Cardiovascular diseases, including congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases, impose a severe burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Although bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) therapy can be an effective therapeutic strategy for the heart disease, relatively low abundance,
difficult accessibility, and small tissue volume hinder the clinical usefulness. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) show similar potential with BMSCs to differentiate into lineages and tissues, such as smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and adipocytes, with attractiveness of obtaining
adipose tissue easily and repeatedly, and a simple separation procedure. We briefly summarize the current understanding of the cardiomyocytes differentiated from ADSCs
Adipose tissue plays an important role in systemic metabolism via the secretion of adipocytokines and storing and releasing energy. In obesity, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional and characterized by hypertrophied adipocytes, increased inflammation, hypoxia, and decreased angiogenesis. Although adipose tissue is one of the major stores of vitamin D, its deficiency is detective in obese subjects. In the presented review, we show how vitamin D regulates numerous processes in adipose tissue and how their dysregulation leads to metabolic disorders. The molecular response to vitamin D in adipose tissue affects not only energy metabolism and adipokine and anti-inflammatory cytokine production via the regulation of gene expression but also genes participating in antioxidant defense, adipocytes differentiation, and apoptosis. Thus, its deficiency disturbs adipocytokines secretion, metabolism, lipid storage, adipogenesis, thermogenesis, the regulation of inflammation, and oxidative stress balance. Restoring the proper functionality of adipose tissue in overweight or obese subjects is of particular importance in order to reduce the risk of developing obesity-related complications, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Taking into account the results of experimental studies, it seemed that vitamin D may be a remedy for adipose tissue dysfunction, but the results of the clinical trials are not consistent, as some of them show improvement and others no effect of this vitamin on metabolic and insulin resistance parameters. Therefore, further studies are required to evaluate the beneficial effects of vitamin D, especially in overweight and obese subjects, due to the presence of a volumetric dilution of this vitamin among them.
AbstractIt is well-established that adipose tissue accumulation is associated with insulin resistance through multiple mechanisms. One major metabolic link is the classical Randle cycle: enhanced release of free fatty acids (FFA) from hydrolysis of adipose tissue triglycerides impedes insulin-mediated glucose uptake in muscle tissues. Less well studied are the different routes of this communication. First, white adipose tissue depots may be regionally distant from muscle (i.e., gluteal fat and diaphragm muscle) or contiguous to muscle but separated by a fascia (Scarpa’s fascia in the abdomen, fascia lata in the thigh). In this case, released FFA outflow through the venous drainage and merge into arterial plasma to be transported to muscle tissues. Next, cytosolic triglycerides can directly, i.e., within the cell, provide FFA to myocytes (but also pancreatic ß-cells, renal tubular cells, etc.). Finally, adipocyte layers or lumps may be adjacent to, but not anatomically segregated, from muscle, as is typically the case for epicardial fat and cardiomyocytes. As regulation of these three main delivery paths is different, their separate contribution to substrate competition at the whole-body level is uncertain. Another important link between fat and muscle is vascular. In the resting state, blood flow is generally higher in adipose tissue than in muscle. In the insulinized state, fat blood flow is directly related to whole-body insulin resistance whereas muscle blood flow is not; consequently, fractional (i.e., flow-adjusted) glucose uptake is stimulated in muscle but not fat. Thus, reduced blood supply is a major factor for the impairment of in vivo insulin-mediated glucose uptake in both subcutaneous and visceral fat. In contrast, the insulin resistance of glucose uptake in resting skeletal muscle is predominantly a cellular defect.
Obesity causes low-grade inflammation that results in dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. We evaluated the effect of puerarin on obesity and metabolic complications both in silico and in vivo and investigated the underlying immunological mechanisms. Twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: normal chow, control (HFD), HFD + puerarin (PUE) 200 mg/kg, and HFD + atorvastatin (ATO) 10 mg/kg groups. We examined bodyweight, oral glucose tolerance test, serum insulin, oral fat tolerance test, serum lipids, and adipocyte size. We also analyzed the percentage of total, M1, and M2 adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and the expression of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL4, CCL5, and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4. In silico, we identified the treatment-targeted genes of puerarin and simulated molecular docking with puerarin and TNF, M1, and M2 macrophages based on functionally enriched pathways. Puerarin did not significantly change bodyweight but significantly improved fat pad weight, adipocyte size, fat area in the liver, free fatty acids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol in vivo. In addition, puerarin significantly decreased the ATM population and TNF-α expression. Therefore, puerarin is a potential anti-obesity treatment based on its anti-inflammatory effects in adipose tissue.
AbstractSoft tissue reconstruction remains an intractable clinical challenge as current surgical options and synthetic implants may produce inadequate outcomes. Soft tissue deficits may be surgically reconstructed using autologous adipose tissue, but these procedures can lead to donor site morbidity, require multiple procedures, and have highly variable outcomes. To address this clinical need, we developed an “off-the-shelf” adipose extracellular matrix (ECM) biomaterial from allograft human tissue (Acellular Adipose Tissue, AAT). We applied physical and chemical processing methods to remove lipids and create an injectable matrix that mimicked the properties of lipoaspirate. Biological activity was assessed using cell migration and adipogenesis assays. Characterization of regenerative immune properties in a murine muscle injury model revealed that allograft and xenograft AAT induced pro-regenerative CD4+ T cells and macrophages with xenograft AAT additionally attracting eosinophils secreting interleukin 4 (Il4). In immunocompromised mice, AAT injections retained similar volumes as human fat grafts but lacked cysts and calcifications seen in the fat grafts. The combination of AAT with human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) resulted in lower implant volumes. However, tissue remodeling and adipogenesis increased significantly in combination with ASCs. Larger injected volumes of porcine-derived AAT demonstrated biocompatibility and greater retention when applied allogeneicly in Yorkshire cross pigs. AAT was implanted in healthy volunteers in abdominal tissue that was later removed by elective procedures. AAT implants were well tolerated in all human subjects. Implants removed between 1 and 18 weeks demonstrated increasing cellular infiltration and immune populations, suggesting continued tissue remodeling and the potential for long-term tissue replacement.
AbstractBeige and brown fat consume glucose and lipids to produce heat, using uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). It is thought that full activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) may increase total daily energy expenditure by 20%. Humans normally have more beige and potentially beige-able fat than brown fat. Strategies to increase beige fat differentiation and activation may be useful for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Mice were fed chow or high-fat diet (HFD) with or without the iron chelator deferasirox. Animals fed HFD + deferasirox were markedly lighter than their HFD controls with increased energy expenditure (12% increase over 24 h, p < 0.001). Inguinal fat from HFD + deferasirox mice showed increased beige fat quantity with greater Ucp1 and Prdm16 expression. Inguinal adipose tissue explants were studied in a Seahorse bioanalyser and energy expenditure was significantly increased. Deferasirox was also effective in established obesity and in ob/ob mice, indicating that intact leptin signalling is not needed for efficacy. These studies identify iron chelation as a strategy to preferentially activate beige fat. Whether activating brown/beige fat is effective in humans is unproven. However, depleting iron to low-normal levels is a potential therapeutic strategy to improve obesity and related metabolic disorders, and human studies may be warranted.
Preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes is crucial for maternal and child health. Periodontal disease is a risk factor for many systemic diseases including adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth and low birth weight. In addition, the administration of the periodontopathic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis exacerbates obesity, glucose tolerance, and hepatic steatosis and alters endocrine function in the brown adipose tissue (BAT). However, the effects of having periodontal disease during pregnancy remain unclear. Thus, this study investigates the effect of P. gingivalis administration on obesity, liver, and BAT during pregnancy. Sonicated P. gingivalis (Pg) or saline (Co) was injected intravenously and administered orally to pregnant C57BL/6J mice three times per week. Maternal body weight and fetal body weight on embryonic day (ED) 18 were evaluated. Microarray analysis and qPCR in the liver and BAT and hepatic and plasma triglyceride quantification were performed on dams at ED 18. The body weight of Pg dams was heavier than that of Co dams; however, the fetal body weight was decreased in the offspring of Pg dams. Microarray analysis revealed 254 and 53 differentially expressed genes in the liver and BAT, respectively. Gene set enrichment analysis exhibited the downregulation of fatty acid metabolism gene set in the liver and estrogen response early/late gene sets in the BAT, whereas inflammatory response and IL6/JAK/STAT3 signaling gene sets were upregulated both in the liver and BAT. The downregulation of expression levels of Lpin1, Lpin2, and Lxra in the liver, which are associated with triglyceride synthesis, and a decreasing trend in hepatic triglyceride of Pg dams were observed. P. gingivalis administration may alter lipid metabolism in the liver. Overall, the intravenous and oral administration of sonicated P. gingivalis-induced obesity and modified gene expression in the liver and BAT in pregnant mice and caused fetuses to be underweight.
In recent decades, there has been an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Obesity has become an underestimated pandemic and a public health threat around the world. Adipose tissue is positioned as an endocrine organ that secretes a wide range of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, inducing a state of chronic subinflammation. The results of epidemiological studies over the past 30 years have also shown that visceral adipose tissue is an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, cardiometabolic diseases and chronic kidney disease. We performed a systematic review to summarize important aspects of the state of chronic subinflammation in the context of its effect on the decrease in glomerular filtration rate and the development of chronic kidney disease. The review deals with the etiology and pathogenesis of obesity, the hormonal profile of adipose tissue, the molecular mechanisms of the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines on the kidneys, and the pathophysiology of renal diseases. Information on the topic from publications based on the Pubmed database has been used.