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2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 10-18
T Dilip Kumar ◽  

Intra-city travel is a significant part of urban life and a fully functional intra-city transit system will help in reducing the number of private vehicles on the road, thus reducing pollution and traffic congestions. A robust urban transit system helps in the physical expansion of city limits, making education, job, and medical facilities accessible to people living in city fringe areas. This will help in depopulating the Central Business District areas and optimization of real estate cost. Heavy Rail Based Metro Transit system has improved living conditions in Metropolitan cities. The High Capital Investment required for setting up a metro system necessitates the requirement of alternate Transit systems for Medium and smaller cities. This paper delves into this important area of suggesting an alternate urban transit model for Tier II and Tier III Indian cities. In this paper, modifications were suggested in the Metro Neo specification issued by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs [10], to make it more cost-effective (to construct and maintain), agile, and with scope to harness new technologies as they become commercially viable in the future. Elevated or dedicated Busways with Full Diesel Hybrid Buses comprising an Energy Storage system (Li-ion battery pack) and a diesel power pack are suggested as the rolling stock for the transit system. This suggested rolling stock will be not only cost effective but also environmentally friendly. In the future, the Diesel Power Packs in the buses can be replaced with Hydrogen Fuel Cells or additional batteries to enable full electric and non-fossil fuel operation. The need for further research in developing cost-optimized structures in the Construction of viaducts and bus stations is felt and details in these areas have been highlighted. The suggested system will have the flexibility of a Bus Rapid Transit system and shall have some advantages of a metro system. Even in big cities with a full-fledged Metro system, the suggested modified Metro Neo system can act as a feeder system from faraway places. The paper proposes essential features of a transit system that is robust in present and is future-ready.

Anju Gupta ◽  
R K Bathla

With so many people now wearing mobile devices with sensors (such as smartphones), utilizing the immense capabilities of these business mobility goods has become a prospective skill to significant behavioural and ecological sensors. A potential challenge for pervasive context assessment is opportunistic sensing, has been effectively used to a wide range of applications. The sensor cloud combines cloud technology with a wireless sensor, resulting in a scalable and cost-effective computing platform for real-time applications. Because the sensor's battery power is limited and the data centre’s servers consume a significant amount of energy to supply storage, a sensor cloud must be energy efficient. This study provides a Fog-based semantic for enabling these kinds of technologies quickly and successfully. The suggested structure is comprised of fundamental algorithms to help set up and coordinate the fog sensing jobs. It creates effective multihop routes for coordinating relevant devices and transporting acquired sensory data to fog sinks. It was claimed that energy-efficient sensor cloud approaches were categorized into different groups and that each technology was examined using numerous characteristics. The outcomes of a series of thorough test simulation in NS3 to define the practicality of the created console, as well as the proportion of each parameter utilized for each technology, are computed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 48 ◽  
pp. 101640
Payam Ghaebi Panah ◽  
Rahmat-Allah Hooshmand ◽  
Mehdi Gholipour ◽  
Carlos A. Macana ◽  
Josep M. Guerrero ◽  

Pratima V. Patil

Abstract: Construction management deals with planning, organizing, securing and managing resources to bring out the successful completion of specific engineering project goal and objectives. Assessment of productivity in construction industries includes identifying the key constraints to on site labor productivity and improvement measures.This study aims to identify the key constraints to on-site labour productivity and improvement measures. Using the descriptive survey method, views of some project managers, contractors and subcontractors in Kolhapur was canvassed via pilot interviews and questionnaire surveys at the qualitative and quantitative data gathering stages, respectively. Multi-attribute technique was used to analyse the quantitative data. Results showed that the key external constraints to on-site labour productivity comprise, in order of decreasing impact, statutory compliance, unforeseen events and wider external dynamics. The internal constraints were found to have much higher impact on onsite productivity than the external factors. In order of diminishing levels of impact, the internal constraints comprise reworks, level of skill and experience of the workforce, adequacy of method of construction, buildability issues, and inadequate supervision and coordination.The factors underlying each broad category of external and internal constraints are reported. The relative levels of impact of the identified constraints are expected to guide the project team in addressing the constraints in a cost-effective manner. Keywords: Construction management, Labour productivity, Performance improvement, Productivity constraints.

Shakir Hussain

Abstract: Polymer waste volumes have surged in recent years as a result of growing industrialization and fast improvements in living standards. In Malaysia, the majority of polymer waste is discarded rather than recycled. This circumstance results in major issues such as waste of natural resources and pollution of the environment. Polymer products, such as synthetic fibres, plastics, and rubber, are petrochemical compounds that disintegrate slowly in nature. Even after a long amount of time, plastic materials are not easily biodegradable. In reality, a wide range of waste materials can be used as a cement matrix inert. For the manufacture of the polymer concrete, trash bag plastics were employed as polymer wastes HDPE in this study (PC). The purpose of this research is to investigate the characteristics and characterisation of polymer HDPE as a coarse aggregate replacement in concrete. Temperatures of 160°C, 170°C, 180°C, 190°C, and 200°C were used in the heating procedure. By volumetric approach, five compositions of coarse aggregate with varied crushed stone: HDPE waste ratios of 0:100, 15:85, 30:70, 45:55, and 60:40 were utilised. The use of polymerwaste as coarse aggregate in traditional concrete was examined. With fresh and hardened concrete tests, the effects of polymer wastes on the workability and strength of the concrete were investigated. After 28 days, the compressive strength of the PCwas determined to be suitable for nonstructural use. The findings of the cost research revealed that the PC is more cost effective than traditional concrete. Keywords: Polymer Wastes HDPE; Coarse Aggregate; Compressive Strength; Properties

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Security along the international border is a critical process in security assessment; It must be exercised the 24x7. With the advancements in wireless IoT technology, it has become much easier to design, develop and deploy a cost-effective, automatic and efficient system for intrusion detection in the context of surveillance. This paper set up to set up the most efficient surveillance solution, we propose a Border Surveillance Systems and sensitive sites. this surveillance and security system is to detect and track intruders trespassing into the monitoring area along the border, it able which triggers off precocious alerts and valuation necessary for the catch of efficient measurements in case of a threat. Our system is based on the classification of the human gestures drawn from videos envoy by Drones equipped with cameras and sensors in real-time. All accomplished experimentation and acquired results showed the benefit diverted from the use of our system and therefore it enables our soldiers to watch the borders at each and every moment to effectively and at low cost.

2021 ◽  
Vol 514 ◽  
pp. 230578
Shuai Yan ◽  
Xianbo Zhou ◽  
Haomiao Li ◽  
Yi Shen ◽  
Yaling He ◽  

2021 ◽  
Eduardo Gonzalez Martinez ◽  
Sokunthearath (Kevin) Saem ◽  
Nadine Beganovic ◽  
Jose Moran-Mirabal

One of the main challenges for electrochemical sensor miniaturization is the fabrication of electrodes with a smaller footprint, while maintaining, or even increasing, their sensitivity for the targeted application. Our research group has previously demonstrated the enhancement of the electroactive surface area of gold electrodes up to 6-fold, relative to planar gold electrodes with the same footprint, through the generation of a wrinkled thin film surface via thermal shrinking. In this work, the electroactive surface area of wrinkled gold electrodes was further enhanced up to 5-fold (30-fold over flat electrodes) using a chronoamperometric pulsing technique. Scanning electron microscopy images showed progressive increase of surface roughness in response to an increasing number of applied pulses. The resulting nanoroughened electrodes present several advantages in addition to the enhanced electroactive surface area. These electrodes offer superior fouling resistance compared to that of wrinkled and flat electrodes when submerged in a solution containing bovine serum albumin at high concentrations. Cyclic voltammetry data also revealed greater sensitivity of nanoroughened electrodes toward anodic copper stripping, where the limit of quantification of copper by the nano-roughened electrodes was 0.3 ppm. Nano-roughened electrodes also allowed the highly sensitive enzyme-free detection of glucose through chronoamperometry, with a limit of detection of 0.5 mM, whereas planar electrodes did not demonstrate any ability to oxidize glucose. We foresee that this methodology to fabricate nanostructured electrodes will accelerate the development of simple, cost-effective and high sensitivity electrochemical platforms.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Chunjeong Kim ◽  
Youngjoo Na

AbstractThis study was investigated trends and consumer awareness on cycling pants by analyzing the reviews on bib shorts, bib tights, shorts, and tights in online shopping malls using text mining. The reviews and product information on cycling pants from Jan. 2017 to the first half of 2020 were crawled, and a total of 7241 cases were analyzed. The keywords of cycling pants were extracted using a Korean morphological analyzer (KoNLP), calculated to the term-document matrix, and then converted into a co-occurrence matrix. The number of reviews of cycling pants increased by 39% per year, and especially in the first half of 2020, the number of reviews has doubled over compared to the first half of last year. Bib shorts accounted for more than 50% of the number of reviews of cycling pants and received the highest rating, making them the most preferred. Positive reviews on cycling pants appeared 15 times over than that of negative reviews, and most of the cycling pants were evaluated positively. Size and cost-effective appeared as the important keywords both in positive and negative reviews. However, it was found that consumers have a difficult time choosing the size not only in the negative but also in the positive reviews. Pad was the keyword that appeared the most in negative reviews, and it was the most dissatisfied factor in the cycling pants. Therefore, in an internet shopping mall, it is necessary to provide intuitive and accurate information that is easy for consumers to understand about information on the size and pad of the cycle pants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (4) ◽  
Martial A. D. Kiki ◽  
Christos Astaras ◽  
Robert A. Montgomery ◽  
Philipp Henschel ◽  
Aristide Tehou ◽  

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