Migraine affects the day to day life of the sufferers with the symptoms of photophobia and phonophobia with pulsatile or non-pulsatile headache lasting from 1 to 4 hours. Prophylactic treatment or anti-migraine drugs were given to migraineurs to overcome the complications. C-reactive protein (CRP) and Magnesium level of symptomatic migraineurs, which act as biomarkers for the inflammatory cerebrovascular diseases before and after the treatment with Sodium Divalproex, Flunarizine and Propranolol. The evaluation of C-reactive protein and magnesium levels are noted along with symptoms when they first walk into the clinic. Treatment provided with Sodium Divalproex, Flunarizine and Propranolol for one month. After 1 month, the same tests are being performed. During the test at first instance, the values of pain scale were 31%, CRP value for negative were 20% and positive were 80% and pre-test of Serum magnesium level was 8.8% and at the second visit the pain scale reduced to 10.25%; CRP level was negative 25% and positive was 75%; Serum Magnesium was 9.35%. So, the significant values are being measured by the statistics, which we applied and found P=0.05. The patients who visited first didn’t come for the second visit. So, the results might vary and the patients who visited for the second time after one-month treatment, some got effective results while others remained ineffective. The reason for being ineffective is that they might have adapted to their current regimen.
Objective. To analyze apolipoprotein-A for its predictive value for long-term death in individuals suffering from acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction following percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods. We selected patients suffering from acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who underwent emergency PCI at the Affiliated Hospital of Putian University from January 2017 to August 2019. The patients were divided into a high-Apo-A group and low-Apo-A group, and we observed all-cause deaths of patients in the 2 groups within 2 years. Results. The ROC curve analysis indicated the best critical value for predicting 2-year mortality as 0.8150 (area under the curve was 0.626, sensitivity 75.1%, and specificity 51.9%). There was no statistical difference among the two groups in gender, age, lesion vessel, and comorbidities. The two groups had statistically significant differences in apolipoprotein-B/A, high-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein-A, and hypersensitivity C-reactive protein. Correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between apolipoprotein-A and hypersensitive C-reactive protein. The results of the 24-month analysis indicated the incidence of all-cause mortality as higher in the low-Apo-A group, and Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed the same trend. Conclusion. Apolipoprotein-A can predict the potential for long-term mortality among individuals having acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
(1) Backround: Technological advances should foster gains in physicians’ efficiency. For example, a reduction of the medical decision time can be enabled by faster biological tests. The main objective of this study was to collect responses from an international panel of physicians on their needs for biomarkers and also to convey the improvement in the outcome to be made possible by the potential development of fast diagnostic tests for these biomarkers. (2) Methods: we distributed a questionnaire on the Internet to physicians. (3) Results: 508 physicians participated in this survey. The mean age was 38 years. General practice and emergency medicine were heavily represented, with 95% CIs of 44% (39.78, 48.41) and 32% (27.84, 35.94)), respectively. The two most represented countries were France (95% CI: 74% (70.20, 77.83)) and the USA (95% CI: 11% (8.65, 14.18)). Ninety-eight percentages of the physicians thought that obtaining cited biomarkers more quickly would be beneficial to their practice and to patient’s care. The main biomarkers of interest identified by our panel were troponin (95% CI: 51% (46.24, 54.94)), C-reactive protein (95% CI: 42% (38.03, 46.62)), D-dimer (95% CI: 29% (24.80, 32.68)), and brain natriuretic peptide (95% CI: 13% (10.25, 16.13)). (4) Conclusions: Our study highlights the real technological need for fast biomarker results, which could be provided by biosensors. The relevance of some answers such as troponin is questionable.
C-reactive protein velocity (CRPv), defined as the change in wide-range CRP concentration divided by time, is an inflammatory biomarker associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous intervention (PCI). However, data regarding CRPv association with echocardiographic parameters assessing left ventricular systolic and diastolic function is lacking. Echocardiographic parameters and CRPv values were analyzed using a cohort of 1059 patients admitted with STEMI and treated with primary PCI. Patients were stratified into tertiles according to their CRPv. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate CRPv optimal cut-off values for the prediction of severe systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Patients with high CRPv tertiles had lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (49% vs. 46% vs. 41%, respectively; p < 0.001). CRPv was found to independently predict LVEF ≤ 35% (HR 1.3 CI 95% 1.21–1.4; p < 0.001) and grade III diastolic dysfunction (HR 1.16 CI 95% 11.02–1.31; p = 0.02). CRPv exhibited a better diagnostic profile for severe systolic dysfunction as compared to CRP (area under the curve 0.734 ± 0.02 vs. 0.608 ± 0.02). In conclusion, For STEMI patients treated with primary PCI, CRPv is a marker of both systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Further larger studies are needed to support this finding.
Objectives As a result of developed generalized inflammation, the main prognostic factor determining morbidity and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is acute respiratory distress syndrome. The purpose of our study was to define (1) the laboratory tests that will contribute to the diagnosis and follow-up of COVID-19 patients, (2) the differences between the laboratory-confirmed (LC), unconfirmed (LUC), and control (C) groups, and (3) the variation between groups of acute-phase reactants and biomarkers that can be used as an indicator of disease severity and inflammation.
Materials and Methods A total of 102 patients undergoing treatment with COVID-19 interim guidelines were evaluated. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test was positive in 56 (LC), classified as mild or severe, and negative in 46 (LUC) patients. In addition, 30 healthy subjects (C) with negative RT-PCR tests were also evaluated.All statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS 22.0 program and the p-values for significant findings were less than 0.05. Parametric/nonparametric distribution was determined by performing the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test for all groups. Student's t-test was used for variables with parametric distribution and the Mann–Whitney U-test for variables with the nonparametric distribution. A cut-off level for biomarkers was determined using the ROC (receiver operator characteristic) curve.
Results In the LC group, platelet, platecrit, mean platelet volume, platelet diameter width, white blood cell, lymphocyte, eosinophil, neutrophil, immature granulocyte, immature lymphocyte, immature monocyte, large immune cell, and atypical lymphocyte counts among the complete blood count parameters of mature and immature cell counts showed a significant difference according to the C and LUC groups. C-reactive protein, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (CAR) indices were significantly elevated in LC patients and were significantly higher in patients classified as severe compared to mild. When CAR optimal cutoff was determined as 0.475, area under the curve was 0.934, sensitivity was 90.91%, specificity was 86.21%, positive predictive value was 92.59%, and negative predictive value was 83.33%. The diagnostic accuracy for CAR was 89.29%.
Conclusion The CAR index with the highest diagnostic value and the highest predictability could be the most useful biomarker in the diagnosis and evaluation of disease severity in COVID-19 patients.