tissue inflammation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Fatemeh Saheb Sharif-Askari ◽  
Swati Goel ◽  
Narjes Saheb Sharif-Askari ◽  
Shirin Hafezi ◽  
Saba Al Heialy ◽  

It is still controversial whether chronic lung inflammation increases the risk for COVID-19. One of the risk factors for acquiring COVID-19 is the level of expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, in lung tissue. It is, however, not clear how lung tissue inflammation affects expression levels of these receptors. We hence aimed to determine the level of SARS-CoV-2 receptors in lung tissue of asthmatic relative to age, gender, and asthma severity, and to investigate the factors regulating that. Therefore, gene expression data sets of well-known asthmatic cohorts (SARP and U-BIOPRED) were used to evaluate the association of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with age, gender of the asthmatic patients, and also the type of the underlying lung tissue inflammatory cytokines. Notably, ACE2 and to less extent TMPRSS2 expression were upregulated in the lung tissue of asthmatics compared to healthy controls. Although a differential expression of ACE2, but not TMPRSS2 was observed relative to age within the moderate and severe asthma groups, our data suggest that age may not be a key regulatory factor of its expression. The type of tissue inflammation, however, associated significantly with ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels following adjusting with age, gender and oral corticosteroids use of the patient. Type I cytokine (IFN-γ), IL-8, and IL-19 were associated with increased expression, while Type II cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13) with lower expression of ACE2 in lung tissue (airway epithelium and/or lung biopsies) of moderate and severe asthmatic patients. Of note, IL-19 was associated with ACE2 expression while IL-17 was associated with TMPRSS2 expression in sputum of asthmatic subjects. In vitro treatment of bronchial fibroblasts with IL-17 and IL-19 cytokines confirmed the regulatory effect of these cytokines on SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors. Our results suggest that the type of inflammation may regulate ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in the lung tissue of asthmatics and may hence affect susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Obesity ◽  
2022 ◽  
Jordan A. Levine ◽  
Zahra Sarrafan‐Chaharsoughi ◽  
Tushar P. Patel ◽  
Sheila M. Brady ◽  
K. Karthik Chivukula ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 93-121
Rajdeep Dalal ◽  
Srikanth Sadhu ◽  
Amit Awasthi

Biomedicines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1954
Eveline Gart ◽  
Wim van Duyvenvoorde ◽  
Karin Toet ◽  
Martien P. M. Caspers ◽  
Lars Verschuren ◽  

In obesity-associated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), persistent hepatocellular damage and inflammation are key drivers of fibrosis, which is the main determinant of NASH-associated mortality. The short-chain fatty acid butyrate can exert metabolic improvements and anti-inflammatory activities in NASH. However, its effects on NASH-associated liver fibrosis remain unclear. Putative antifibrotic effects of butyrate were studied in Ldlr-/-.Leiden mice fed an obesogenic diet (HFD) containing 2.5% (w/w) butyrate for 38 weeks and compared with a HFD-control group. Antifibrotic mechanisms of butyrate were further investigated in TGF-β-stimulated primary human hepatic stellate cells (HSC). HFD-fed mice developed obesity, insulin resistance, increased plasma leptin levels, adipose tissue inflammation, gut permeability, dysbiosis, and NASH-associated fibrosis. Butyrate corrected hyperinsulinemia, lowered plasma leptin levels, and attenuated adipose tissue inflammation, without affecting gut permeability or microbiota composition. Butyrate lowered plasma ALT and CK-18M30 levels and attenuated hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Butyrate inhibited fibrosis development as demonstrated by decreased hepatic collagen content and Sirius-red-positive area. In TGF-β-stimulated HSC, butyrate dose-dependently reduced collagen deposition and decreased procollagen1α1 and PAI1 protein expression. Transcriptomic analysis and subsequent pathway and upstream regulator analysis revealed deactivation of specific non-canonical TGF-β signaling pathways Rho-like GTPases and PI3K/AKT and other important pro-fibrotic regulators (e.g., YAP/TAZ, MYC) by butyrate, providing a potential rationale for its antifibrotic effects. In conclusion, butyrate protects against obesity development, insulin resistance-associated NASH, and liver fibrosis. These antifibrotic effects are at least partly attributable to a direct effect of butyrate on collagen production in hepatic stellate cells, involving inhibition of non-canonical TGF-β signaling pathways.

Rodney R. Dietert ◽  
Janice M. Dietert

Adverse childhood experiences are known to program children for disrupted biological cycles, premature aging, microbiome dysbiosis, immune-inflammatory misregulation, and chronic disease multimorbidity. To date, the microbiome has not been a major focus of deprogramming efforts despite its emerging role in every aspect of ACE-related dysbiosis and dysfunction. This article examines: 1) the utility of incorporating microorganism-based, anti-aging approaches to combat ACE-programmed chronic diseases (also known as noncommunicable diseases and conditions, NCDs) and 2) microbiome regulation of core systems biology cycles that affect NCD comorbid risk. In this review microbiota influence over three key cyclic rhythms (circadian cycles, the sleep cycle, and the lifespan/longevity cycle) as well as tissue inflammation and oxidative stress are discussed as an opportunity to deprogram ACE-driven chronic disorders. Microbiota, particularly those in the gut, have been shown to affect host-microbe interactions regulating the circadian clock, sleep quality, as well as immune function/senescence and regulation of tissue inflammation. The microimmunosome is one of several systems biology targets of gut microbiota regulation. Furthermore, correcting misregulated inflammation and increased oxidative stress is key to protecting telomere length and lifespan/longevity and extending what has become known as the healthspan. This review article concludes that to reverse the tragedy of ACE-programmed NCDs and premature aging, managing the human holobiont microbiome should become a routine part of healthcare and preventative medicine across the life course.

2021 ◽  
pp. ji2100231
Atanaska I. Doncheva ◽  
Frode A. Norheim ◽  
Marit Hjorth ◽  
Mirjana Grujic ◽  
Aida Paivandy ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
pp. 1-17
Reza Keikha ◽  
Seyed Mohammad Hashemi-Shahri ◽  
Ali Jebali ◽  

Background: Our aim was to investigate the expression of miRNAs, C-reactive protein as a blood inflammation marker, and alanine aminotransferase as a tissue inflammation marker in recovered and not-recovered COVID-19 patients. Methods: This cross-sectional project was done in three medical center of Iran from December to March, 2021. Generally, a total of 20 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with grade III and 20 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Then, the neuroinflammatory expression of miRNAs (miR-199, miR-203, and miR-181), C-reactive protein, and alanine aminotransferase were investigated during hospitalization from week 0 to week 2. Results: In not-recovered COVID-19 subjects, the expression of miR-199, miR-203, and miR-181 were decreased and the levels of C-reactive protein and alanine aminotransferase were increased during hospitalization. Conversely, in recovered COVID-19 subjects, the relative expression of miR-199, miR-203, and miR-181 were increased and the levels of C-reactive protein and alanine aminotransferase were decreased during hospitalization. Conclusions: The expression pattern of neuroinflammatory miRNAs is depends on whether the COVID-19 patient is recovering or deteriorating. Their expression is down-regulated in not-recovered COVID-19 patients and up-regulated in recovered COVID-19 patients.

Diabetes ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. db210609
Ana Elena Espinosa De Ycaza ◽  
Esben Søndergaard ◽  
Maria Morgan-Bathke ◽  
Kelli Lytle ◽  
Danae A. Delivanis ◽  

2021 ◽  
Evanna L. Mills ◽  
Cathal Harmon ◽  
Mark P. Jedrychowski ◽  
Haopeng Xiao ◽  
Anja V. Gruszczyk ◽  

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