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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Steven L. Taylor ◽  
Lito E. Papanicolas ◽  
Alyson Richards ◽  
Furdosa Ababor ◽  
Wan Xian Kang ◽  

Abstract Background Otitis media (OM) is a major disease burden in Australian Aboriginal children, contributing to serious long-term health outcomes. We report a pilot analysis of OM in children attending an outreach ear and hearing clinic in a remote south Australian community over a two-year period. Our study focuses on longitudinal relationships between ear canal microbiota characteristics with nasopharyngeal microbiota, and clinical and treatment variables. Results Middle ear health status were assessed in 19 children (aged 3 months to 8 years) presenting in remote western South Australia and medical interventions were recorded. Over the two-year study period, chronic suppurative OM was diagnosed at least once in 7 children (37%), acute OM with perforation in 4 children (21%), OM with effusion in 11 children (58%), while only 1 child had no ear disease. Microbiota analysis of 19 children (51 sets of left and right ear canal swabs and nasopharyngeal swabs) revealed a core group of bacterial taxa that included Corynebacterium, Alloiococcus, Staphylococcus, Haemophilus, Turicella, Streptococcus, and Pseudomonas. Within-subject microbiota similarity (between ears) was significantly greater than inter-subject similarity, regardless of differences in ear disease (p = 0.0006). Longitudinal analysis revealed changes in diagnosis to be associated with more pronounced changes in microbiota characteristics, irrespective of time interval. Ear microbiota characteristics differed significantly according to diagnosis (P (perm) = 0.0001). Diagnoses featuring inflammation with tympanic membrane perforation clustering separately to those in which the tympanic membrane was intact, and characterised by increased Proteobacteria, particularly Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Oligella. While nasopharyngeal microbiota differed significantly in composition to ear microbiota (P (perm) = 0.0001), inter-site similarity was significantly greater in subjects with perforated tympanic membranes, a relationship that was associated with the relative abundance of H. influenzae in ear samples (rs = − 0.71, p = 0.0003). Longitudinal changes in ear microbiology reflected changes in clinical signs and treatment. Conclusions Children attending the ear and hearing clinic in a remote Aboriginal community present with a broad spectrum of OM conditions and severities, consistent with other remote Aboriginal communities. Ear microbiota characteristics align with OM diagnosis and change with disease course. Nasopharyngeal microbiota characteristics are consistent with the contribution of acute upper respiratory infection to OM aetiology.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 43
Mohammad Hamiduzzaman ◽  
Noore Siddiquee ◽  
Helen McLaren

Background: Coping with COVID-19 is a challenge for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) older adults. In Australia, little attention has been given to understanding associations between cultural contexts, health promotion, and socio-emotional and mental health challenges of older CALD adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we have collected data from older CALD adults to examine their COVID-19 risk perceptions and its association with their health precautions, behavioural dimensions and emergency preparation. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in South Australia. The CALD population aged 60 years and above were approached through 11 South Australian multicultural NGOs. Results: We provide the details of 155 older CALD South Australians’ demographics, risk perceptions, health precautions (problem-and-emotion-focused), behavioural dimensions and emergency preparation.  The explanatory variables included demographic characteristics (age, gender, education and ethnicity); and risk perception (cognitive [likelihood of being affected] and affective dimension [fear and general concerns], and psychometric paradigm [severity, controllability, and personal impact]. The outcome measure variables were health precautions (problem-focused and emotion-focused), behavioral adaptions and emergency preparation. Conclusions: This dataset may help the researchers who investigate multicultural health or aged care in the pandemic and or who may have interest to link with other datasets and secondary use of this primary dataset in order to develop culturally tailored pandemic-related response plan. The data set is available from Harvard Dataverse.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
David Rassam ◽  
J. Sreekanth ◽  
Dirk Mallants ◽  
Dennis Gonzalez ◽  
Rebecca Doble ◽  

Regulators require the gas industry to assess the risks of unintentional release of chemicals to the environment and implement measures to mitigate it. Industry standard models for contaminant transport in aquifers do not explicitly model processes in the unsaturated zone and groundwater models often require long run times to complete simulation of complex processes. We propose a stochastic numerical-analytical hybrid model to overcome these two shortcomings and demonstrate its application to assess the risks associated with onshore gas drilling in the Otway Basin, South Australia. The novel approach couples HYDRUS-1D to an analytical solution to model contaminant transport in the aquifer. Groundwater velocities and chemical trajectories were derived from a particle tracking analysis. The most influential parameters controlling solute delivery to the aquifer were the soil chemical degradation constant and the hydraulic conductivity of a throttle soil horizon. Only 18% of the flow paths intercepted environmental receptors within a 1-km radius from the source, 87% of which had concentrations of <1% of the source. The proposed methodology assesses the risk to environmental assets and informs regulators to implement measures that mitigate risk down to an acceptable level.

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 96
Alana Hansen ◽  
Terence Williamson ◽  
Dino Pisaniello ◽  
Helen Bennetts ◽  
Joost van Hoof ◽  

Older people are often over-represented in morbidity and mortality statistics associated with hot and cold weather, despite remaining mostly indoors. The study “Improving thermal environment of housing for older Australians” focused on assessing the relationships between the indoor environment, building characteristics, thermal comfort and perceived health/wellbeing of older South Australians over a study period that included the warmest summer on record. Our findings showed that indoor temperatures in some of the houses reached above 35 °C. With concerns about energy costs, occupants often use adaptive behaviours to achieve thermal comfort instead of using cooling (or heating), although feeling less satisfied with the thermal environment and perceiving health/wellbeing to worsen at above 28 °C (and below 15 °C). Symptoms experienced during hot weather included tiredness, shortness of breath, sleeplessness and dizziness, with coughs and colds, painful joints, shortness of breath and influenza experienced during cold weather. To express the influence of temperature and humidity on perceived health/wellbeing, a Temperature Humidity Health Index (THHI) was developed for this cohort. A health/wellbeing perception of “very good” is achieved between an 18.4 °C and 24.3 °C indoor operative temperature and a 55% relative humidity. The evidence from this research is used to inform guidelines about maintaining home environments to be conducive to the health/wellbeing of older people.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1329878X2110688
Catherine Hartung ◽  
Natalie Ann Hendry ◽  
Kath Albury ◽  
Sasha Johnston ◽  
Rosie Welch

During a tumultuous period marked by a global pandemic, forced lockdowns, and educational institutions going ‘digital by default’, TikTok has emerged as a key platform for teachers to connect and share their experiences. These digital practices have been widely celebrated for providing teachers with an outlet during a challenging time, though little is known about the particulars of TikTok's appeal among teachers and their followers. This article focuses on a teacher from South Australia, ‘Mr Luke’, whose upbeat TikTok videos capturing ‘#teacherlife’ have seen him grow a significant following. Drawing on interviews with Mr Luke and an Australian pre-service teacher who follows him, we consider their thoughts on TikTok and its relationship to professional practice. We identify key factors that have enabled TikTok's popularity among educators, with implications for both teacher education and social media scholarship.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 275
Dominique Schell ◽  
Shahid Ullah ◽  
Mark E. Brooke-Smith ◽  
Paul Hollington ◽  
Marina Yeow ◽  

Background & Aims: Globally, there has been a concerning rise in the incidence of young-onset cancers. The aim of this study was to provide trends in the incidence and survival of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas (oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, and colorectal) in South Australia over a 27-year period. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective longitudinal database including all cases of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas prospectively reported to the South Australian (State) Cancer Registry from 1990 to 2017. Results: A total of 28,566 patients diagnosed with oesophageal, stomach, pancreatic, or colorectal adenocarcinoma between 1990 and 2017 were included in the study. While the overall incidence for gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas in individuals >50 years has decreased since 2000 (IRR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.94–1.00; p = 0.06)) compared to 1990–1999, the rate amongst individuals aged 18–50 has significantly increased (IRR 1.41 (95% CI 1.27–1.57; p <0.001)) during the same reference time period. Although noted in both sexes, the rate of increase in incidence was significantly greater in males (11.5 to 19.7/100,000; p <0.001). The overall survival from adenocarcinomas across all subsites improved in the >50-year cohort in the last decade (HR 0.89 (95% CI 0.86–0.93; p <0.001)) compared to 1990–1999. In individuals aged 18–50 years, there has only been a significant improvement in survival for colorectal cancer (HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.68–0.99; p <0.04)), but not the other subsites. A lower overall survival was noted for males in both age cohorts (18–50 years—HR 1.24 (95% CI 1.09–1.13; p <0.01) and >50 years—HR 1.13 (95% CI 1.10–1.16; p <0.001), respectively) compared to females. Conclusions: This study from South Australia demonstrates a significant increase in young-onset gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas over the last 28 years, with a greater increase in the male sex. The only significant improvement in survival in this cohort has been noted in colorectal cancer patients.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 370
John Boland ◽  
Sleiman Farah ◽  
Lei Bai

Accurately forecasting the output of grid connected wind and solar systems is critical to increasing the overall penetration of renewables on the electrical network. This is especially the case in Australia, where there has been a massive increase in solar and wind farms in the last 15 years, as well as in roof top solar, both domestic and commercial. For example, in 2020, 27% of the electricity in Australia was from renewable sources, and in South Australia almost 60% was from wind and solar. In the literature, there has been extensive research reported on solar and wind resource, entailing both point and interval forecasts, but there has been much less focus on the forecasting of output from wind and solar systems. In this review, we canvass both what has been reported and also what gaps remain. In the case of the latter topic, there are numerous aspects that are not well dealt with in the literature. We have added discussion on the value of forecasts, rather than just focusing on forecast skill. Further, we present a section on how to deal with conditionally changing variance, a topic that has little focus in the literature. One other topic may be particularly important in Australia at the moment, but may become more widespread. This is how to deal with the concept of a clear sky output from a solar farm when the field is oversized compared to the inverter capacity, resulting in a plateau for the output.

Joshua Trigg ◽  
Damien Shen ◽  
Julia Morris ◽  
Jason Blunt

Background: Smoking is disproportionately prevalent among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian peoples, with 39% of Indigenous Australians aged over 15 years smoking daily. Efforts to reduce this high prevalence include culturally focused media campaigns, designed using community consultation, highlighting the need to determine how such health messaging is received by smokers. This study aimed to examine Indigenous Australian smokers&rsquo; reactions to a culturally focused anti-smoking mass media campaign&mdash;'Give up Smokes&rsquo;. Methods: Intercept surveying across health services and events used recorded demographics, smoking status, quit attempts, smoking health effects, anti-smoking campaign recall, social support, and campaign reactions. Participants rated campaign images in five domains: 1) whether it made them stop and think; 2) personal relevance; 3) believability of design and message; 4) prompting concern about smoking; and 5) motivation towards quitting. Cluster analysis was used to segment smoker types. Results: Smoking health effects knowledge was high, and did not differ by quit readiness, attempts, or social support. Cessation support access was higher among those with greater readiness to quit. Social smoking behaviour and confidence to support others quitting did not significantly differ between participants, however importance of others quitting did. Quit readiness, attempts, and social support were associated with reaction to campaign design, but not message recall. Four types of smokers were described, using smoking characteristics, who differed in campaign message reactions. Conclusions: Strategies using campaign-exposed smoker characteristics to inform culturally focused health promotion are discussed in relation to four identified types of smokers.

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