alcohol consumption
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Huijing He ◽  
Li Pan ◽  
Xiaolan Ren ◽  
Dingming Wang ◽  
Jianwei Du ◽  

Adiposity and alcohol consumption are reported to be associated with a higher level of serum uric acid (SUA), but whether their effect differs on SUA percentile distribution is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate how alcohol intake and body fat percentage (%BF) integrated with body mass index (BMI) influence the distribution of SUA in Chinese adults. Data from the China National Health Survey (CNHS) which included adults from 10 provinces of China were used (n = 31,746, aged 20–80 years, 40% male). %BF and BMI were integrated into eight expanded body composition groups to understand how excess body adiposity affects the distribution of SUA in the populational level. Self-report alcohol intake information was collected by face-to-face questionnaire interview. Quantile regression (QR) was used to analyze the data. We found that adiposity and alcohol consumption were associated with SUA, especially at the upper percentile in both sexes. In obese men, the QR coefficients at the 75th and 95th percentiles were 74.0 (63.1–84.9) and 80.9 (52.5–109.3) μmol/L, respectively. The highest quartile of %BF in men had a 92.6 (79.3–105.9) μmol/L higher SUA levels at its 95th percentile than the 5th quartile (p < 0.001). Compared with normal or underweight with the lowest %BF group (NWBF1), the obesity-highest %BF group (OBBF4) had the strongest positive effect on SUA, especially at the higher percentile of SUA. In BMI-defined normal or underweight participants, a higher quartile of %BF had greater effect size in all SUA percentiles. In men, current alcohol drinking had the strongest effect at the 95th percentile of SUA (QR coefficient: 31.8, with 95% CI: 22.6–41.0) comparing with 14.5, 95% CI of 8.4 to 20.6 in the 5th SUA percentile. High risk of alcohol consumption had a greater effect on SUA, especially in the higher SUA percentile. The observation of stronger association at the higher percentile of SUA suggests that decreasing body adiposity and alcohol intake at the populational level may shift the upper tails of the SUA distributions to lower values, thereby reducing the incidence of hyperuricemia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (01) ◽  
pp. 261-284
Mayte Donstrup

The aim of this study is to analyze the attitudes and social behaviors of the protagonists of teen series; that is, fiction series produced for teenagers. With this aim, a content analysis has been carried out, a technique that has allowed the identification of the most common behaviors and consequences in said fiction series. The sample is composed of the first season of the seven series best rated by their audience in the first quarter of 2020: Elite (Netflix: 2018- ), Chilling Adventures of Sabrina (Netflix: 2018- ), Sex Education (Netflix: 2019- ), 13 Reasons Why (Netflix: 2017), I Am Not Okay with This (Netflix: 2020- ), Riverdale (The WC: 2017- ) y Euphoria (HBO: 2019- ). The results indicate a high percentage of scenes of unprotected sex and alcohol consumption with hardly any negative consequences.

Adriana Solovei ◽  
Eva Jané-Llopis ◽  
Liesbeth Mercken ◽  
Inés Bustamante ◽  
Daša Kokole ◽  

AbstractAlcohol measurement delivered by health care providers in primary health care settings is an efficacious and cost-effective intervention to reduce alcohol consumption among patients. However, this intervention is not yet routinely implemented in practice. Community support has been recommended as a strategy to stimulate the delivery of alcohol measurement by health care providers, yet evidence on the effectiveness of community support in this regard is scarce. The current study used a pre-post quasi-experimental design in order to investigate the effect of community support in three Latin American municipalities in Colombia, Mexico, and Peru on health care providers’ rates of measuring alcohol consumption in their patients. The analysis is based on the first 5 months of implementation. Moreover, the study explored possible mechanisms underlying the effects of community support, through health care providers’ awareness of support, as well as their attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and subsequent intention toward delivering the intervention. An ANOVA test indicated that community support had a significant effect on health care providers’ rates of measuring alcohol consumption in their patients (F (1, 259) = 4.56, p = 0.034, ηp2 = 0.018). Moreover, a path analysis showed that community support had a significant indirect positive effect on providers’ self-efficacy to deliver the intervention (b = 0.07, p = 0.008), which was mediated through awareness of support. Specifically, provision of community support resulted in a higher awareness of support among health care providers (b = 0.31, p < 0.001), which then led to higher self-efficacy to deliver brief alcohol advice (b = 0.23, p = 0.010). Results indicate that adoption of an alcohol measurement intervention by health care providers may be aided by community support, by directly impacting the rates of alcohol measurement sessions, and by increasing providers’ self-efficacy to deliver this intervention, through increased awareness of support. Trial Registration ID: NCT03524599; Registered 15 May 2018;

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261675
Afroza Ferdouse ◽  
Rishi R. Agrawal ◽  
Madeleine A. Gao ◽  
Hongfeng Jiang ◽  
William S. Blaner ◽  

Chronic alcohol consumption leads to a spectrum of liver disease that is associated with significant global mortality and morbidity. Alcohol is known to deplete hepatic vitamin A content, which has been linked to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. It has been suggested that induction of Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) contributes to alcohol-induced hepatic vitamin A depletion, but the possible contributions of other retinoid-catabolizing CYPs have not been well studied. The main objective of this study was to better understand alcohol-induced hepatic vitamin A depletion and test the hypothesis that alcohol-induced depletion of hepatic vitamin A is due to CYP-mediated oxidative catabolism. This hypothesis was tested in a mouse model of chronic alcohol consumption, including wild type and Cyp2e1 -/- mice. Our results show that chronic alcohol consumption is associated with decreased levels of hepatic retinol, retinyl esters, and retinoic acid. Moreover, the depletion of hepatic retinoid is associated with the induction of multiple retinoid catabolizing CYPs, including CYP26A1, and CYP26B1 in alcohol fed wild type mice. In Cyp2e1 -/- mice, alcohol-induced retinol decline is blunted but retinyl esters undergo a change in their acyl composition and decline upon alcohol exposure like WT mice. In conclusion, the alcohol induced decline in hepatic vitamin A content is associated with increased expression of multiple retinoid-catabolizing CYPs, including the retinoic acid specific hydroxylases CYP26A1 and CYP26B1.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zaheer Kyaw Hla ◽  
Rodrigo Ramalho ◽  
Lauranna Teunissen ◽  
Isabelle Cuykx ◽  
Paulien Decorte ◽  

AimsTo explore changes in alcohol purchase and consumption during the first few months of the Covid-19 pandemic, and assess associations between increased alcohol purchase/use and socioeconomic and environmental factors.DesignSecondary data from a cross-sectional online survey conducted from 17 April to 25 June 2020.SettingThirty-eight countries from all continents of the world.ParticipantsA total of 37,206 adults (mean age:36.7, SD:14.8, 77% female) reporting alcohol purchasing and drinking habit before and during the pandemic.MeasurementsChanges in alcohol stock-up and frequency of alcohol use during the pandemic and increased alcohol stock-up and use were stratified by gender, age, education, household structure, working status, income loss, psychological distress, and country based on alcohol consumption per capita. The associations between increased alcohol stock-up/use and living with children, working from home, income loss and distress were examined using multivariate logistic regression, controlling for demographic factors.FindingsThe majority of respondents reported no change in their alcohol purchasing and drinking habits during the early pandemic period. Increased drinking was reported by 20.2% of respondents, while 17.6% reported decreased alcohol use. More than half (53.3%) of respondents experienced psychological distress, with one in five (20.7%) having severe distress. Female gender, being aged under 50, higher educational attainment, living with children, working from home, and psychological distress were all independently associated with increased alcohol drinking during lockdown. Limitations of the study were the non-representative sample, the data collection early in the pandemic, and the non-standard measurement of alcohol consumption.ConclusionIncreased psychological distress among people during the early pandemic period, resulted in increased alcohol consumption, especially among women with children working from home during lockdown.

Yuna Ma ◽  
Jiafeng Gu ◽  
Ruixi Lv

Despite growing attention to job satisfaction as a social determinant of alcohol-related behaviors, few studies focus on its diverse impacts on alcohol consumption. Using data from the China Family Panel Study in 2018, this study uses logistic regression analysis to examine how job satisfaction affects alcohol consumption in China, finding that people who were satisfied with their jobs were more likely to be regularly drinking. Employed people who were satisfied with their working environment and working hours were more likely to regularly drink, but those who were satisfied with their wages and working security were less likely to be regularly drinking. Findings suggest that the link between job satisfaction and alcohol consumption is dynamic. Employment policies, working wellbeing improvement programs, and alcohol policy improvement should, therefore, be designed on the basis of a comprehensive account of entire job-related attitudes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Rachel Visontay ◽  
Matthew Sunderland ◽  
Tim Slade ◽  
Jack Wilson ◽  
Louise Mewton

Abstract Background Research has long found ‘J-shaped’ relationships between alcohol consumption and certain health outcomes, indicating a protective effect of moderate consumption. However, methodological limitations in most studies hinder causal inference. This review aimed to identify all observational studies employing improved approaches to mitigate confounding in characterizing alcohol–long-term health relationships, and to qualitatively synthesize their findings. Methods Eligible studies met the above description, were longitudinal (with pre-defined exceptions), discretized alcohol consumption, and were conducted with human populations. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase and SCOPUS were searched in May 2020, yielding 16 published manuscripts reporting on cancer, diabetes, dementia, mental health, cardiovascular health, mortality, HIV seroconversion, and musculoskeletal health. Risk of bias of cohort studies was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and a recently developed tool was used for Mendelian Randomization studies. Results A variety of functional forms were found, including reverse J/J-shaped relationships for prostate cancer and related mortality, dementia risk, mental health, and certain lipids. However, most outcomes were only evaluated by a single study, and few studies provided information on the role of alcohol consumption pattern. Conclusions More research employing enhanced causal inference methods is urgently required to accurately characterize alcohol–long-term health relationships. Those studies that have been conducted find a variety of linear and non-linear functional forms, with results tending to be discrepant even within specific health outcomes. Trial registration PROSPERO registration number CRD42020185861.

2022 ◽  
Håkan Leifman ◽  
Kalle Dramstad ◽  
Emil Juslin

Abstract BackgroundThe closing of bars, restaurants and international borders during the COVID-19 pandemic led to significant changes in alcohol availability. The study provides a first systematic overview of the monthly development of alcohol sales in Europe during the pandemic in order to determine the effect of closed borders on the sales and consumption of alcohol.MethodsThe study covers 60 months from January 2015 to December 2020 in 14 northern-European countries with excise revenue data for beer, wine, spirits separately and summed, converted into litres of pure alcohol per capita 15+ as a proxy for alcohol sales. March-December 2020 is seen as the pandemic period. The analyses consist of (1) descriptive trends of sales before and during the pandemic, (2) assessment of the pandemic impact on sales by time-series analyses and (3) case studies of countries with substantial cross-border inflow or outflow of alcohol.ResultsThe result shows an overall reduction in alcohol sales during the pandemic. Nevertheless, the results differ based on the level of cross-border purchasing flows pre-pandemic, as countries with high cross-border inflow saw an increase in domestic sales as the pandemic hit. ConclusionThe closing of intra-European borders had a significant redistributing effect on alcohol sales. While noting sales increases, cross-border inflow countries generally saw a decrease in total alcohol consumption as not all cross-border purchases were replaced by domestic sales. This has important policy implications as large volumes of cross-border inflow of alcohol can negatively affect excise revenue as well as public health outcomes. The methodology can be used to further explore the reliance of different purchasing streams in a domestic alcohol market.

2022 ◽  
pp. 003335492110581
Kaylin J. Beiter ◽  
Ross P. Wiedemann ◽  
Casey L. Thomas ◽  
Erich J. Conrad

Objectives: Although a known association exists between stress and alcohol consumption among health care workers (HCWs), it is not known how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected this association. We assessed pandemic work-related stress and alcohol consumption of HCWs. Methods: We emailed a cross-sectional, anonymous survey in June 2020 to approximately 550 HCWs at an academic hospital in New Orleans, Louisiana. HCWs from all departments were eligible to complete the survey. Questions measured work-related stress and emotional reactions to the pandemic (using the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome [MERS-CoV] Staff Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (using the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 [PHQ-9]), coping habits (using the Brief COPE scale), and pre–COVID-19 (March 2020) and current (June 2020) alcohol consumption. We measured alcohol consumption using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test–Consumption (AUDIT–C), with scores >3 considered positive. We asked 4 open-ended questions for in-depth analysis. Results: One-hundred two HCWs participated in the survey. The average AUDIT–C scores for current and pre–COVID-19 alcohol consumption were 3.1 and 2.8, respectively. The level of current alcohol consumption was associated with avoidant coping (r = 0.46, P < .001). Relative increases in alcohol consumption from March to June 2020 were positively associated with PHQ-9 score and greater emotional reactions to the pandemic. Availability of mental health services was ranked second to last among desired supports. Qualitative data demonstrated high levels of work-related stress from potential exposure to COVID-19 and job instability, as well as social isolation and negative effects of the pandemic on their work environment. Conclusions: Ongoing prevention-based interventions that emphasize stress management rather than mental or behavioral health conditions are needed.

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