Case Control
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (27) ◽  
pp. 8008-8019
Yin Sun ◽  
Zhong-Zhou Shen ◽  
Fei-Ling Huang ◽  
Yu Jiang ◽  
Ya-Wen Wang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Paul M McKeigue ◽  
David McAllister ◽  
Chris Robertson ◽  
Sharon J Hutchinson ◽  
Stuart McGurnaghan ◽  

Objectives - To determine whether COVID-19 efficacy varies with clinical risk category and to investigate risk factors for severe COVID-19 in those who have received two doses of vaccine. Design - Matched case-control study (REACT-SCOT). Setting - Population of Scotland from 1 December 2020 to 19 August 2021. Main outcome measure - Severe COVID-19, defined as cases with entry to critical care or fatal outcome. Results - Efficacy against severe COVID-19 of two doses of vaccine was 93% (95 percent CI 90% to 95%) in those without designated risk conditions, 89% (95 percent CI 85% to 92%) in those with moderate risk conditions, but only 66% (95 percent CI 52% to 76%) in those designated as clinically extremely vulnerable (CEV) and eligible for shielding. Of the 330 cases of severe COVID-19 in double-vaccinated individuals, 47% had moderate risk conditions and 41% were CEV. In the double-vaccinated CEV group, the rate ratio for severe disease (with no risk condition as reference category) was highest in solid organ transplants at 98 (95% CI 29 to 332) but even in this subgroup the absolute risk of severe COVID-19 was low (14 cases in 16079 person-months of follow-up). Conclusions - Two doses of vaccine protect against severe COVID-19 in CEV individuals but the residual risk in double-vaccinated individuals remains far higher in those who are CEV than in those who are not. These results suggest that any policy of offering booster doses to doubly-vaccinated individuals should focus initially on the clinically vulnerable, and lay a basis for determining eligibility for passive immunization to protect those at highest risk.

2021 ◽  
Laura Paige Penkert ◽  
Ruogu Li ◽  
Jing Huang ◽  
Anil Gurcan ◽  
Mei Chun Chung ◽  

Pork is a frequently consumed red meat that provides substantial amounts of energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients to the diet. Its role in human nutrition and health is controversial and a plethora of data exist in the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Therefore, we conducted a scoping review of clinical and population-based studies to assess the effects of pork consumption on human nutrition and health. Results are reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) extension for scoping reviews. Data were extracted from 86 studies, including 16 randomized controlled trials, 1 uncontrolled trial, 7 cohort studies, 4 nonrandomized controlled trials, 4 case-cohort and nested case-control studies, 33 case-control studies, and 21 cross-sectional studies. Intervention studies were conducted in healthy individuals and were short to moderate in duration. The effect of pork intake on patients’ nutrient status was the most commonly assessed outcome. The majority of observational studies assessed the effect of pork on cancer incidence, but no studies assessed the effects of pork on inflammation or oxidative stress. No interventional studies explored diabetes mellitus risk, and only one study assessed cancer risk associated with pork consumption. Several micronutrients in pork, including zinc, iron, selenium, choline, thiamin, and vitamins B6 and vitamin B12, are thought to influence cognitive function and may prove to be a unique area of research. To date, there is a dearth of high-quality randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of pork intake on disease risk factors and outcomes. This review helps highlight the many research gaps that future studies should be designed to address.

Gholamreza Rezamand ◽  
Touraj Mahmoudi ◽  
Seidamir Pasha Tabaeian ◽  
Hamid Farahani ◽  
Fatemeh Shahinmehr ◽  

Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging global chronic liver disease worldwide. Considering the powerful association between NAFLD, insulin resistance (IR) and obesity, as well as the key role of ghrelin in these metabolic disorders, we hypothesized that some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ghrelin (GHRL) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) genes might be associated with NAFLD. Methods We conducted a case-control retrospective study of 150 cases with biopsy-proven NAFLD and 155 controls. The diagnosis of NAFLD was established before the start of the genotyping process. All the 305 subjects were genotyped for GHRL SNP rs26802 or -501T>G and GHSR SNP rs572169 or Arg159Arg using the PCR-RFLP method. Results The GHRL rs26802 “GG” genotype compared with the “TT” genotype and “TT+TG” genotype appears to be a marker of decreased NAFLD susceptibility even after adjustment for confounding factors (P = 0.006; OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.03–0.56 and P = 0.003; OR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.05–0.53, respectively). However, we observed no significant difference in genotype or allele frequencies between the cases and controls for GHSR SNP rs572169. Conclusions These findings proposed, for the first time, that the GHRL rs26802 “GG” genotype has a protective effect against NAFLD. Nonetheless, this observation warrants further investigations in other populations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Chiara Iacusso ◽  
Barbara Daniela Iacobelli ◽  
Francesco Morini ◽  
Giorgia Totonelli ◽  
Milena Viggiano ◽  

Background: Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are becoming widespread, accounting for approximately 2% of all births in the western countries. Concerns exist on the potential association of ART with congenital anomalies. Few studies have addressed if a relationship exists between ART and the development of anorectal malformation (ARM). Our aim was to analyze the relationship between ARM and ART.Methods: Single-center retrospective case control study of all patients treated for ARM between 2010 and 2017. Patients with bronchiolitis treated since 2014 were used as controls. Variables analyzed include the following: prevalence of ART, gestational age, birth weight, and maternal age. Patients with ARM born after ART were also compared with those naturally conceived for disease complexity. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used as appropriate.Results: Three hundred sixty-nine patients were analyzed (143 cases and 226 controls). Prevalence of ART was significantly higher in ARM patients than in controls [7.6 vs. 3.0%; odds ratio: 2.59 (95% CI, 0.98–0.68); p = 0.05]. Among ARM patients, incidence of VACTERL association (17%) is more frequent in ART babies.Conclusion: Patients with ARM were more likely to be conceived following ART as compared with controls without congenital anomalies. Disease complexity of patients with ARM born after ART seems greater that those born after nonassisted conception.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Ravi Thadhani ◽  
Joanna Willetts ◽  
Catherine Wang ◽  
John Larkin ◽  
Hanjie Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background SARS-CoV-2 can remain transiently viable on surfaces. We examined if use of shared chairs in outpatient hemodialysis associates with a risk for indirect patient-to-patient transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Methods We used data from adults treated at 2,600 hemodialysis facilities in United States between February 1st and June 8th, 2020. We performed a retrospective case-control study matching each SARS-CoV-2 positive patient (case) to a non-SARS-CoV-2 patient (control) treated in the same dialysis shift. Cases and controls were matched on age, sex, race, facility, shift date, and treatment count. For each case-control pair, we traced backward 14 days to assess possible prior exposure from a ‘shedding’ SARS-CoV-2 positive patient who sat in the same chair immediately before the case or control. Conditional logistic regression models tested whether chair exposure after a shedding SARS-CoV-2 positive patient conferred a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection to the immediate subsequent patient. Results Among 170,234 hemodialysis patients, 4,782 (2.8 %) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (mean age 64 years, 44 % female). Most facilities (68.5 %) had 0 to 1 positive SARS-CoV-2 patient. We matched 2,379 SARS-CoV-2 positive cases to 2,379 non-SARS-CoV-2 controls; 1.30 % (95 %CI 0.90 %, 1.87 %) of cases and 1.39 % (95 %CI 0.97 %, 1.97 %) of controls were exposed to a chair previously sat in by a shedding SARS-CoV-2 patient. Transmission risk among cases was not significantly different from controls (OR = 0.94; 95 %CI 0.57 to 1.54; p = 0.80). Results remained consistent in adjusted and sensitivity analyses. Conclusions The risk of indirect patient-to-patient transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection from dialysis chairs appears to be low.

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