calcium supplementation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Dexin Chen ◽  
Hong Wang ◽  
Xing Xin ◽  
Long Zhang ◽  
Aihong Yu ◽  

ObjectiveCalcium supplementation can prevent gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. However, besides the non-consensus of existing studies, there is a lack of evidence regarding the optimal dosing of calcium.MethodEight electronic databases, namely, the Cochrane Library, PUBMED, Web of Science, EMBASE, WANGFANG, VIP, CBM, and CNKI, were searched. The studies were retrieved from inception to July 13, 2021. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted data, and evaluated the methodological quality based on the inclusion criteria. In particular, the calcium supplementation doses were divided into three groups, namely, the high-dose (≥1.5 g), medium-dose (1.0–1.49 g), and the low-dose group (<1.0 g). The participants were also divided into high-risk and low-risk groups, according to the risk of developing gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.Results and DiscussionA total of 48 studies were incorporated into the final analyses. All doses of calcium supplementation reduced the incidence of gestational hypertension in the low-risk population (low dose - three studies; medium dose- 11 studies; high dose- 28 studies), whereas the medium-dose (three studies) reduced the incidence of gestational hypertension in high-risk groups. Moreover, a medium dose of calcium supplementation had the maximum effect in reducing gestational hypertension in low-risk and high-risk populations. The medium (three studies) and high doses (13 studies) of calcium supplementation reduced the incidence of pre-eclampsia in the low-risk groups. However, a medium-dose calcium supplementation maximally prevented pre-eclampsia in the low-risk population. The authenticity and reliability of the results were reduced due to the limitations of contemporary studies in terms of experimental design, result measurement, statistics, and evidence quality. Therefore, high-quality studies with larger sample size are required to evaluate further the effect of calcium supplementation in preventing gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 (1) ◽  
Gabriela Cormick ◽  
Agustín Ciapponi ◽  
María Luisa Cafferata ◽  
María Sol Cormick ◽  
José M Belizán

Haiting Huang ◽  
Jun Lu ◽  
Pengwei Guo ◽  
Jun Pang ◽  
Jing Ma ◽  

AbstractFew cases of uraemic tumoral calcinosis (UTC) have been reported. This study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of parathyroidectomy for UTC. Historical clinical data of patients with end-stage renal disease and UTC who underwent parathyroidectomy were analysed. Absorption of metastatic calcification was compared before and after operation. Changes in intact parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels were analysed before parathyroidectomy and at 1 week and 3, 6, and 12 months after parathyroidectomy. Eight patients met the enrolment criteria (men, 6; mean age, 38.6 SD 10.9 years). Uraemic tumoral calcinosis, which developed 2–8 years after dialysis began, was caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism. Massive calcium deposition was found in the shoulder (n = 6), hip (n = 3), and elbow (n = 2). Four patients had > 2 joints affected, and a single joint was involved for four patients. Seven patients had rapid remission (< 6 months) of the masses after parathyroidectomy. In one patient, the mass remained unabsorbed until 6 months postoperatively. Hypocalcaemia occurred in all patients where parathyroidectomy was successful, and calcium supplementation was required 1 year postoperatively. Serum intact parathyroid hormone levels on day 7 and at 3 and 6 months postoperatively decreased significantly from baseline and remained low 1 year postoperatively (22.015 SD33.134 pg/mL). Postoperative phosphorus levels were significantly lower than preoperative levels (p < 0.05), but no significant difference was found in alkaline phosphatase levels (p > 0.05). Parathyroidectomy has promising efficacy for UTC treatment and regulation of serum intact parathyroid hormone and phosphorus. Hypocalcaemia is a common complication after parathyroidectomy. Current Controlled Trials ChiCTR2000041311, date of registration: Dec. 23, 2020.

2022 ◽  
Vol 46 (3) ◽  
pp. 759-767

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Vedran Stefanovic

Abstract Approximately 800 women die from pregnancy or childbirth-related complications around the world every day, 99% of which occur in developing countries. In majority of cases deaths are related to pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. The purpose of new adjusted and simplified IAPM guidelines is specifically lowering maternal mortality by decreasing preventable deaths in developing countries (particularly in remote rural areas) by using rather cheap medicines used to control chronic and gestational hypertension, prevent pre-eclampsia in high-risk pregnancies and treat severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. IAPM guidelines should be implemented and evaluated in each developing country respecting specific problems, needs and resources. It is of essential importance to: 1. Identify specific high-risk pregnancies, 2. Commence timely appropriate ASA and calcium supplementation, 3. Organize basic antenatal care and adequate referral of pregnancies with early onset of pre-eclampsia to the appropriate institutions and ensure induction of labour in well-equipped delivery facility for women with near-term and term pre-eclampsia 4. Ensure Magnesium sulphate availability to prevent severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia-related maternal deaths, and 5. Identify specific barriers for implementation of these guidelines and correct them accordingly. Only by systematic implementations of these guidelines, we may have a chance to decrease the mortality of pre-eclampsia an its complications as a killer number one of mothers in developing countries.

Aliou Abdoulaye Ndongo ◽  
Djibril Boiro ◽  
Idrissa Basse ◽  
Younoussa Kéita ◽  
Ndiogou Seck ◽  

Background and Aim: Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome or nephrosis causes massive protein leakage in the urine. Its treatment requires steroids (prednisone, methylprednisolone), often for a prolonged period, notably in case of steroid-dependence or steroid-resistance. In children, long-term use of steroids can lead to several side effects such as statural growth retardation/ stunting. This study evaluated the frequency of stunting in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children on steroids and identified the associated factors.      Material and Methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive cohort study carried out in children aged 0 to 16 years treated at the paediatric nephrology unit of Aristide Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar, between 1 December 2017 and 31 May 2020. All records of nephrotic children treated in outpatient or inpatient setting were included. These children had to be on corticosteroid therapy for at least 30 months and have a height taken regularly during follow-up consultations. Results: Of 259 children followed for idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, 93 were included in the study. The median age was 96.5 months and the sex ratio was 1.9. The mean height of the children at the beginning of the follow-up was -0.26 DS, at the end it was -0.88 DS. At the beginning of the follow-up, 8 children had already stunting. At 12 months follow-up, 72 children (77.4%) had a decrease in z-score; and at 30 months, there were 7 more children (84.9%) who had a decrease in z-score. Methylprednisolone boluses were given to 17 children (18.3%). Calcium supplementation was done in 91 children (97.8%). Vitamin D supplementation was given to 91 children (97.8%). The mean number of relapses was 1.8. Factors associated with stunting were number of relapses ≤3 (p=0.03), duration of corticosteroid therapy >6 months (p<0.0001) and cumulative doses of prednisone >100 mg/kg (p=0.04). Conclusion: In prolonged nephrotic syndrome in children, corticosteroids can cause stunting.

Andrea K. Erickson ◽  
Penny J. Regier ◽  
Meghan M. Watt ◽  
Kathleen M. Ham ◽  
Sarah J. Marvel ◽  

Abstract OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcomes of dogs with parathyroid carcinoma (PTC) treated by surgical excision and to describe the incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia, degree of hypocalcemia, duration of hospitalization, duration of calcium supplementation, and survival time ANIMALS 100 client-owned dogs with PTC admitted to academic, referral veterinary institutions. PROCEDURES In a retrospective multi-institutional study, medical records of dogs undergoing surgical excision of PTC between 2010 to 2019 were reviewed. Signalment, relevant medical history, clinical signs, clinicopathologic testing, imaging, surgical findings, intraoperative complications, histologic examination, and survival time were recorded. RESULTS 100 dogs with PTC were included, and 96 dogs had clinical or incidental hypercalcemia. Common clinical signs included polyuria (44%), polydipsia (43%), hind limb paresis (22%), lethargy (21%), and hyporexia (20%). Cervical ultrasonography detected a parathyroid nodule in 91 of 91 dogs, with a single nodule in 70.3% (64/91), 2 nodules in 25.3% (23/91), and ≥ 3 nodules in 4 (4/91)% of dogs. Hypercalcemia resolved in 89 of 96 dogs within 7 days after surgery. Thirty-four percent of dogs developed hypocalcemia, on the basis of individual analyzer ranges, within 1 week after surgery. One dog had metastatic PTC to the prescapular lymph node, and 3 dogs were euthanized for refractory postoperative hypocalcemia. Estimated 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 84%, 65%, and 51% respectively, with a median survival time of 2 years. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Excision of PTC results in resolution of hypercalcemia and excellent long-term tumor control. Surgical excision of PTC is recommended because of resolution of hypercalcemia and a good long-term prognosis. Future prospective studies and long-term follow-up are needed to further assess primary tumor recurrence, metastasis, and incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia.

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