field experiments
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Wendy K. Matsunaga ◽  
Vicente de P. R. da Silva ◽  
Victória P. Amorim ◽  
Eliton S. G. Sales ◽  
Sílvia M. Dantas ◽  

ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine crop evapotranspiration through the soil water balance, the crop coefficient and water use efficiency of the onion (Allium cepa L.) in a system with four irrigation regimes, cultivated in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Two field experiments were carried out during the rainy and dry periods of the region in 2018, using the treatments of 100% (T1), 75% (T2), 50% (T3) and 25% (T4) of the reference evapotranspiration for daily water replacement and five replicates for each treatment. It was verified that crop evapotranspiration varies according to the water availability in the soil; however, the highest water use efficiency occurred for the T3 treatment. The T1 treatment obtained the highest estimated yield, 43.86 tons ha-1, while T4 obtained 13.47 tons ha-1, the lowest estimated yield among the treatments, and this difference was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) by F test. The crop coefficients obtained were 0.68, 0.89, 0.99 and 0.73 for the initial, vegetative, bulbing and maturation stages, respectively.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
R. S. Santos ◽  
L. Sousa-Souto

Abstract Some studies report the positive effect of organic residues from ant nests on soil properties and on the structure of the adjacent plant community in field experiments, but there is a gap about the effect on individual species. The purpose of the present study was to compare the soil nutrient content and the development of Turnera subulata Smith, an ornamental species, in the presence of the nest refuse (basically composed of fragments of grass leaves and the symbiotic fungus) produced by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) or in control soil through a greenhouse pot experiment. The experiment was carried out with two treatments: control soil and soil with 25% of nest refuse. The plants were kept in 1L pots for 90 days. We evaluated the parameters: plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves, dry weight of the root, dry and fresh aboveground biomass. Additionally, the relative chlorophyll content and leaf nutrients were used as nutritional parameters. As a result, plants that grew in the soil with nest refuse showed significant higher values of all parameters evaluated when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.001). We conclude that this biofertilizer contributed to the production of more vigorous plants, being able to act on the local dynamics of nutrients in the ecosystems where A. balzani occurs. As it is relatively abundant and easy to collect, the refuse of A. balzani has the potential to be used as an alternative substrate in the production of shortlife cycle plants.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 657-674
Guilherme Mendes Pio de Oliveira ◽  
Marcelo Augusto de Aguiar e Silva ◽  
Giliardi Dalazen ◽  

Glyphosate-resistant sourgrass is difficult to control, particularly when perennial, and strategies that improve the control efficiency against this grass and preserve the useful life of graminicides are warranted. Therefore, the present study aimed to answer the following questions: (i) Does fractionating the doses of ACCase inhibitors improve the control of perennial sourgrass? (ii) Does alternating the chemical groups cyclohexanediones (DIMs) and aryloxyphenoxypropanoates (FOPs) improve the control of perennial sourgrass, and does the order of their application affect sourgrass control efficiency? (iii) Does the addition of glyphosate to ACCase inhibitors improve to the control of perennial sourgrass resistant to 5-enol-pyruvyl-shiquime-3-phosphate synthase inhibitors? Two field experiments (I and II) were performed in 2018 and repeated in 2019. In experiment I, the treatments included a single or fractional application clethodim + quizalofop-P-ethyl (216 + 108 g a.i. ha-1), clethodim (216 g a.i. ha-1), and quizalofop-P-tefuryl (108 g a.i. ha-1), applied in the order of clethodim followed by quizalofop-P-tefuryl and vice versa, as well as a control treatment. In experiment II, the treatments included a single or fractional application of clethodim + quizalofop-P-ethyl (216 + 108 g a.i. ha-1) and clethodim (108 g a.i. ha-1), isolated or associated with glyphosate, as well as a control treatment. In both experiments, the interval between the fractional applications was 7 days. Percentage of control, number of tillers per plant, and height of sourgrass plants were determined. Compared with the unfractionated application, the fractionation of clethodim + quizalofop-P-ethyl and clethodim increased control by respectively 20-24 and 25-30%. Fractionated clethodim has greater

HortScience ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 57 (2) ◽  
pp. 215-220
Ravneet K. Sandhu ◽  
Laura E. Reuss ◽  
Nathan S. Boyd

Sulfentrazone was recently registered for use in tomato and strawberry in Florida. Field experiments were conducted at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center in Wimauma, FL, to evaluate PRE sulfentrazone applications when applied on flat soil 30 days before bed formation (PRE-f), on the bed top immediately before laying plastic mulch (PRE-t), applied PRE-t as a tank mix with other PRE herbicides, or PRE-t followed by POST halosulfuron or rimusulfuron (POST). Sulfentrazone did not damage the tomato and strawberry crop and had no effect on strawberry and tomato fruit yield. It was as effective as the industry standards but none of the evaluated herbicide treatments provided adequate weed control. POST halosulfuron in tomato resulted in significantly greater nutsedge control at 11 (14%) and 13 (27%) weeks after initial treatment (WAIT) compared with other treatments in Fall 2019 and Spring 2020, respectively. However, in tomato, tank-mixing sulfentrazone with S-metolachlor or metribuzin did not enhance nutsedge control. Weed control did not improve with increased rates or with the use of PRE-f followed by (fb) PRE-t applications in tomato. PRE-t sulfentrazone fb POST halosulfuron was an efficient nutsedge management option in tomato. Sulfentrazone alone did not effectively control weeds in tomato or strawberry. Increased rates of sulfentrazone with the use of PRE-f fb PRE-t sulfentrazone applications did reduce (34%) total weed density in strawberry.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 402
Xinchao Xu ◽  
Mingyue Liu ◽  
Song Peng ◽  
Youqing Ma ◽  
Hongxi Zhao ◽  

In order to complete the high-precision calibration of the planetary rover navigation camera using limited initial data in-orbit, we proposed a joint adjustment model with additional multiple constraints. Specifically, a base model was first established based on the bundle adjustment model, second-order radial and tangential distortion parameters. Then, combining the constraints of collinearity, coplanarity, known distance and relative pose invariance, a joint adjustment model was constructed to realize the in orbit self-calibration of the navigation camera. Given the problem of directionality in line extraction of the solar panel due to large differences in the gradient amplitude, an adaptive brightness-weighted line extraction method was proposed. Lastly, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for nonlinear least squares was used to obtain the optimal results. To verify the proposed method, field experiments and in-orbit experiments were carried out. The results suggested that the proposed method was more accurate than the self-calibration bundle adjustment method, CAHVOR method (a camera model used in machine vision for three-dimensional measurements), and vanishing points method. The average error for the flag of China and the optical solar reflector was only 1 mm and 0.7 mm, respectively. In addition, the proposed method has been implemented in China’s deep space exploration missions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 161-172

Field experiments were conducted on the research farm of IARI, New Delhi during Rabi 2016-17 and 2017-18. Three varieties of wheat (PBW-723, HD-2967 and HD-3086) were sown on three different dates for generating different weather condition during various phenological stages of crop. Results showed that during early crop growth stages soil moisture had higher value and soil temperature had lower value and with progress of crop growth stage, the moisture in the upper layer decreased and soil temperature increased significantly as compared to the bottom layers. During tillering and jointing stage, air temperature within canopy was more and relative humidity was less while during flowering and grain filling stage, air temperature within canopy was less and relative humidity was more in timely sown crop as compared to late and very late sown crop. Radiation use efficiency and relative leaf water content had significantly higher value while leaf water potential had lower value in timely sown crop followed by late and very late sown crop. Yield had higher value in HD-3086 followed by HD-2967 and PBW-723 in all weather conditions. Canopy air temperature difference had positive value in very late sown crop particularly during flowering and grain-filling stages. This reflects in the yield. Yield was more in timely sown crop as compared to late and very late sown crop.  

Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 133
Alvyra Slepetiene ◽  
Mykola Kochiieru ◽  
Linas Jurgutis ◽  
Audrone Mankeviciene ◽  
Aida Skersiene ◽  

The most important component of agricultural system are soils as the basis for the growth of plants, accumulation of water, plant nutrients and organic matter. The main task of our research was to ascertain changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) and mobile humified carbon fractions in digestate-treated soils. We have performed three field experiments using the same design on two soil types in 2019–2020. We studied the fertilization effects of different phases of digestate on Retisol and Fluvisol. Fertilization treatments: control; separated liquid digestate 85 kg ha−1 N; and 170 kg ha−1 170 N; separated solid digestate 85 kg ha−1 N; and 170 kg ha−1 N. We have found a greater positive effect on the increase in SOC because of the use of the maximum recommended fertilization rate of the solid digestate. The content of mobile humic substances (MHS) tended to increase in grassland and crop rotation field in digestate-treated soil. In our experiment, maximum concentration of SOC was found in 0–10 cm soil layer, while in the deeper layers the amount of SOC, MHS and mobile humic acids proportionally decreased. We concluded, that long-term factors as soil type and land use strongly affected the humification level expressed as HD (%) in the soil and the highest HD was determined in the grassland soil in Fluvisol.

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