growth conditions
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
B. Mazhar ◽  
N. Jahan ◽  
M. Chaudhry ◽  
I. Liaqat ◽  
M. Dar ◽  

Abstract Vanillin is the major component which is responsible for flavor and aroma of vanilla extract and is produced by 3 ways: natural extraction from vanilla plant, chemical synthesis and from microbial transformation. Current research was aimed to study bacterial production of vanillin from native natural sources including sewage and soil from industrial areas. The main objective was vanillin bio-production by isolating bacteria from these native sources. Also to adapt methodologies to improve vanillin production by optimized fermentation media and growth conditions. 47 soil and 13 sewage samples were collected from different industrial regions of Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Kasur. 67.7% bacterial isolates produced vanillin and 32.3% were non-producers. From these 279 producers, 4 bacterial isolates selected as significant producers were; A3, A4, A7 and A10. These isolates were identified by ribotyping as A3 Pseudomonas fluorescence (KF408302), A4 Enterococcus faecium (KT356807), A7 Alcaligenes faecalis (MW422815) and A10 Bacillus subtilis (KT962919). Vanillin producers were further tested for improved production of vanillin and were grown in different fermentation media under optimized growth conditions for enhanced production of vanillin. The fermentation media (FM) were; clove oil based, rice bran waste (residues oil) based, wheat bran based and modified isoeugenol based. In FM5, FM21, FM22, FM23, FM24, FM30, FM31, FM32, FM34, FM35, FM36, and FM37, the selected 4 bacterial strains produced significant amounts of vanillin. A10 B. subtilis produced maximum amount of vanillin. This strain produced 17.3 g/L vanillin in FM36. Cost of this fermentation medium 36 was 131.5 rupees/L. This fermentation medium was modified isoeugenol based medium with 1% of isoeugenol and 2.5 g/L soybean meal. ech gene was amplified in A3 P. fluorescence using ech specific primers. As vanillin use as flavor has increased tremendously, the bioproduction of vanillin must be focused.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
B. Kalim ◽  
N. M. Ali ◽  
A. Iqbal ◽  
M. T. Zahid ◽  
S. Rehman ◽  

Abstract In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 (1) ◽  
Qilin Xie ◽  
Huafeng Xiao

AbstractIn the present paper, we consider the following discrete Schrödinger equations $$ - \biggl(a+b\sum_{k\in \mathbf{Z}} \vert \Delta u_{k-1} \vert ^{2} \biggr) \Delta ^{2} u_{k-1}+ V_{k}u_{k}=f_{k}(u_{k}) \quad k\in \mathbf{Z}, $$ − ( a + b ∑ k ∈ Z | Δ u k − 1 | 2 ) Δ 2 u k − 1 + V k u k = f k ( u k ) k ∈ Z , where a, b are two positive constants and $V=\{V_{k}\}$ V = { V k } is a positive potential. $\Delta u_{k-1}=u_{k}-u_{k-1}$ Δ u k − 1 = u k − u k − 1 and $\Delta ^{2}=\Delta (\Delta )$ Δ 2 = Δ ( Δ ) is the one-dimensional discrete Laplacian operator. Infinitely many high-energy solutions are obtained by the Symmetric Mountain Pass Theorem when the nonlinearities $\{f_{k}\}$ { f k } satisfy 4-superlinear growth conditions. Moreover, if the nonlinearities are sublinear at infinity, we obtain infinitely many small solutions by the new version of the Symmetric Mountain Pass Theorem of Kajikiya.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 628-634
V. P. Bessonova ◽  
A. S. Chonhova

The long-term increases in average temperature and intensification of droughts which characterise the current state of the Earth’s climate system have a negative impact on forest ecosystems and can lead to a decrease in their area and deterioration of the living conditions of their components. In the conditions of the Ukrainian Steppe an important environmental, antierosion, water-protective and soil-protective role belongs to the ravine forests. The most valuable component of the ravine forests is presented by natural populations of common oak (Quercus robur L.), which are able to tolerate the arid climate typical of the steppe region. But with global warming, the endurance of this species is changing. It is believed that a significant role in plant adaptation to drought and high temperatures may belong to non-structural carbohydrates. Therefore, it is important to study changes in the concentration of these substances in the leaves of this leading species under the action of adverse hydrothermal conditions. The article analyzes the content and dynamics of soluble sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose) and starch in the leaves of Quercus robur L. under different forest growth conditions of the ravine forest (hygromesophilic (CL2–3), mesoxerophilic (CL1) and xerophilic (CL0)). The research was conducted in the forest in the Viyskove area (steppe zone of Ukraine) in the thalweg and at different levels of slope of southern exposure. Content of glucose, fructose, sugar and starch in Quercus robur leaves was determined. It was found that when exposed to high temperatures and increasing water stress during the vegetation period in xerophilic (CL0–1) and mesoxerophilic (CL1) forest growth conditions, the concentration of both glucose and sucrose in the leaves of Q. robur increases and it becomes much higher than in conditions of more optimal water supply. At the same time, the disaccharide content increases more significantly than that of monosaccharide. The greatest amount of these sugars is observed in the driest months (July, August), when conditions for providing plants with water are the most stressful. When water stress grows the increase in concentration of glucose and sucrose is correlated with reduction of starch content. It has been found that the concentration of fructose in Q. robur leaves in droughty conditions of growing was comparable to more favourable conditions of moisture. In September, there is a decline in the content of all forms of non-structural carbohydrates in the leaves of plants of all variants compared to the previous month, especially in conditions of adverse water supply. Therefore, forest growth conditions do not affect the nature of the dynamics of soluble sugars and starch in the leaves of Q. robur, although they change their quantitative indicators. Based on the protective function of sugars under the action of stressors on plants, we can assume that in conditions of significant lack of moisture in the soil their accumulation in the leaves in areas with mesoxerophilic and xerophilic hygrotopes plays an important role in increasing Q. robur drought resistance.

2022 ◽  
Jessica El Khoury ◽  
Jordi Zamarreno ◽  
Allison Huguenot ◽  
Béatrice Py ◽  
Frédéric Barras

Aminoglycosides have been used against Gram-negative bacteria for decades. Yet, uncertainties remain about various aspects of their uptake mechanism. Moreover their killing efficiency is well known to vary as a function of growth conditions and types of metabolism used by the targeted bacterium. Here we show that RavA, an AAA+ ATPase from the MoxR subfamily, associated with its VWA-containing partner, ViaA sensitize E. coli to lethal concentrations of AG, including gentamycin (Gm) and tobramycin, but not of antibiotics of other classes. We show this sensitizing effect to be due to enhanced Gm uptake in a proton motive force dependent manner. We evaluated the influence of RavA ViaA throughout a series of growth conditions, including aerobiosis and anaerobiosis. This led us to observe that the sensitizing effect of RavA ViaA varies with the respiratory chain used, i.e. RavA ViaA influence was prominent in the absence of exogenous electron acceptor or with fumarate, i.e. in poor energy conservation conditions, and dispensable in the presence of nitrate or oxygen, i.e. in high level of energy conservation. We propose RavA ViaA to be able to sense energetic state of the cell and to be used under low energy conditions for facilitating uptake of chemicals across the membrane, including Gm.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 126
Rosa Fontana ◽  
Daniela Guidone ◽  
Tiziana Angrisano ◽  
Viola Calabrò ◽  
Alessandra Pollice ◽  

Background: The ARF tumour suppressor plays a well-established role as a tumour suppressor, halting cell growth by both p53-dependent and independent pathways in several cellular stress response circuits. However, data collected in recent years challenged the traditional role of this protein as a tumour suppressor. Cancer cells expressing high ARF levels showed that its expression, far from being dispensable, is required to guarantee tumour cell survival. In particular, ARF can promote autophagy, a self-digestion pathway that helps cells cope with stressful growth conditions arising during both physiological and pathological processes. Methods: We previously showed that ARF is regulated through the activation of the protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway and that an ARF phospho-mimetic mutant on the threonine residue 8, ARF-T8D, sustains cell proliferation in HeLa cells. We now explored the role of ARF phosphorylation in both basal and starvation-induced autophagy by analysing autophagic flux in cells transfected with either WT and ARF phosphorylation mutants by immunoblot and immunofluorescence. Results: Here, we show that endogenous ARF expression in HeLa cells is required for starvation-induced autophagy. Further, we provide evidence that the hyper-expression of ARF-T8D appears to inhibit autophagy in both HeLa and lung cancer cells H1299. This effect is due to the cells’ inability to elicit autophagosomes formation upon T8D expression. Conclusions: Our results lead to the hypothesis that ARF phosphorylation could be a mechanism through which the protein promotes or counteracts autophagy. Several observations underline how autophagy could serve a dual role in cancer progression, either protecting healthy cells from damage or aiding cancerous cells to survive. Our results indicate that ARF phosphorylation controls protein’s ability to promote or counteract autophagy, providing evidence of the dual role played by ARF in cancer progression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 861
Rui Wu ◽  
Zhixin Liu ◽  
Jiajing Wang ◽  
Chenxi Guo ◽  
Yaping Zhou ◽  

There are numerous exchanges of signals and materials between leaves and roots, including nitrogen, which is one of the essential nutrients for plant growth and development. In this study we identified and characterized the Chlorophyll A/B-Binding Protein (CAB) (named coe2 for CAB overexpression 2) mutant, which is defective in the development of chloroplasts and roots under normal growth conditions. The phenotype of coe2 is caused by a mutation in the Nitric Oxide Associated (NOA1) gene that is implicated in a wide range of chloroplast functions including the regulation of metabolism and signaling of nitric oxide (NO). A transcriptome analysis reveals that expression of genes involved in metabolism and lateral root development are strongly altered in coe2 seedlings compared with WT. COE2 is expressed in hypocotyls, roots, root hairs, and root caps. Both the accumulation of NO and the growth of lateral roots are enhanced in WT but not in coe2 under nitrogen limitation. These new findings suggest that COE2-dependent signaling not only coordinates gene expression but also promotes chloroplast development and function by modulating root development and absorption of nitrogen compounds.

2022 ◽  
Yaqun Liu ◽  
Xia Wu ◽  
Yves D'aubenton-Carafa ◽  
Claude Thermes ◽  
Chun-Long Chen

Motivation: During each cell division, tens of thousands of DNA replication origins are coordinately activated to ensure the complete duplication of the entire human genome. However, the progression of replication forks can be challenged by numerous factors. One such factor is transcription-replication conflicts (TRC), which can either be co-directional or head-on with the latter being revealed as more dangerous for genome integrity. Results: In order to study the direction of replication fork movement and TRC, we developed a bioinformatics tool, called OKseqHMM, to directly measure the genome-wide replication fork directionality (RFD) as well as replication initiation and termination from data obtained by Okazaki fragment sequencing (OK-Seq) and related techniques. Availability and Implementation: We have gathered and analyzed OK-seq data from a large number of organisms including yeast, mouse and human, to generate high-quality RFD profiles and determine initiation zones and termination zones by using Hidden Markov Model (HMM) algorithm (all tools and data are available at In addition, we have extended our analysis to data obtained by related techniques, such as eSPAN and TrAEL-seq, which also contain RFD information. Our works, therefore, provide an important tool and resource for the community to further study TRC and genome instability, in a wide range of cell line models and growth conditions, which is of prime importance for human health.

Eri Hashimoto ◽  
Keigo Tamura ◽  
Hayato Yamaguchi ◽  
Takeshi Watanabe ◽  
Fumihiko Matsui ◽  

Abstract We characterized CVD-grown graphene with high single-crystallinity on Ir(111)/α-Al2O3(0001) by photoelectron momentum microscopy. A multi-functional photoelectron momentum microscope (PMM), which is installed with element-specific valence band photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, is a complementary characterization tool to conventional methods, such as Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, for comprehensive and quantitative characterization of graphene/Ir(111). Using PMM, we characterized the properties of CVD-grown graphene including the single-crystallinity, number of layers, crystal orientation, and degree of interaction between graphene and Ir(111) and clarified the relationship between these properties and the CVD growth conditions.

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