class analysis
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2023 ◽  
Wei Dong ◽  
Xingxiang Li ◽  
Chen Xu ◽  
Niansheng Tang

Cheríe S. Blair ◽  
Jack Needleman ◽  
Marjan Javanbakht ◽  
W. Scott Comulada ◽  
Amy Ragsdale ◽  

Heart ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. heartjnl-2021-320270
Yohei Sotomi ◽  
Shungo Hikoso ◽  
Sho Komukai ◽  
Taiki Sato ◽  
Bolrathanak Oeun ◽  

ObjectiveThe pathophysiological heterogeneity of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) makes the conventional ‘one-size-fits-all’ treatment approach difficult. We aimed to develop a stratification methodology to identify distinct subphenotypes of acute HFpEF using the latent class analysis.MethodsWe established a prospective, multicentre registry of acute decompensated HFpEF. Primary candidates for latent class analysis were patient data on hospital admission (160 features). The patient subset was categorised based on enrolment period into a derivation cohort (2016–2018; n=623) and a validation cohort (2019–2020; n=472). After excluding features with significant missingness and high degree of correlation, 83 features were finally included in the analysis.ResultsThe analysis subclassified patients (derivation cohort) into 4 groups: group 1 (n=215, 34.5%), characterised by arrythmia triggering (especially atrial fibrillation) and a lower comorbidity burden; group 2 (n=77, 12.4%), with substantially elevated blood pressure and worse classical HFpEF echocardiographic features; group 3 (n=149, 23.9%), with the highest level of GGT and total bilirubin and frequent previous hospitalisation for HF and group 4 (n=182, 29.2%), with infection-triggered HF hospitalisation, high C reactive protein and worse nutritional status. The primary end point—a composite of all-cause death and HF readmission—significantly differed between the groups (log-rank p<0.001). These findings were consistent in the validation cohort.ConclusionsThis study indicated the feasibility of clinical application of the latent class analysis in a highly heterogeneous cohort of patients with acute HFpEF. Patients can be divided into 4 phenotypes with distinct patient characteristics and clinical outcomes.Trial registration numberUMIN000021831.

2022 ◽  
pp. 030913252110564
Jostein Jakobsen

This article examines conflicting conceptualizations of the human subject in political ecology and geography: Foucauldian views of “subject-making” and Gramscian views of “the person”. While Foucauldian work holds that the more complete exertion of power, the more coherent subject-making, Gramscian historical–geographical perspectives counter that, the more complete exertion of power, the more incoherent persons and their class-based collectivities. Outlining incongruities between these approaches, I argue that the “dark side” of Gramscian political ecology—with its emphasis on incoherence and fracture–allows geographers new nuance in understanding the human subject, although not without challenges to the actual writing of such scholarship.

2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
Takahiro Sugiyama ◽  
Shunsuke Furuta ◽  
Masaki Hiraguri ◽  
Kei Ikeda ◽  
Yosuke Inaba ◽  

Abstract Background Adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) is a rare systemic autoinflammatory disease which encompasses patients with heterogenous presentation and a wide range of clinical courses. In this study, we aimed to identify potential subgroups of AOSD and reveal risk factors for relapse. Methods We included a total of 216 AOSD patients who received treatment in nine hospitals between 2000 and 2019. All patients fulfilled the Yamaguchi classification criteria. We retrospectively collected information about baseline characteristics, laboratory tests, treatment, relapse, and death. We performed latent class analysis and time-to-event analysis for relapse using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results The median age at disease onset was 51.6 years. The median follow-up period was 36.8 months. At disease onset, 22.3% of the patients had macrophage activation syndrome. The median white blood cell count was 12,600/μL, and the median serum ferritin level was 7230 ng/mL. Systemic corticosteroids were administered in all but three patients (98.6%) and the median initial dosage of prednisolone was 40mg/day. Ninety-six patients (44.4%) were treated with concomitant immunosuppressants, and 22 (10.2%) were treated with biologics. Latent class analysis revealed that AOSD patients were divided into two subgroups: the typical group (Class 1: 71.8%) and the elderly-onset group (Class 2: 28.2%). During the follow-up period, 13 of 216 patients (6.0%) died (12 infections and one senility), and 76 of 216 patients (35.1%) experienced relapses. Overall and relapse-free survival rates at 5 years were 94.9% and 57.3%, respectively, and those rates were not significantly different between Class 1 and 2 (p=0.30 and p=0.19). Time-to-event analysis suggested higher neutrophil count, lower hemoglobin, and age ≥65 years at disease onset as risk factors for death and age ≥65 years at disease onset as a risk factor for relapse. Conclusions AOSD patients were divided into two subgroups: the typical group and the elderly-onset group. Although the survival of patients with AOSD was generally good, the patients often experienced relapses. Age ≥65 years at disease onset was the risk factor for relapse.

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