liver fibrosis
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2022 ◽  
Padmapani Padeniya ◽  
Dileepa S Ediriweera ◽  
Arjuna De Silva ◽  
Madunil Niriella ◽  
Anuja Premawardhena

Abstract Objective To evaluated the performance of FIB-4 score as a screening tool to detect significant liver fibrosis (F2) compared to transient elastography (TE) among chronic transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia (TDT) patients, in a resource-poor setting. Design A cross-sectional study Setting Adolescent and Adult Thalassaemia Care Center (University Medical Unit) Kiribathgoda Sri Lanka. Participants 45 TDT patients who have undergone more than 100 blood transfusions with elevated serum ferritin more than 2000ng/mL were selected for the study. Patients who were serologically positive for hepatitis C antibody were excluded. Outcome measures TE and FIB-4 score were estimated at the time of recruitment in all participants. Pre-defined cut-off values for F2 extracted from previous studies for TE and FIB-4 score were compared. A new cut-off value for FIB-4 score was estimated using ROC curve analysis to improve the sensitivity for F2 prediction. Results Of the selected 45 TDT patients 22(49%) were males. FIB-4 score showed a significant linear correlation with TE (r= 0.52 p< 0.0003). The FIB-4 score was improbable to lead to a false classification of TDT patients to have F2 when the FIB-4 cut-off value was 1.3. On the other hand it had a very low diagnostic yield in missing almost all (except one) of those who had F2. Using a much-lowered cut-off point of 0.32 for FIB-4 we improved the pick-up rate of F2 to 72%. Conclusions Regardless of the cut-off point FIB-4 score cannot be used as a good screening tool to pick-up F2 in patients with TDT irrespective of their splenectomy status. On the contrary at 1.3 cut off value though FIB-4 is a very poor detector for F2 fibrosis it will not erroneously diagnose F2 fibrosis in those who do not have it.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 180
Pil-Soo Sung ◽  
Chang-Min Kim ◽  
Jung-Hoon Cha ◽  
Jin-Young Park ◽  
Yun-Suk Yu ◽  

Innate and adaptive immune responses are critically associated with the progression of fibrosis in chronic liver diseases. In this study, we aim to identify a unique immune-related gene signature representing advanced liver fibrosis and to reveal potential therapeutic targets. Seventy-seven snap-frozen liver tissues with various chronic liver diseases at different fibrosis stages (1: n = 12, 2: n = 12, 3: n = 25, 4: n = 28) were subjected to expression analyses. Gene expression analysis was performed using the nCounter PanCancer Immune Profiling Panel (NanoString Technologies, Seattle, WA, USA). Biological meta-analysis was performed using the CBS Probe PINGSTM (CbsBioscience, Daejeon, Korea). Using non-tumor tissues from surgically resected specimens, we identified the immune-related, five-gene signature (CHIT1_FCER1G_OSM_VEGFA_ZAP70) that reliably differentiated patients with low- (F1 and F2) and high-grade fibrosis (F3 and F4; accuracy = 94.8%, specificity = 91.7%, sensitivity = 96.23%). The signature was independent of all pathological and clinical features and was independently associated with high-grade fibrosis using multivariate analysis. Among these genes, the expression of inflammation-associated FCER1G, OSM, VEGFA, and ZAP70 was lower in high-grade fibrosis than in low-grade fibrosis, whereas CHIT1 expression, which is associated with fibrogenic activity of macrophages, was higher in high-grade fibrosis. Meta-analysis revealed that STAT3, a potential druggable target, highly interacts with the five-gene signature. Overall, we identified an immune gene signature that reliably predicts advanced fibrosis in chronic liver disease. This signature revealed potential immune therapeutic targets to ameliorate liver fibrosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiaofei Shang ◽  
Xinghui Yuan ◽  
Lixia Dai ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Jian He ◽  

Ruangan granules (RGGs) have been used to treat liver fibrosis with good clinical efficacy for many years. However, the potential mechanism of action of RGGs against liver fibrosis is still unclear. In this study, we evaluated the quality and safety of this preparation and aimed to explore the anti-liver fibrosis activity and potential mode of action of RGGs using network pharmacology and metabolomics. The results showed that RGGs contained abundant ferulic acid, salvianolic acid B and paeoniflorin, and at the given contents and doses, RGGs were safe and presented anti-liver fibrosis activity. They presented anti-liver fibrosis activity by improving liver function (ALT and AST, p &lt; 0.01) and pathology and decreasing fibrosis markers in the serum of rats caused by CCl4, including HA, LN, PC III, HYP, CoII-V, and α-SMA, and the oxidant stress and inflammatory response were also alleviated in a dose-dependent manner, especially for high-dose RGGs (p &lt; 0.01). Further studies showed that RGGs inhibited the activation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in rats induced by CCl4, regulated pyrimidine metabolism, improved oxidative stress and the inflammatory response by regulating mitochondrial morphology, and alleviated liver fibrosis. Luteolin, quercetin, morin and kaempferol were active compounds and presented the cytotoxicity toward to LX-02 cells. This study provides an overall view of the mechanism underlying the action of RGGs protecting against liver fibrosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 880-888
A. V. Nelidova ◽  
M. A. Livzan ◽  
N. A. Nikolaev ◽  
T. S. Krolevets

The association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular risk is currently one of the actively studied areas. The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty  liver disease continues to grow worldwide. In the structure of mortality rate of patients with non-alcoholic fatty  liver disease,  the first place is occupied by cardiovascular events: stroke and myocardial infarction. Studies have shown that the presence of severe liver fibrosis (F3-4) in NAFLD not only increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but also increases the risk  of  overall  mortality  by  69%  due  to mortality from cardiovascular causes. The degree of increased risk is associated with the degree of activity of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Despite the large number of works on this topic, we do not have a clear opinion on the impact on cardiovascular risk, interaction and the contribution of various factors, as well as algorithms for managing patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This article describes the pathogenetic factors of formation of cardiovascular risks in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, proposed the idea of stratification of cardiovascular risks in these patients, taking into account changes in the structure of the liver (fibrosis) and function (clinical and biochemical activity) and also it describes the main directions of drug therapy, taking into account the common pathogenetic mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular diseases. The role of obesity, local fat depots, adipokines, and endothelial dysfunction as the leading pathogenetic factors of increased cardiovascular risk in patients with NAFLD is discussed. Among pathogenetically justified drugs in conditions of poly and comorbidity, hypolipidemic (statins, fibrates), angiotensin II receptor antagonists, beta-blockers, etc. can be considered. According to numerous studies, it becomes obvious that the assessment of cardiovascular risks in patients with NAFLD will probably allow prescribing cardiological drugs, selecting individualized therapy regimens, taking into account the form of NAFLD, and on the other hand, building curation taking into account the identified cardiovascular risks.

Sudhakar K. Venkatesh ◽  
Michael S. Torbenson

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Lihong Gu ◽  
Feng Zhang ◽  
Jinhui Wu ◽  
Yuzheng Zhuge

Liver fibrosis is a reversible disease course caused by various liver injury etiologies, and it can lead to severe complications, such as liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and even liver cancer. Traditional pharmacotherapy has several limitations, such as inadequate therapeutic effect and side effects. Nanotechnology in drug delivery for liver fibrosis has exhibited great potential. Nanomedicine improves the internalization and penetration, which facilitates targeted drug delivery, combination therapy, and theranostics. Here, we focus on new targets and new mechanisms in liver fibrosis, as well as recent designs and development work of nanotechnology in delivery systems for liver fibrosis treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Christian Liedtke ◽  
Yulia A. Nevzorova ◽  
Tom Luedde ◽  
Henning Zimmermann ◽  
Daniela Kroy ◽  

The Transregional Collaborative Research Center “Organ Fibrosis: From Mechanisms of Injury to Modulation of Disease” (referred to as SFB/TRR57) was funded for 13 years (2009–2021) by the German Research Council (DFG). This consortium was hosted by the Medical Schools of the RWTH Aachen University and Bonn University in Germany. The SFB/TRR57 implemented combined basic and clinical research to achieve detailed knowledge in three selected key questions: (i) What are the relevant mechanisms and signal pathways required for initiating organ fibrosis? (ii) Which immunological mechanisms and molecules contribute to organ fibrosis? and (iii) How can organ fibrosis be modulated, e.g., by interventional strategies including imaging and pharmacological approaches? In this review we will summarize the liver-related key findings of this consortium gained within the last 12 years on these three aspects of liver fibrogenesis. We will highlight the role of cell death and cell cycle pathways as well as nutritional and iron-related mechanisms for liver fibrosis initiation. Moreover, we will define and characterize the major immune cell compartments relevant for liver fibrogenesis, and finally point to potential signaling pathways and pharmacological targets that turned out to be suitable to develop novel approaches for improved therapy and diagnosis of liver fibrosis. In summary, this review will provide a comprehensive overview about the knowledge on liver fibrogenesis and its potential therapy gained by the SFB/TRR57 consortium within the last decade. The kidney-related research results obtained by the same consortium are highlighted in an article published back-to-back in Frontiers in Medicine.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 85
Xia Niu ◽  
Xiaomei Wang ◽  
Bingyu Niu ◽  
Yucheng Wang ◽  
Hongwei He ◽  

Liver fibrosis is challenging to treat because of the lack of effective agents worldwide. Recently, we have developed a novel compound, N-(3,4,5-trichlorophenyl)-2(3-nitrobenzenesulfonamido) benzamide referred to as IMB16-4. However, its poor aqueous solubility and poor oral bioavailability obstruct the drug discovery programs. To increase the dissolution, improve the oral bioavailability and enhance the antifibrotic activity of IMB16-4, PVPK30 was selected to establish the IMB16-4 nanoparticles. Drug release behavior, oral bioavailability, and anti-hepatic fibrosis effects of IMB16-4 nanoparticles were evaluated. The results showed that IMB16-4 nanoparticles greatly increased the dissolution rate of IMB16-4. The oral bioavailability of IMB16-4 nanoparticles was improved 26-fold compared with that of pure IMB16-4. In bile duct ligation rats, IMB16-4 nanoparticles significantly repressed hepatic fibrogenesis and improved the liver function. These findings indicate that IMB16-4 nanoparticles will provide information to expand a novel anti-hepatic fibrosis agent.

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