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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 509-522
Luciana Nunes Cordeiro ◽  
Riselane de Lucena Alcântara Bruno ◽  
Lucas Kennedy Silva Lima ◽  
Albericio Pereira de Andrade ◽  

Seed quality is routinely assessed by direct tests, e.g, the germination test, or indirect tests like the tetrazolium test, which has shoown to be promising in the determine viability and vigor, allowing the diagnosis of the main problems that may affect seed quality, such as mechanic damages, field deterioration and storage. In this respect, this study was conducted to develop a tetrazolium test protocol to evaluate the viability and vigor of Tamarindus indica L. seeds. Before exposing the seeds to the tetrazolium solution, seed preconditioning studies were carried out in which seven soaking times were tested. The soaking time that did not cause damage to the seed embryo and allowed the removal of the seed coat to expose the seed structures to the tetrazolium salt was selected. Then, an experiment was set up in a completely randomized design with a 2x3x3 factorial arrangement involving two seed lots, three soaking times in tetrazolium salt (6, 12 and 16 h) and three salt concentrations (0.075, 0.1 and 0.5%), totaling 18 treatments with four replicates of 25 seeds, evaluated at 40 ºC. For each treatment, the seeds were divided into three classes, namely, viable and vigorous embryos (class 1); viable embryos (class 2) and non-viable or dead embryos (class 3). For a comparison with the tetrazolium test results, the two seed lots were analyzed for water content, germination, emergence, first count, germination speed index, emergence speed index, growth and seedling dry weight. The viability and vigor of T. indica seeds can be evaluated after a soaking period of 48 h and immersion for 6h in tetrazolium salt at the concentration of 0.1%, at 40°C, with provides results similar to conventional seed viability tests. The tetrazolium test proved to be adequate to differentiate T. indica seed lots in terms of viability.

Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 309 ◽  
pp. 122185
Ermeng Zhao ◽  
Jian Hou ◽  
Yunkai Ji ◽  
Yongge Liu ◽  
Yajie Bai

Nubia M. F. Bertino ◽  
Leilson C. Grangeiro ◽  
João P. N. da Costa ◽  
Romualdo M. C. Costa ◽  
Rodolfo R. de A. Lacerda ◽  

ABSTRACT Micronutrients structurally constitute several enzymes and act as a cofactor of essential proteins to maintain cell function, thereby contributing to crop growth and yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the leaf content, growth, accumulation of micronutrients, classification and yield of onion as a function of fertilization with boron, cooper and zinc in two years of cultivation. The experiments were carried out from June to November in 2018 and 2019, in a soil classified as Ultisol, both at the Rafael Fernandes Experimental Farm, belonging to the Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido, in the municipality of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 15 treatments and four replicates. The treatments consisted of application of doses of B, Cu and Zn, in two experiments. Contents of B, Cu and Zn in the diagnostic leaf, growth, accumulation of B, Cu and Zn in the leaf, bulb and total, classification and commercial, non-commercial and total yields were evaluated. Application of B, Cu and Zn did not influence the number of leaves, relation of bulb shape, leaf, bulb, and total dry mass and yield of onion. Application of B, Cu and Zn, respectively at doses of 1-2-1 kg ha-1 favored a greater accumulation of B, Zn and Cu in the bulb. Higher number of leaves, leaf dry mass, bulb dry mass, total dry mass, class 1 bulbs and non-commercial yield were produced in Experiment 1.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 91
Kevin Maclean ◽  
Fernande Olpa J Pankendem Njamo ◽  
Mahloro Hope Serepa-Dlamini ◽  
Kulsum Kondiah ◽  
Ezekiel Green

SCUBA divers are predisposed to otitis externa caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is becoming increasingly multi-drug resistant (MDR). The present work assessed the antibiotic resistance profiles of P. aeruginosa obtained from SCUBA divers and their environment in Sodwana Bay, South Africa. Bacterial isolates from a total of 137 random water and ear swab samples were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. P. aeruginosa strains were further evaluated for antibiotic susceptibility using the Kirby–Bauer assay. Double disk synergy test (DDST) to confirm metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production and PCR amplification of specific antibiotic resistance genes was performed. All (100%) 22 P. aeruginosa isolates recovered were resistant to 6 of the β-lactams tested including imipenem but exhibited susceptibility to trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole. MBL production was observed in 77% of isolates while the most prevalent extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes present included blaAmpC (86.9%) followed by blaTEM (82.6%). Sulfonamide resistance was largely encoded by sul1 (63.6%) and sul2 (77.3%) genes with a high abundance of class 1 integrons (77.3%) of which 18.2% carried both Intl1 and Intl2. P. aeruginosa found in Sodwana Bay exhibits multi-drug resistance (MDRce) to several pharmaceutically important drugs with the potential to transfer antibiotic resistance to other bacteria if the judicious use of antibiotics for their treatment is not practiced.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262236
Bartosz Rybak ◽  
Beata Krawczyk ◽  
Beata Furmanek-Blaszk ◽  
Magdalena Wysocka ◽  
Magdalena Fordon ◽  

Wild birds can be colonized by bacteria, which are often resistant to antibiotics and have various virulence profiles. The aim of this study was to analyze antibiotic resistance mechanisms and virulence profiles in relation to the phylogenetic group of E. coli strains that were isolated from the GI tract of wildfowl. Out of 241 faecal samples, presence of E. coli resistant to a cephalosporin (ESBL/AmpC) was estimated for 33 isolates (13,7%). Based on the analysis of the coexistence of 4 genes encoding ESBLs/AmpC (blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaAmpC) and class 1 and 2 integrons genes (intI1, intI2) a subset of two resistance profiles was observed among the investigated E. coli isolates carrying blaAmpC, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M, blaTEM, class 1 and 2 integrons, respectively. The E. coli isolates were categorized into 4 phylogenetic groups A (39.4%), B2 (24.25%), D (24.25%) and B1 (12.1%). The pathogenic B2 and D groups were mainly typical for the Laridae family. Among the 28 virulence factors (Vfs) detected in pathogenic phylogenetic groups B2 and D, 7 were exclusively found in those groups (sfa, vat, tosA, tosB, hly, usp, cnf), while 4 VFs (fecA, fyuA, irp2, kspMTII) showed a statistically significant association (P≤0.05) with phylogroups A and B1. Our results indicated that strains belonging to commensal phylogroups A/B1 possess extensive iron acquisition systems (93,9%) and autotransporters (60,6%), typical for pathogens, hence we suggest that these strains evolve towards higher levels of virulence. This study, which is a point assessment of the virulence and drug resistance potential of wild birds, confirms the importance of taking wild birds as a reservoir of strains that pose a growing threat to humans. The E. coli analyzed in our study derive from different phylogenetic groups and possess an arsenal of antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors that contribute to their ability to cause diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Mimonitu Opuwari ◽  
Blessing Afolayan ◽  
Saeed Mohammed ◽  
Paschal Ogechukwu Amaechi ◽  
Youmssi Bareja ◽  

AbstractThis study aims to generate rock units based on core permeability and porosity of OW oilfield in the Bredasdorp Basin offshore South Africa. In this study, we identified and classified lithofacies based on sedimentology reports in conjunction with well logs. Lucia's petrophysical classification method is used to classify rocks into three classes. Results revealed three lithofacies as A (sandstone, coarse to medium-grained), B (fine to medium-grained sandstone), and C (carbonaceous claystone, finely laminated with siltstone). Lithofacies A is the best reservoir quality and corresponds to class 1, while lithofacies B and C correspond to class 2 and 3, which are good and poor reservoir quality rock, respectively. An integrated reservoir zonation for the rocks is based on four different zonation methods (Flow Zone indicator (FZI), Winland r35, Hydraulic conductivity (HC), and Stratigraphy modified Lorenz plot (SMLP)). Four flow zones Reservoir rock types (RRTs) were identified as RRT1, RRT3, RRT4, and RRT5, respectively. The RRT5 is the best reservoir quality composed of a megaporous rock unit, with an average FZI value between 5 and 10 µm, and HC from 40 to 120 mD/v3, ranked as very good. The most prolific flow units (RRT5 and RRT4 zones) form more than 75% of each well's flow capacities are supplied by two flow units (FU1 and FU3). The RRT1 is the most reduced rock quality composed of impervious and nanoporous rock. Quartz is the dominant framework grain, and siderite is the dominant cement that affects flow zones. This study has demonstrated a robust approach to delineate flow units in the OW oilfield. We have developed a useful regional petrophysical reservoir rock flow zonation model for clastic reservoir sediments. This study has produced, for the first time, insights into the petrophysical properties of the OW oilfield from the Bredasdorp Basin South Africa, based on integration of core and mineralogy data. A novel sandstone reservoir zonation classification criteria developed from this study can be applied to other datasets of sandstone reservoirs with confidence.

2022 ◽  
Francesco Saverio Papadia ◽  
Flavia Carlini ◽  
Alice Rubartelli ◽  
Micaela Battistini ◽  
Renzo Cordera ◽  

Abstract Background Long-term anti-diabetic effects of BPD in overweight or class 1 obese T2DM patients were investigated reporting the results at 10 years after BPD performed in severely non-obese T2DM patients. Material and Methods Thirty T2DM patients with BMI lower than 35 kg/m2 were investigated at 1, 5, and 10 years after BPD, and the results are compared with those of 30 T2DM patients followed for 10 years on pharmacological and/or behavioral conventional therapy. Results Mean levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and serum glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) showed a marked reduction 1 year after BPD, values remaining slightly above the diabetic range throughout the entire follow-up. T2DM remission was observed in about 50% of the cases at 5 and 10 years after the operation. In 16 patients (53%), severe BPD-related complications developed, in ten cases requiring a surgical revision of the operation. In the BPD group, one patient died for malignant lymphoma and two patients after surgical revision. Within the control group, during the 10-year follow-up, no changes in the diabetic status were observed, being the FBG and HbA1C mean values higher than those recorded in the BPD patients at any follow-up time. All T2DM subjects of the control group were alive at the end of the 10-year follow-up. Conclusion Despite satisfactory long-term metabolic outcomes, these data indicate that BPD should be used with caution as a metabolic procedure in the treatment of T2DM in overweight or class 1obese patients. Graphical abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 98 (6) ◽  
pp. 671-684
P. V. Slukin ◽  
E. I. Astashkin ◽  
E. M. Aslanyan ◽  
M. G. Ershova ◽  
E. D. Poletaeva ◽  

Objective. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) affect 150 million people annually.Purpose: Characteristics of non-hospital strains of UPEC isolated from patients with UTI in Yaroslavl in 2016– 2017.Materials and methods. Susceptibility of UPEC strains (n = 20) to antibacterials was measured by the serial dilution method; the antibiotic resistance and virulence genes, phylogroups, O-serogroups and sequence types were identified by PCR and whole genome sequencing. The virulence of the strains was studied using the model of Galleria mellonella larvae.Results. UPEC strains were classified as resistant (n = 11) and multi-drug resistant (n = 9) pathogens. Betalactamase genes blaTEM (n = 10), blaCTX-M (n = 6), class 1 integrons (n = 8), and gene cassettes dfrA17-aadA5 (n = 2), dfrA1 (n = 1) and aacA4-cmlA1 (n = 1) were identified. UPEC-virulence genetic determinants coding adhesins fimH, papG, sfaS, focG, afa/draBC, csgA, siderophores iroN, fyuA, iutA, counteracting factors of host immunity ompT, traT, toxins hlyA, cnf1, usp, capsule transporter kpsMTII, colicin cvaC, and pathogenicity islands I536, II536, III536, IV536, IIJ96 и IICFT073 were detected. Highly virulent and slightly virulent for G. mellonella larvae UPEC strains were obtained with LD50 104–105 and 106–107 CFU, respectively. The phylogroups A, B1, B2, E and F, serogroups О2, О4, О6, O9, O11, О15, О18, О25, О75 and O89, known sequence types ST14, ST58, ST69, ST73, ST93, ST127, ST131, ST-141, ST165, ST297, ST457, ST537, ST744, ST1434 and novel ST9239 and ST10102 were revealed.Conclusions. The identified genetic diversity of non-hospital UPEC strains is consistent with the observed global trend in the spread of human pathogens, which are characterized with both high virulence and multiple drug resistance. This makes possible to assess prospectively the current epidemiological situation, give a forecast for its development in the future, as well as determine the optimal therapeutic options.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Riyadi Idham ◽  
Anindito Rizki Wiraputra

In preventing the Covid-19 pandemic, immigration has a security function which is carried out by selecting the intentions and objectives of foreign nationals to Indonesian territory by examining visa applications, including in handling detainees in the detention room. The problem in this study is whether the arrangements for handling detainees in the detention room of the Class 1 Immigration Office for Non TPI, South Jakarta can be implemented during the covid-19 pandemic. How to optimize the handling of detainees during the covid-19 pandemic in the detention room of the Class 1 Immigration Office for Non TPI, South Jakarta. This research method is empirical normative using primary data and secondary data. The results of the study stated that the arrangements for handling detainees in the detention room of the Class 1 Immigration Office for Non TPI, South Jakarta, could not be fully implemented during the Covid-19 pandemic. This is because until now there is no regulation specifically for the Class I Immigration Office for Non TPI related to the handling of detainees in the detention room, thus causing the absence of standard operating procedures for officers. Optimization of the handling of detainees during a pandemic in the detention room of the Class 1 Immigration Office for Non TPI Special South Jakarta is through the issuance of the Regulation of the Director General of Immigration regarding the handling of detainees during a pandemic in the detention room at the Immigration Office Class 1 Special for Non TPI South Jakarta.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 43
Orathai Chaidam ◽  
Apantee Poonputta

The objectives of the research were: 1) to develop the lesson plans for “Weight and Measurement” of Mathematics by using Problem-Based Learning on TPACK MODEL based on the efficiency of the process and the overall result (E1/E2) at the established criteria of 75/75; 2) to compare the students’ learning achievement in “Weight and Measurement” of the 1st grade students before and after by using Problem-Based Learning on TPACK MODEL; 3) to study the students’ satisfaction with Problem-Based Learning on TPACK MODEL. The research samples were thirty-five 1st grade students of class 1 in the 1st semester of the academic year 2020 at Sanambin School in Khon Kaen Province. They were selected by purposive sampling. The instruments used in this study were lesson plans, an achievement test, and a questionnaire on students’ satisfaction. The statistics used for analyzing the collected data were mean, standard deviation, percentage, and gain score. The research results showed that 1) the average efficiency of the lesson plans for “Weight and Measurement” by using Problem-Based Learning on TPACK MODEL with exercises was 85.54/78.71, which was higher than theestablished criteria. 2) The mean score of the 1st grade students for “Weight and Measurement” of Mathematics after using Problem-Based Learning on TPACK MODEL was significantly higher than that of before using the Problem-Based Learning Model. 3) The overall satisfaction of the students with the Problem-Based Learning on TPACK MODEL for “Weight and Measurement was at a high level.

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