iocg deposits
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2022 ◽  
Vol 117 (2) ◽  
pp. 485-494
Tobias U. Schlegel ◽  
Renee Birchall ◽  
Tina D. Shelton ◽  
James R. Austin

Abstract Iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits form in spatial and genetic relation to hydrothermal iron oxide-alkali-calcic-hydrolytic alteration and thus show a mappable zonation of mineral assemblages toward the orebody. The mineral zonation of a breccia matrix-hosted orebody is efficiently mapped by regularly spaced samples analyzed by the scanning electron microscopy-integrated mineral analyzer technique. The method results in quantitative estimates of the mineralogy and allows the reliable recognition of characteristic alteration as well as mineralization-related mineral assemblages from detailed mineral maps. The Ernest Henry deposit is located in the Cloncurry district of Queensland and is one of Australia’s significant IOCG deposits. It is known for its association of K-feldspar altered clasts with iron oxides and chalcopyrite in the breccia matrix. Our mineral mapping approach shows that the hydrothermal alteration resulted in a characteristic zonation of minerals radiating outward from the pipe-shaped orebody. The mineral zonation is the result of a sequence of sodic alteration followed by potassic alteration, brecciation, and, finally, by hydrolytic (acid) alteration. The hydrolytic alteration primarily affected the breccia matrix and was related to economic mineralization. Alteration halos of individual minerals such as pyrite and apatite extend dozens to hundreds of meters beyond the limits of the orebody into the host rocks. Likewise, the Fe-Mg ratio in hydrothermal chlorites changes systematically with respect to their distance from the orebody. Geochemical data obtained from portable X-ray fluorescence (p-XRF) and petrophysical data acquired from a magnetic susceptibility meter and a gamma-ray spectrometer support the mineralogical data and help to accurately identify mineral halos in rocks surrounding the ore zone. Specifically, the combination of mineralogical data with multielement data such as P, Mn, As, P, and U obtained from p-XRF and positive U anomalies from radiometric measurements has potential to direct an exploration program toward higher Cu-Au grades.

2021 ◽  
Vol 365 ◽  
pp. 106412
Gustavo Henrique Coelho de Melo ◽  
Lena Virginia Soares Monteiro ◽  
Raphael Bianchi Hunger ◽  
Poliana Iara Freitas Toledo ◽  
Roberto Perez Xavier ◽  

Minerals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 809
Caroline Tiddy ◽  
Diana Zivak ◽  
June Hill ◽  
David Giles ◽  
Jim Hodgkison ◽  

The chemistry of hydrothermal monazite from the Carrapateena and Prominent Hill iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits in the IOCG-rich Gawler Craton, South Australia, is used here to define geochemical criteria for IOCG exploration in the Gawler Craton as follows: Monazite associated with IOCG mineralisation: La + Ce > 63 wt% (where La > 22.5 wt% and Ce > 37 wt%), Y and/or Th < 1 wt% and Nd < 12.5 wt%; Intermediate composition monazite (between background and ore-related compositions): 45 wt% < La + Ce < 63 wt%, Y and/or Th < 1 wt%. Intermediate monazite compositions preserving Nd > 12.5 wt% are considered indicative of Carrapateena-style mineralisation; Background compositions: La + Ce < 45 wt% or Y or Th > 1 wt%. Mineralisation-related monazite compositions are recognised within monazite hosted within cover sequence materials that directly overly IOCG mineralisation at Carrapateena. Similar observations have been made at Prominent Hill. Recognition of these signatures within cover sequence materials demonstrates that the geochemical signatures can survive processes of weathering, erosion, transport and redeposition into younger cover sequence materials that overlie older, mineralised basement rocks. The monazite geochemical signatures therefore have the potential to be dispersed within the cover sequence, effectively increasing the geochemical footprint of mineralisation.

2021 ◽  
Zhi-Kun Su ◽  
Xin-Fu Zhao ◽  
Xiao-Chun Li ◽  
Mei-Fu Zhou ◽  
Allen K. Kennedy ◽  

Abstract Precambrian iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits are generally encountered with multistage hydrothermal overprints and hence have complex isotopic records. Precise dating of ore-forming and overprinting events and assessment of time-resolved metal sources are fundamental for understanding ore genesis. Here, we quantify the evolution history by integrating in situ U-Pb dating of texturally constrained allanite and Sm-Nd isotope data of ores and major rare earth element (REE) minerals in the breccia-hosted Lanniping Fe-Cu deposit in Kangdian region, southwestern China. The economically mineralized breccia in Lanniping Fe-Cu deposit is characterized by pervasive and texturally destructive replacement of polymictic clasts, including host metasedimentary packages, the intruded dolerite, and pre-ore halokinetic breccia. Ore minerals in cements are mainly composed of magnetite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and variable amounts of REE-rich minerals (e.g., apatite and allanite/epidote). Two types of allanite were identified in ores. Type I prismatic allanite texturally intergrown with magnetite has a SHRIMP U-Pb age of 1728 ± 20 Ma (1σ), which matches a zircon U-Pb age of 1713 ± 14 Ma (2σ) for the dolerite clasts and provides the direct age constraint on the Fe-Cu mineralization event. Type II anhedral allanite shows complex zoning and is spatially associated with, but texturally later than, magnetite, apatite, and chalcopyrite. This type of allanite yields significantly younger SHRIMP dates of 1015 ± 33 (1σ) and 800 ± 16 Ma (1σ) for cores and rims, respectively, which correspond to discrete regional magmatic events and hence record hydrothermal overprint/remobilization events of ore minerals in the deposit. Integrated Sm-Nd isotope compositions of type I allanite, apatite, and whole ores generally align along the reference Sm-Nd isochron of 1728 Ma, further confirming the primary ore formation at ~1.7 Ga. Corresponding εNd(1728 Ma) values ranging from –2.8 to 0.3 are significantly higher than those of the host metasedimentary rocks (–9.5 to –6.2) but comparable to those of contemporaneous igneous intrusions (–0.3 to 5.3) in the region, demonstrating that REE components of the primary ores were dominantly sourced from rocks of mantle-derived affinity. Both cores and rims of the younger type II allanite grains have Nd isotope compositions consistent with the unique time-evolved line of the ~1.7 Ga ores, implying that REEs incorporated into type II allanite were ultimately sourced from the primary ores in this deposit. The combined texture, chemical, U-Pb, and Sm-Nd isotope data thus demonstrate that REE remobilization was localized during post-ore hydrothermal overprint with negligible external inputs of REEs to the primary ores in the Lanniping deposit. In this contribution, we not only date primary ore formation but also recognize several younger allanite generations that record internal metal redistributions in response to post-ore tectonothermal events. Our study highlights the potential of ore-associated REE minerals such as allanite for resolving the age of multiple stages of hydrothermal events in complex ore deposits by ion probe, provided that careful examination of textural and paragenetic relationship of ores is conducted. Our finding of these younger allanite generations also exemplifies the significance of evaluation on time-resolved metal input for better characterizing the evolution history of the IOCG deposits.

H. Duong Van ◽  
C. Nguyen Dinh ◽  
A. Piestrzyński ◽  
J. Pieczonka

Abstract —We study the relations between several selected elements present in the Sin Quyen IOCG deposit, Lào Cai, North Vietnam, and interpret the obtained correlations, especially with a coefficient higher than 0.7. The correlations with high coefficients are mainly observed for the elements belonging to the chalcophile group (Cu, Ag, Au, Te, and Bi) and for the relation between uranium and Ag, Au, Cu, Pb, and Bi. Although the S-, Fe-, and REE-bearing minerals are predominant in the studied deposit, no strong correlation between them and the other elements was observed, even with Cu. The phenomena are primarily explained based on the geochemical properties of the mentioned elements and the characteristics of IOCG deposits.

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