environment friendly
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
B. Kalim ◽  
N. M. Ali ◽  
A. Iqbal ◽  
M. T. Zahid ◽  
S. Rehman ◽  

Abstract In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. 1687-1695
Muhammad Umaid Bukhari ◽  
Arshad Khan ◽  
Khawaja Qasim Maqbool ◽  
Adeel Arshad ◽  
Kashif Riaz ◽  

Prof. (Dr) Shashi Singhal

Abstract: The study aims to find out the influence of environment friendly attributes on the willingness of consumers to purchase the product. It also aims to determine the type of emotions elicited by these kinds of consumer products. It was hypothesized that buying eco products can elicit different kinds of emotions in consumers. These emotions are usually positive that cause attraction to consumers and eventually the actual purchase of the product. An exploratory pre-purchase affect survey was conducted through field and online survey to determine what shoppers feel while looking for eco products to buy. Results revealed that participants significantly experience more positive feelings/emotions than negative feelings/ emotions when buying eco-products while participants are indifferent in experiencing positive and negative feelings/emotions when buying non-eco products. This study provided information on the importance of incorporating ecological attributes to the design of consumer products. As of now, not all companies offer eco-friendly products because it is not known if consumers are willing to pay more for the “environment friendly” attribute. This study hopes to shift the paradigm of companies as it will try to establish the emotional attachment of consumers to product attributes related to the environment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 97-104
A. Verma ◽  
M. Singh ◽  
R.P. Parmar ◽  
K.S. Bhullar ◽  

Aim: To study the feasibility of hexacopter UAV based sprayer for application of environment-friendly biopesticide in guava orchard. Methodology: Field experiments were conducted in Punjab (India) during 2020. UAV was evaluated for spraying environment-friendly bio-pesticidein guava orchard. UAV was operated at 2.0 m height above the tree top.The water and oil sensitive papers were fixed on the outer side as well as inside of selected guava trees at four different canopies. Organic neem seed kernel based azadirachtin 0.15% EC biopesticide was used at recommended dose. After spraying, all water and oil sensitive papers were collected for further laboratory analysis. All spray quality parameters, i.e., coverage (%), droplet density (droplets cm-2), droplet size (µm) and uniformity coefficient were determined. For the efficacy of drone sprayer insects were counted before and 1, 2, 7 days after spray (DAS) and reduction in number of insects was calculated. Results: The on-flight field capacity of spraying with UAV was 3.0-3.3 ha h-1 whereas actual field capacity was found to be 2.0-2.3 ha h-1. The total mean coverage area was found in the range of 2.67-10.67%. The maximum coverage was at the top canopy (inner and outer) of tree which was significantly higher than all other observation points on the canopy. The mean droplet density was found in the range of 14.67-28.33 droplets cm-2. The highest droplet density (28.33 droplets cm-2) was found at the top outer side of the tree canopy. The volume median diameter was found in the range of 208.0-418.3 µm whereas, number median diameter was in the range of 138 to 269 µm. The percent reduction in aphid population 1, 2 and 7 days after spray (DAS) was 38.06, 68.28 and 62.69%, respectively whereas it was 47.95, 78.69 and 70.90% with knapsack sprayer. Interpretation: Hexacopter UAV sprayer is effective in terms of quality of spray and effective control of aphid population.

Hazem Abuorf ◽  
Sulaiman Wafi

A rammed-earth technique has been echoed worldwide due to being conceived not only as an environment-friendly method of construction but also standing as an alternative method to arguably replacing cement. The technique however shows several pitfalls. One concerns the lengthy process of curing upon erecting the rammed-earth walls due to the low process of a chemical reaction occurred throughout the curing stage. A second bias followed from the slow curing and concerns the degradation accentuated at the outer wall’s texture, particularly at the edges, due to effects of the weather cycle. These drawbacks have been observed while accomplishing a funded research project. This article has at its stake remedying the above pitfalls. A natural sandy limestone shows a low percentage of calcium carbonate needed for a cohesive mixture. The method suggested here is based on an experiment that uses minerals of the fruits’ and vegetables’ waste as a binding substance. Curing time in this method has been reduced to the half. It is also suggested here that each stage has its importance, including mixing the soil particles dry and wet, compacting the moistened soil mixture, a well-made formwork and curing, towards remedying the above pitfalls.

2022 ◽  
Vol 185 ◽  
pp. 108444
Shuwei Ren ◽  
Weiren Zou ◽  
Wei Sun ◽  
Tingying Zhang ◽  
Jiyang Zhang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Jiahui Ji ◽  
Huifang Wu ◽  
Donghan Wang ◽  
Dan Liu ◽  
Xinyue Chen ◽  

In this study, a safe, rapid, and environment-friendly green synthesis for silver nanoparticles using the alcohol extract of Radix Hedysari (RH-AgNPs) was developed, the alcohol extract of Radix Hedysari (RH)...

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