance the analysis of functional genomics and genetic improvement of foxtail millet.

2022 ◽  
Shigeru Fujita ◽  
Takashi Tanaka

Abstract The geomagnetic variations of the preliminary impulse (PI) of the sudden commencement (SC) are known to show a time delay of the peak displacement and longer duration time in the higher latitudes in the pre-noon and post-noon sectors of the polar region. This peculiar behavior of the PI geomagnetic variation is associated with temporal deformation of the ionospheric PI field-aligned current (FAC) distribution into a crescent shape; its lower-latitude edge extends toward the anti-sunward direction, and its higher-latitude edge almost stays on the same longitude near noon. Numerical simulations revealed that the deformation of the FAC distribution is derived from different behaviors of the two PI current systems. The first current system consists of the FAC connected to the PI FAC in the lower latitude side of the ionosphere, the cross-magnetopause current, and the magnetosheath current (type L current system). The cross-magnetopause current is the inertia current generated in the acceleration front of the solar wind due to the sudden compression of the magnetosheath. Thus, the longitudinal speed of the type L current system in the ionosphere is the solar wind speed in the magnetosheath projected into the ionosphere. In contrast, the PI current system connected to the PI FAC at higher latitude (type H current system) consists of the upward/downward FAC in the pre-noon/post-noon sector, respectively, and dawn-to-dusk field-perpendicular current (FPC) along the dayside magnetopause. The dawn-to-dusk FPC moves to the higher latitudes in the outer magnetosphere over time. The FAC of the type H current system is converted from the FPC due to convergence of the return FPC heading toward the sunward direction in the outer magnetosphere; the return FPC is the inertia current driven by the magnetospheric plasma flow associated with compression of the magnetopause behind the front region of the accelerated solar wind. The acceleration front spreads concentrically from the subsolar point. Consequently, as the return FPC is converted to the FAC of the type H current system, it does not move much in the longitudinal direction over time because the dawn-to-dusk FPC of the type H current system moves to the higher latitudes. Therefore, the high-latitude edge of the PI current distribution in the ionosphere moves only slightly. Finally, we clarified that the FPC-FAC conversion of the type L current system mainly occurs in the region where the Alfvén speed starts to increase toward the Earth. A region with a steep gradient of the Alfvén speed like the plasmapause is not always necessary for conversion from the FPC to the FAC. We also suggest the possible field-aligned structure of the standing Alfvén wave that may occur in the PI phase.

Anna Shapieva ◽  
Anna Rusanova ◽  
Viktoriya Lavrikova ◽  
Elena Filippova

Contemporary university education develops professional identity and builds customized academic trajectories. Career guidance technologies provide professional self-awareness and personality professionalization. At university, career guidance work is an integral part of continuous professional development of a future specialist. It covers pre-university education, higher professional education, and employment assistance. The present research featured the career guidance work conducted at the Transbaikal State University. The analysis showed that the current system lacks innovations, cannot solve the employment problem, and does not provide conditions for successful professional identity. The article introduces a set of project conditions of customized career guidance work with 1) applicants, in order to promote a conscious career choice; 2) students, to support their professional competencies and identity; 3) graduates, to facilitate their employment. The proposed comprehensive approach to career guidance will allow the university to improve the academic process and to work with the community from secondary school to the onset of professional activity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 696
Dongyeong Lee ◽  
Junghun Lee ◽  
Gilsoo Jang

According to the global de-carbonization trends, renewable energy integration has become an increasingly important issue in power systems. To achieve 100% renewable energy integration and operate a system with these resources, it is necessary to appropriately evaluate the system hosting capability and prepare appropriate planning and operation strategies using the evaluation result. So far, these interests have focused particularly on distribution-level systems. However, although the hosting limit in transmission-level systems requires further consideration, previous study is limited. This study introduces the constraints on the transmission-level hosting limit. In addition, a stochastic estimation of the hosting limit methodology in the transmission system and the use of a high voltage direct current system to improve hosting capacity are proposed and evaluated. Moreover, these methodology-based simulations are conducted using possible scenarios on the IEEE 39 bus system with some constraints, and the simulation results are presented herein. The results showed that the HVDC location selection and operation using the proposed method and optimization technique is appropriate. The strategy can be used to integrate more renewable energy. Furthermore, the proposed methodology can be applied to renewable energy integration scenario establishing a plan.

Dillon J. Amaya ◽  
Michael G. Jacox ◽  
Juliana Dias ◽  
Michael A. Alexander ◽  
Kristopher B. Karnauskas ◽  

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