Wheat Bran
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2021 ◽  
pp. 3007-3014
Author(s):  
Sugiharto Sugiharto ◽  
Anugrah R. Pratama ◽  
Turrini Yudiarti ◽  
Tugay Ayasan

Background and Aim: In the post-antibiotic era, consumer demand for healthy and safe meats has prompted poultry producers to seek alternative effective feed additives. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a novel natural feed additive based on a mixture of Averrhoa bilimbi L. fruit filtrate, wheat bran, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth rate, internal organ weight, and breast meat characteristics of broilers. Materials and Methods: A total of 280 1-day-old chicks were divided into one control (CNTRL; feed without additives) and three treatment groups: NOV25, feed with 2.5 g/kg novel additive; NOV50, feed with 5.0 g/kg novel additive; and NOV100, feed with 10 g/kg novel additive. The body weight (BW), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured weekly. On day 35, the chickens from each group were slaughtered, and their internal organs and breast meat samples were collected. Results: The BW of broilers in NOV100 was greater (p=0.016) than that in the other groups. The FCRs in the treatments groups were lower (p<0.001) than that in the control group. Elevated levels of the novel additive increased (p=0.051) the relative weight of the duodenum. The pH values in the breast meat of broilers receiving the novel additive were higher (p<0.001) than that in control. The C20:3n-6 of the NOV100 breast meat was lower (p=0.012) than that of NOV25 and NOV50, but it did not differ from that of the control. The unsaturated fatty acid-to-saturated fatty acid ratio in the breast meats of the treatments was higher (p=0.032) than that in control. The L-tyrosine content in NOV50 breast meat was higher (p=0.036) than that in CNTRL and NOV100 but did not differ from that in NOV25. Conclusion: The proposed feed additive improved the live BW and FCR of broilers and the physical and nutritional qualities of broiler breast meat.


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2379
Author(s):  
Priya Rana ◽  
Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj ◽  
Sushma Gurumayum ◽  
Kandi Sridhar

Valorization of agro-industrial waste through greener and biotechnological processes are promising approaches to minimize the generation of agro-industrial waste. Therefore, the study aimed to produce lignocellulolytic enzymes from agro-industrial waste under solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions and study their application in the clarification of pumpkin juice. The SSF was performed with three different combinations of wheat bran + rice bran (WBRB), wheat bran + wheat straw (WBWS), and rice bran + wheat straw (RBWS) as dry solid substrates (1:1) using Fusarium oxysporum (MTCC 7229). The protein, carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), and xylanase contents ranged from 0.98–3.90 mg/g, 5.89–6.84 U/g substrate, and 10.08–13.77 U/g substrate, respectively in different agro-industrial waste as substrates (WBRB, WBWS, RBWS, and control). The increase in enzyme concentration (0.50–2.40%) added to pumpkin juice exhibited an increased juice yield (16.30–55.60%), reduced browning index (1.03–0.70), and an increase in clarity (5.31–13.77 %T), which was further confirmed by a total variance of 84.83% by principal component analysis. Thus, the low-cost lignocellulolytic enzymes can be produced from agro-industrial waste that might have applications in food and beverage industries. Hence, this approach could be used as a long-term sustainable and circular source to valorize agro-industrial waste towards the greener future and the preservation of ecosystems.


2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (7) ◽  
pp. 1329-1335
Author(s):  
E.M. Adongbede ◽  
A.F. Atoyebi

Cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst, a medicinal mushroom known for antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities is not practiced in Nigeria. Tree species used for cultivation in Asia, America and Europe are not available in Nigeria. The present study investigated indigenous hardwoods and their supplementation with rice and wheat bran as substrates for its cultivation. Six hardwoods (Mansonia altissima (A Chev.) A Chev., Avecennia germinans (L.) L, Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn., Triplochiton scleoxylon K. Schum, Uapaca guineensis Mull. Arg, Nauclea diderrichii (De Wild. & Th. Dur.) Merrill) were investigated as potential growth substrates and potentially improve biological efficiency. The mushroom was collected from the wild and identification confirmed by amplifying the ribosomal DNA-ITS fragment with ITS1 and ITS4 primers. Tissue culture of the mushroom collected from the wild was initiated successfully with modified malt extract agar and grain spawn developed from it. The substrates were incubated after inoculation with grain spawn at room temperature for 30-60 days. Substrates were given cold treatment for 7days to induce fructification which was achieved with 9-10h/day regime and daily watering. There was full mycelial ramification of all substrates by the mushroom. Fruit bodies were harvested from all substrates but Lophira alata. The highest yield (308.76±5.81g/kg) was recorded with Mansonia altissima (Biological Efficiency-31.42±4.55%) and the least yield (31.45±5.44g/kg) was recorded in Nauclea diderrichii (B.E- 5.25±0.58%). The substrates with wheat bran performed significantly better than rice bran supplemented substrates. Commercial cultivation of native G. lucidum in Nigeria is possible with local agricultural wastes.


Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (22) ◽  
pp. 7049
Author(s):  
Emil Sasimowski ◽  
Łukasz Majewski ◽  
Marta Grochowicz

The paper presents a procedure of the manufacturing and complex analysis of the properties of injection mouldings made of polymeric composites based on the poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) matrix with the addition of a natural filler in the form of wheat bran (WB). The scope of the research included measurements of processing shrinkage and density, analysis of the chemical structure, measurements of the thermal and thermo-mechanical properties (Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG), Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT), and Vicat Softening Temperature (VST)), and measurements of the mechanical properties (hardness, impact strength, and static tensile test). The measurements were performed using design of experiment (DOE) methods, which made it possible to determine the investigated relationships in the form of polynomials and response surfaces. The mass content of the filler and the extruder screw speed during the production of the biocomposite granulate, which was used for the injection moulding of the test samples, constituted the variable factors adopted in the DOE. The study showed significant differences in the processing, thermal, and mechanical properties studied for individual systems of the DOE.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 81-85
Author(s):  
Swati P Bhavsar

Phenolics are widely distributed in plant kingdom and are therefore, an integral part of the diet, with significant amounts being reported in vegetables, fruits, and beverages. Various phenolic compounds have attracted the attention of food and medical scientists because of their fragrance, aroma, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties and ability to combat human diseases. Of these, Ferulic Acid (FA), a hydroxy cinnamic acid (related to trans-cinnamic acid), being natural, is of great demand in the food industry. As a component of lignin, FA is a precursor in the manufacture of other aromatic compounds. In our study, FA was produced using Lactobacillus spp. isolates and standard culture of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014. FA was extracted and partially characterized using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Absorption maxima (λm) analysis and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Further, optimization of the fermentation medium was done using Factorial Fractional Design (FFD). Preliminary confirmation of the extracted FA was done using TLC, spectral analysis and purity assessed by HPLC. FA could be produced using Lactobacillus sp. and agro industrial waste viz., wheat bran, leading to a cost-effective protocol and product. Further, medium was optimized for the production of FA using FFD and it was observed that medium containing5.75% Wheat bran & 0.18% Tween 80 is optimum for the production of FA. The antimicrobial activity of FA was noteworthy against Aspergillus flavus and E. coli.


Author(s):  
Kelsey L Batson ◽  
Alison C Neujahr ◽  
Thomas Burkey ◽  
Samodha C Fernando ◽  
Mike D Tokach ◽  
...  

Abstract Reduction in dietary crude protein and addition of fiber could mitigate the incidence and severity of post-weaning diarrhea, a common gastrointestinal condition in newly weaned pigs. Therefore, 360 weanling pigs, initially 5.0 ± 0.10 kg, were used to evaluate the effects of crude protein (CP) level and fiber source on growth performance and fecal microbial communities. At weaning, pigs were randomly assigned to pens and allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments in a 2 × 4 factorial with main effects of CP (21 or 18%) and fiber source (none, coarse wheat bran, oat hulls, or cellulose). There were 5 pigs per pen and 9 pens per treatment. Experimental diets were formulated in two dietary phases from d 0 to 10 and 10 to 24, with a common post-treatment diet fed from 24 to 45. The 21% CP diets contained 1.40% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys in phase 1 and 1.35% SID Lys in phase 2. By using a maximum SID Lys:digestible CP ratio of 6.35%, the 18% CP diets contained 1.25% SID Lys in both phases. Diets containing a fiber source were formulated to the level of insoluble fiber provided by 4% coarse wheat bran, resulting in the addition of 1.85% oat hulls and 1.55% cellulose. No fiber source × CP level interactions (P &gt; 0.05) were observed. Decreasing CP (and subsequently SID lysine) decreased (P = 0.05) ADG and G:F during the experimental period. From d 0 to 45, ADG decreased (P = 0.05) for pigs fed 18% CP diets compared to pigs fed 21% CP. No effect of fiber source was observed for growth performance. Fecal DM on d 17 increased (P &lt; 0.001) for pigs fed 18% CP diets compared to pigs fed 21% CP diets. Pigs fed diets with added cellulose had increased (P &lt; 0.05) fecal dry matter during the experimental period compared to pigs fed no fiber source or wheat bran. Bacterial community structure was investigated by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Analysis indicated a significant difference between CP content at d 24 (P = 0.023) using a Weighted UniFrac distance matrix. Further investigation identified five differential Amplicon Sequence Variants associated with CP content at d 24. In conclusion, reducing crude protein (and subsequently SID Lys) decreased growth performance but increased fecal dry matter content. The source of dietary fiber in nursery diets had no impact on growth performance; but pigs fed added cellulose had increased fecal DM compared with other treatments. Microbial analysis identified differential taxa associated with CP content.


Author(s):  
V. K. Jadhav ◽  
S. V. Ghodke ◽  
P. D. Shere ◽  
R. S. Agrawal

Wheat bran, byproduct of the wheat milling has extensive applications in the food industry attributing to its high dietary fiber (polysaccharides), protein and minerals content. Dietary fiber assist in gastrointestinal health maintenance and diseases risk reduction (Diverticular disease, heart disease, cancer and diabetes). Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) contains numerous bioactive compounds (Caryophyllin, ursolic acid, rosmarinic acid, thymol,methyl chavicol, citral, carvacrol, and caryophyllene) imparting health benefits. Tulsi being rich in antioxidants advised for fighting free radicals and excess oxidative damage. In developing countries like India, with growing urbanization healthy bakery products demand is progressively rising in both urban and rural area. Hence, sincere efforts were undertaken to develop functionally and nutritionally enhanced cookies by incorporating wheat bran and tulsi powder. The cookies were developed by replacing refined wheat flour with varying level of wheat bran (20-35%). Cookies formulated with 30% wheat bran was observed to be sensorially best sample against other levels. Hence this sample was further selected for incorporation of tulsi powder (1-3%) and subjected to physical, chemical and sensory analysis. Sensory score indicated 1% tulsi powder incorporated cookie sample was highly acceptable against rest of the samples. The wheat bran (30%) and tulsi powder (1%) incorporation increased the dietary fiber (42.43%) and protein content (27.69%) without affecting on sensory parameters. The enhanced total phenol content (63.66%) and antioxidant activity (16.30%) was emerged out as one of the achievements of present investigation.


Gels ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 200
Author(s):  
Wenjia Yan ◽  
Lijun Yin ◽  
Minghao Zhang ◽  
Meng Zhang ◽  
Xin Jia

Gelatinization, retrogradation and gel properties of wheat starch–wheat bran arabinoxylan (WS–WBAX) complexes have been evaluated. The results of rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed that WBAX samples with larger Mw and branching degree (HWBAX) significantly impeded gelatinization process of starch by effectively reducing the amount of water available for starch gelatinization. DSC analysis showed that both molecular characteristics and additive amount of WBAX samples have an effect on the long-term retrogradation behavior of starch. For the rheological studies of WS–WBAX mixed gels, the elastic moduli (G’) and shear viscosity of WS–WBAX mixed gels increased with the increase in additive amount of WBAX. WS–HWBAX mixed gels exhibited the lower G’ compared with starch gels containing WBAX with lower Mw and branching degree (LWBAX) at the same amount. The scanning electron micrographs (SEM) revealed that the microstructures of WS–WBAX mixed gels were mainly affected by the amount of WBAX, but hardly by the molecular characteristics of WBAX. Texture profile analysis (TPA) showed that the cohesiveness of fresh WS–WBAX mixed gels became larger with an increase in the WBAX addition amount. The hardness of WS–WBAX mixed gels tended to increase over the 14-day storage.


2021 ◽  
Vol 910 (1) ◽  
pp. 012089
Author(s):  
Sary Mahir Ailia Shaawi ◽  
Noor Ezat Jalil Astefan

Abstract The main objective of this study was to find an effective way to use linear equations for the purpose of creating a balanced ration at the lowest possible cost for dairy cattle by using linear equations and solving these equations through the Solver tool provided by MS-Excel. Samples of barley, corn, wheat bran, soybean meal and wheat straw were collected from the local markets and the necessary chemical analyzes were performed for them. after that the mathematical formulas of the linear equations were developed according to the specified constraints for crude protein ratio, value of metabolizable energy and the percentage of each calcium and phosphorus, which meets the needs of a medium-production dairy cow (15 kg) and weighting (650 kg). then the data was entered into Microsoft Excel and the equations were solved by Solver tool. The results showed a superior ability of linear equations to solve the problems consisting of several variables where the feed was formed by mixing barley, Corn, wheat bran, soybean meal, wheat hay, calcium phosphate and salt in proportions ( 5, 17.91, 50, 10.76, 13.66, 1.64 and 1) respectively, The cost of the feed mixture was (268.6 $/ton), which is the lowest possible cost for a ration that meets the required needs, linear programming will provide the animal breeders efficiency with the highest production by reducing the costs and balancing of the ration through the steps described in the search.


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