Citric Acid
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2021 ◽  
Constantinos Eleftheriou ◽  
Michelle Sanchez Rivera ◽  
Thomas R Clarke ◽  
Victor Chamosa Pino

This protocol is an adaptation of Michelle's lever Go/NoGo auditory discrimination task, which uses visual instead of auditory stimuli. Water-restricted, headplated mice learn to discriminate between a target and a distractor stimulus presented serially in pseudo-random order, pushing a lever to indicate when the target stimulus appears. The protocol is designed for across-learning recordings, and as such the inter-trial interval and stimulus interval remain constant throughout. Correction trials are also enabled throughout the duration of the protocol. The task in implemented in the Visiomode platform, using the lever apparatus for response input instead of the touchscreen. This protocol uses the Citric Acid Water Restriction protocol with sucrose rewards, instead of the traditional water deprivation protocol.

2021 ◽  
Constantinos Eleftheriou

The goal of this protocol is to assess visuomotor learning and motor flexibility in freely-moving mice, using the Visiomode touchscreen platform. Water-restricted mice first learn to associate touching a visual stimulus on the screen with a water reward. They then learn to discriminate between different visual stimuli on the touchscreen by nose-poking, before asked to switch their motor strategy to forelimb reaching. Version 1 of the protocol uses traditional water deprivation and water rewards in the task as a means of motivating mice to perform the task. Version 2 of the protocol uses Citric Acid for water restriction and sucrose as rewards in the task instead of the traditional water deprivation protocol.

Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 310 ◽  
pp. 122268
Peiyu Liu ◽  
Zenghua Li ◽  
Xiaoyan Zhang ◽  
Jinhu Li ◽  
Guodong Miao ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 1186 ◽  
pp. 339125
Lorena Placer ◽  
Laura Estévez ◽  
Isela Lavilla ◽  
Francisco Pena-Pereira ◽  
Carlos Bendicho

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (21) ◽  
pp. 6370
Nadegda Bozova ◽  
Petar D. Petrov

Biopolymer materials have been considered a “green” alternative to petroleum-based polymeric materials. Biopolymers cannot completely replace synthetic polymers, but their application should be extended as much as possible, exploiting the benefits of their low toxicity and biodegradability. This contribution describes a novel strategy for the synthesis of super-macroporous 2-hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) cryogels. The method involves cryogenic treatment of an aqueous solution of HEC and citric acid (CA), freeze drying, and thermally induced crosslinking of HEC macrochains by CA in a solid state. The effect of reaction temperature (70–180 °C) and CA concentration (5–20 mass % to HEC) on the reaction efficacy and physico-mechanical properties of materials was investigated. Highly elastic cryogels were fabricated, with crosslinking carried out at ≥ 100 °C. The storage modulus of the newly obtained HEC cryogels was ca. 20 times higher than the modulus of pure HEC cryogels prepared by photochemical crosslinking. HEC cryogels possess an open porous structure, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and uptake a relatively large amount of water. The swelling degree varied between 17 and 40, depending on the experimental conditions. The degradability of HEC cryogels was demonstrated by acid hydrolysis experiments.

Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 1842
José Manuel Aguilar ◽  
Manuel Felix ◽  
Yolanda López-González ◽  
Felipe Cordobés ◽  
Antonio Guerrero

Egg yolk is a multifunctional ingredient widely used in many food products, wherein proteins are the dominant component contributing to this functionality. However, the potential risk of foodborne illness associated with egg use forces us to ensure that foodstuffs based on egg yolk are managed in a safe and sanitary manner. Lowering the pH under a certain value by adding acids could serve this purpose, but it can also greatly modify the rheological and functional properties of egg yolk. This research aims to assess the influence of citric acid on the rheological properties and microstructure of chicken egg yolk dispersions and their heat-set gels. The dispersions were prepared from fresh hen’s eggs yolks by adding water or citric acid to obtain a technical yolk (45 wt.% in solids) at the desired pH value. Viscoelastic measurements were carried out using a control stress rheometer, and microstructure was evaluated by cryo-scanning electronic microscopy (CryoSEM). An evolution of the viscoelastic properties of egg yolk dispersions from fluid to gel behavior was observed as the pH decreased until 2 but showing a predominantly fluid behavior at pH 3. The profile of viscoelastic properties along the thermal cycle applied is modified to a great extent, also showing a strong dependence on pH. Thus, the sol–gel transition can be modulated by the pH value.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 033-040
Mina Grace Asoka ◽  
Gideon Orkwagh Abu ◽  
Obioma Kenechukwu Agwa

The fermentation kinetics of citric acid by Aspergillus versicolor was studied in a submerged batch system. The logistic equation for growth, the Luedeking–Piret equation for citric acid production and modified Luedeking–Piret-like equation for glucose consumption was proposed for this study. The model appeared to provide a reasonable description for each parameter during the growth phase. The production of citric acid was growth-associated.

Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (10) ◽  
pp. 406
Haejo Yang ◽  
Sooyeon Lim ◽  
Ji-Hyun Lee ◽  
Ji-Weon Choi ◽  
Il-Sheob Shin

Vase life is one of the most important factors that determines the marketability of cut flowers and is greatly affected by the water balance. The vase life of cut hydrangea flowers varies greatly depending on the postharvest solution management. Therefore, this study investigated the vase life of freshly harvested hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Verena’) according to the three types of preservative solutions (tap water (TW), 1% Chrysal Professional Ⅲ (CPⅢ), 2% sucrose + 250 mg/L 8-hydroxquinoline + 100 mg/L citric acid (SHQC)) and the combination solutions (pretreatment; TW, 0.1% Chrysal RVB (RVB), Floralife Quick Dip (FQ), transport; TW, CPⅢ, Floralife Clear (FC), preservative; CPⅢ, FC) for each distribution stage (pretreatment–transport–consumer). In the preservative comparison experiment, compared with the control, SHQC and CPⅢ significantly increased the vase life in 2019 (0.7 days, 3.4 days) and 2020 (1.4 days, 3.1 days), respectively. In the comparative experiment, by solution combination, the group (RVB, FQ) using the pretreatment significantly extended the vase life by 5.9 days and 4.6 days compared with the TW. These results confirm the importance of preservative solutions and pretreatment, suggesting that appropriate pretreatment and preservatives should be used to improve the marketability of cut hydrangea flowers.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 3557
Zsuzsanna Czibulya ◽  
Attila Csík ◽  
Ferenc Tóth ◽  
Petra Pál ◽  
István Csarnovics ◽  

In this study, scaffolds were prepared via an electrospinning method for application in oral cavities. The hydrophilicity of the fiber mesh is of paramount importance, as it promotes cell spreading; however, the most commonly used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and other hydrophilic fiber meshes immediately disintegrate in aqueous media. In contrast, the excessive hydrophobicity of the scaffolds already inhibits cells adhesion on the surface. Therefore, the hydrophilicity of the fiber meshes needed to be optimized. Scaffolds with different polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/chitosan/citric acid ratios were prepared. The addition of chitosan and the heat initiated cross-linkage of the polymers via citric acid enhanced the scaffolds’ hydrophobicity. The optimization of this property could be followed by contact angle measurements, and the increased number of cross-linkages were also supported by IR spectroscopy results. The fibers’ physical parameters were monitored via low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). As biocompatibility is essential for dental applications, Alamar Blue assay was used to prove that meshes do not have any negative effects on dental pulp stem cells. Our results showed that the optimization of the fiber nets was successful, as they will not disintegrate in intraoral cavities during dental applications.

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