Iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits form in spatial and genetic relation to hydrothermal iron oxide-alkali-calcic-hydrolytic alteration and thus show a mappable zonation of mineral assemblages toward the orebody. The mineral zonation of a breccia matrix-hosted orebody is efficiently mapped by regularly spaced samples analyzed by the scanning electron microscopy-integrated mineral analyzer technique. The method results in quantitative estimates of the mineralogy and allows the reliable recognition of characteristic alteration as well as mineralization-related mineral assemblages from detailed mineral maps. The Ernest Henry deposit is located in the Cloncurry district of Queensland and is one of Australia’s significant IOCG deposits. It is known for its association of K-feldspar altered clasts with iron oxides and chalcopyrite in the breccia matrix. Our mineral mapping approach shows that the hydrothermal alteration resulted in a characteristic zonation of minerals radiating outward from the pipe-shaped orebody. The mineral zonation is the result of a sequence of sodic alteration followed by potassic alteration, brecciation, and, finally, by hydrolytic (acid) alteration. The hydrolytic alteration primarily affected the breccia matrix and was related to economic mineralization. Alteration halos of individual minerals such as pyrite and apatite extend dozens to hundreds of meters beyond the limits of the orebody into the host rocks. Likewise, the Fe-Mg ratio in hydrothermal chlorites changes systematically with respect to their distance from the orebody. Geochemical data obtained from portable X-ray fluorescence (p-XRF) and petrophysical data acquired from a magnetic susceptibility meter and a gamma-ray spectrometer support the mineralogical data and help to accurately identify mineral halos in rocks surrounding the ore zone. Specifically, the combination of mineralogical data with multielement data such as P, Mn, As, P, and U obtained from p-XRF and positive U anomalies from radiometric measurements has potential to direct an exploration program toward higher Cu-Au grades.
One of the oldest lime manufactures in Chiang Mai Province is located in a hillside village, Ban Pong, Hang Dong District, the western part of Chiang Mai City. Villagers still have conserved traditional production methods using wood-fired kilns and the primary material selection, an Ordovician marble. There are 2 massive amounts of carbonate rocks distributed in Chiang Mai Province; Permian limestone and Ordovician marble. However, the Ordovician carbonate rocks in Ban Pong were selected to produce high-quality lime by their primitive method (man-made) for a long time. Petrographical studies suggest that the Ordovician rock samples show a granoblastic texture with a slightly foliation represents by mica flakes. They are made up mainly of calcite, with very small amounts of quartz, muscovite, talc, and opaque minerals that can be identified as marble. The mineral compositions are according to the value of CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, K2O, and Fe2O3 in whole-rock analysis by XRF. The geochemical data suggest that marble in the Ban Pong area has a high CaO ratio and contains small amounts of muscovite, quartz, talc, and opaque minerals that may reduce the decomposition temperature during the calcination process. The Ordovician marble in Ban Pong is an appropriate raw material for traditional lime manufacture to saving energy in the production system.
Limestone has been a geologic material in the lime industry from the past to the presence of human society
Villagers in Ban Pong (Chiang Mai Province, Thailand) selected the western Ordovician limestone mountains to produce lime by a primitive process instead of the eastern Permian limestone mountains
The mineral- and chemical compositions of the Ordovician limestones were intensively analyzed to characterize the suitable raw materials for a primitive lime kiln
The mineral composition indicated that the Ordovician limestone in this area is metamorphosed into an impure fine-grained marble
We report the first radiogenic Nd-Sr isotope data in the magmatic rocks island-arc ophiolite assemblage from the middle branch of the East Sayan ophiolite complexes to better constrain geodynamic processes in this segment of the CAOB in southern central Siberia. The magmatic rocks belong to the following geochemical types: (1) Ensimatic island-arc boninites; (2) island-arc assemblage; (3) enriched basalts of mid-ocean ridges; and (4) oceanic island-like basalts. The boninites have a positive value εNd (T), which is generated from a depleted mantle source (N-MORB). The island-arc assemblage has negative or slightly positive εNd (T) and was formed from an enriched mantle source due to the subduction of terrigenous rocks. The source of the terrigenous material was most likely the rocks of the Archean TTG (Trondhjemite Tonalite Granodiorite) complex of the Gargan block. Isotopic ratios for E-MOR and OIB-like basalts are characterized by positive or slightly negative values of εNd (T). The mafic dike, which crosscut ophiolite rocks, corresponds to OIB-like basalts. The values of εNd (T), measured 87Sr/86Sr and I (Sr), in the mafic dike correspond to the EM I mantle source. The E-MOR and OIB-like basalts appear to be formed in late-stage asthenospheric mantle melting via the decompression melting processes. The obtained isotope geochemical data for the E-MOR and OIB-like basalts probably indicate the mixing of island-arc melts with asthenospheric melts. We undertook 40Ar/39Ar dating of the mafic dike, which crosscut the ophiolite unit. The mafic dike has a whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar weighted mean plateau age of 799 ± 11 Ma. The dating constrains the minimum age of the ophiolite and island-arc magmatism in the region.
AbstractIn 2017, a geochemical survey was carried out across the Commune of Santiago, a local administrative unit located at the center of the namesake capital city of Chile, and the concentration of a number of major and trace elements (53 in total) was determined on 121 topsoil samples. Multifractal IDW (MIDW) interpolation method was applied to raw data to generate geochemical baseline maps of 15 potential toxic elements (PTEs); the concentration–area (C-A) plot was applied to MIDW grids to highlight the fractal distribution of geochemical data. Data of PTEs were elaborated to statistically determine local geochemical baselines and to assess the spatial variation of the degree of soil contamination by means of a new method taking into account both the severity of contamination and its complexity. Afterwards, to discriminate the sources of PTEs in soils, a robust Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to data expressed in isometric log-ratio (ilr) coordinates. Based on PCA results, a Sequential Binary Partition (SBP) was also defined and balances were determined to generate contrasts among those elements considered as proxies of specific contamination sources (Urban traffic, productive settlements, etc.). A risk assessment was finally completed to potentially relate contamination sources to their potential effect on public health in the long term. A probabilistic approach, based on Monte Carlo method, was deemed more appropriate to include uncertainty due to spatial variation of geochemical data across the study area. Results showed how the integrated use of multivariate statistics and compositional data analysis gave the authors the chance to both discriminate between main contamination processes characterizing the soil of Santiago and to observe the existence of secondary phenomena that are normally difficult to constrain. Furthermore, it was demonstrated how a probabilistic approach in risk assessment could offer a more reliable view of the complexity of the process considering uncertainty as an integral part of the results.
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), which has recently emerged as tool for geochemical analysis outside the traditional laboratory setting, is an ideal tool for Li exploration because it is the only technique that can measure Li in minerals, rocks, soils, and brines in-situ in the field. In addition to being used in many products essential to modern life, Li is a necessary element for a reduced carbon future and Li–Cs–Ta (LCT) granitic pegmatites are an important source of Li. Such pegmatites can have varying degrees of enrichment in Li, Rb, Cs, Be, Sn, Ga, Ta>Nb, B, P, and F. We focus here on the LCT pegmatites of the Carolina Tin-Spodumene Belt (CTSB) situated in the Kings Mountain Shear Zone, which extends from South Carolina into North Carolina. The CTSB hosts both barren and fertile pegmatites, with Li-enriched pegmatites containing spodumene, K-feldspar, albite, quartz, muscovite, and beryl. We illustrate how handheld LIBS analysis can be used for real-time Li analysis in the field at a historically important CTSB pegmatite locality in Gaston County, N.C. in four contexts: (i) elemental detection and identification; (ii) microchemical mapping; (iii) depth profiling; and (iv) elemental quantitative analysis. Finally, as an example of a practical exploration application, we describe how handheld LIBS can be used to measure K/Rb ratios and Li contents of muscovite and rapidly determine the degree of pegmatite fractionation. This study demonstrates the potential of handheld LIBS to drastically reduce the time necessary to acquire geochemical data relevant to acquiring compositional information for pegmatites during a Li pegmatite exploration program.
AbstractNumerous Phanerozoic limestones are comprised of diagenetic calcite microcrystals formed during mineralogical stabilization of metastable carbonate sediments. Previous laboratory experiments show that calcite microcrystals crystallizing under conditions similar to those that characterize meteoric diagenetic settings (impurity-free, low degree of supersaturation, high fluid:solid ratio) exhibit the rhombic form/morphology, whereas calcite microcrystals crystallizing under conditions similar to those that prevail in marine and marine burial diagenetic settings (impurity-rich, high degree of supersaturation, low fluid:solid ratio) exhibit non-rhombic forms. Based on these experimental observations, it is proposed here that rhombic calcite microcrystals form exclusively in meteoric environments. This hypothesis is tested using new and previously published textural and geochemical data from the rock record. These data show that the vast majority of Phanerozoic limestones characterized by rhombic microcrystals also exhibit petrographic and/or geochemical evidence (depleted δ13C, δ18O, and trace elements) indicative of meteoric diagenesis whereas non-rhombic forms are associated with marine burial conditions. By linking calcite microcrystal textures to specific diagenetic environments, our observations bring clarity to the conditions under which the various microcrystal textures form. Furthermore, the hypothesis that rhombic calcite microcrystals form exclusively in meteoric environments implies that this crystal form may be a useful textural proxy for meteoric diagenesis.
The Olds Ferry terrane is the more inboard of two accreted volcanic arc terranes in the late Paleozoic−early Mesozoic Blue Mountains province of the northern U.S. Cordillera. We present geologic, geochronologic, and geochemical data from the volcano-sedimentary Huntington Formation of the Olds Ferry arc that place the terrane within a firm temporal and tectonomagmatic context, and establish its identity as a fringing arc terrane along the Triassic to Early Jurassic Cordilleran margin. The Huntington Formation is divided into two unconformity-bounded informal members: a Norian (ca. 220 Ma) lower member comprising a sequence of mafic-intermediate volcanics, massive volcaniclastic breccias, and minor carbonates deposited unconformably onto the 237.7 Ma Brownlee pluton and intruded by the 210.0 Ma Iron Mountain pluton; and a Rhaetian through Pleinsbachian (<210−187.0 Ma) upper member composed of massive conglomerates, abundant rhyodacite to rhyolite effusive and pyroclastic flows, and interlayered sandstone turbidites, deposited with angular unconformity onto the lower member. An erosional hiatus and regional tilting produced an angular unconformity separating the Huntington Formation from the overlying basal conglomerates of the late Early to Middle Jurassic Weatherby Formation of the Izee forearc basin transgressive onlap sequence. Huntington Formation volcanic rocks are isotopically enriched relative to depleted mantle and coeval igneous rocks in the outboard Wallowa terrane. A temporal evolution to more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7036−0.7057) and εNd values (+5.4 to +3.1) in the upper member volcanics suggests increasing involvement of continental-derived material in their petrogenesis. Precambrian xenocrystic zircons in both lower and upper member volcaniclastic rocks strongly support a proximal location of the Olds Ferry terrane to cratonal North America during much of its history. The chronology and tectonostratigraphic architecture of the Olds Ferry terrane allows its robust correlation to other fringing-arc terranes along the U.S. and Canadian Cordillera.
To constrain the closure mechanism and time of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, we report new geochronological and geochemical data for Triassic granites along a NW−SE corridor from Eastern Tianshan to Beishan, NW China. Seven granites have U-Pb ages that young southwards from 245 Ma to 234 Ma in the Kanguer accretionary complex, to 237 Ma to 234 Ma in the eastern Central Tianshan block, to 229 Ma to 223 Ma in the Liuyuan accretionary complex. Granites in the Kanguer accretionary complex formed by fractional crystallization and are peraluminous, high-K, calc-alkaline, and crust-derived. They have very low MgO (Mg# = 6−9), Cr, and Ni contents, and their high εNd(t) (+3.40) and εHf(t) (+4.49 to +11.91) isotopes indicate that the Dananhu arc crust was juvenile. The Huaniushan pluton in the Liuyuan accretionary complex displays the geochemical signatures of both A1- and A2-type granites (Y/Nb = 0.32−3.39). All other granites in the Central Tianshan block and Liuyuan accretionary complex are aluminous A2-types with high K2O+Na2O, Al, rare earth elements (REE), Zr+Nb+Y, Ga, Fe/Mg, and Y/Nb and remarkable depletions of Eu, Ba, Nb, Ta, Sr, P, and Ti. They have a broad range of MgO (Mg# = 9−59), Cr, and Ni contents, Isr (0.70741−0.70945) values, negative εNd (t) (−2.98 to −1.14), and low to moderate εHf(t) (−1.22 to +7.78), which suggests a mixture of mantle and crustal components. These 245−223 Ma granitoids show marked Nb-Ta depletions that point to a subduction origin. Notable enrichments in Nd-Hf isotopes of Late Triassic granites are likely an indication of collision. Integration with previous data enables us to conclude that the delamination of an oceanic slab and mantle upwelling induced partial melting of thickened arc crust during a tectonic transition from a multiple supra-subduction margin to a collisional setting in the Late Triassic.