Alcohol Consumption
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Yusaku Hashimoto ◽  
Takahiro Imaizumi ◽  
Sawako Kato ◽  
Yoshinari Yasuda ◽  
Takuji Ishimoto ◽  

AbstractThe influence of body mass or metabolic capacity on the association between alcohol consumption and lower risks of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not fully elucidated. We examined whether the body mass index (BMI) affects the association between drinking alcohol and CKD. We defined CKD as an estimated glomerular filtration rate decline < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or positive proteinuria (≥ 1+). Participants were 11,175 Japanese individuals aged 40–74 years without baseline CKD who underwent annual health checkups. Daily alcohol consumption at baseline was estimated using a questionnaire, and the participants were categorized as “infrequent (occasionally, rarely or never),” “light (< 20 g/day),” “moderate (20–39 g/day),” and “heavy (≥ 40 g/day).” Over a median 5-year observation period, 936 participants developed CKD. Compared with infrequent drinkers, light drinkers were associated with low CKD risks; adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.81 (0.69–0.95). Stratified by BMI (kg/m2), moderate drinkers in the low (< 18.5), normal (18.5–24.9), and high (≥ 25.0) BMI groups had adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 3.44 (1.60–7.42), 0.75 (0.58–0.98), and 0.63 (0.39–1.04), respectively. Taken together, the association between alcohol consumption and CKD incidence was not the same in all the individuals, and individual tolerance must be considered.

Children ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (10) ◽  
pp. 916
Carmen Cendrero-Luengo ◽  
María Jiménez-Palomares ◽  
Juan Rodríguez-Mansilla ◽  
Elisa María Garrido-Ardila

Background: Adolescence is a key stage for the development of different mental disorders, particularly psychotic disorders. This stage of life is accompanied by new habits or behaviours that can make a person more vulnerable to developing a psychotic disorder or, on the contrary, play a protective role. Objective: To study the vulnerability to developing a psychotic disorder in adolescents and to analyse the main risk factors. Materials and methods: This is an observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study. The data collection was conducted using the Prodromal Questionnaire Brief Version (PQ-B) test and a self-developed questionnaire based on the vulnerability–stress model. Results: Of the total sample (n = 44), 65.9% were male and 100% lived in a rural environment. In general, among risk factors (stress, alcohol and cannabis consumption, history, bullying, traumatic event and sedentary lifestyle), alcohol consumption and the presence of stress were found to have high values. Furthermore, a risk of psychosis was found in 38.6% of the studied population. Of this percentage of adolescents at risk, 64.7% consumed alcohol (p = 0.99) and 82.4% suffered from stress (p = 0.7161). The protective factor (physical activity) was found in more than half (59% p = 0.16). Conclusions: There is a high risk of psychosis among the young adolescents assessed in this study, where the explanatory factors identified with higher values were alcohol consumption and the presence of stress.

2021 ◽  
Eric Robinson

Objective: Both excessive alcohol consumption and obesity produce a considerable public health burden. Alcohol is calorie dense, but unlike food products, alcoholic drinks tend to be exempt from nutritional labelling laws that require energy content information to be displayed on packaging or at point of purchase. Design: Here we provide an integrative review on the potential of alcoholic drink energy labelling as a public health policy to reduce obesity. Results: We first outline the contribution that alcohol makes to population level daily energy intake and the role that alcohol consumption may have in promoting obesity. We next discuss the extent to which there is a consumer need for alcoholic drink energy labelling and the potential impact that energy labelling of alcoholic drinks would have on both consumer and industry behaviour. The direct and indirect pathways and mechanisms by which energy labelling of alcoholic drinks could theoretically influence public health are discussed, as well as possible unintended consequences of alcoholic drink energy labelling. Conclusion: We conclude by discussing key questions that will need to be answered by future research in order to determine how effective energy labelling of alcoholic drink policies will be in reducing obesity and improving public health.

Oleh Lyubinets ◽  
Marta Kachmarska ◽  
Katarzyna Maria Sygit ◽  
Elżbieta Cipora ◽  
Jaroslaw Grshybowskyj

This paper presents a comparative assessment of mortality in Poland and Ukraine, including due to alcohol consumption, by sex, place of residence, and age groups. Mortality from alcohol consumption is and remains one of the health problems of the state’s population. The aim of this study was to establish the difference in mortality, including due to alcohol consumption, in the two neighboring countries. The analysis was conducted in 2008 and 2018 according to statistical institutions in Poland and Ukraine. Data from the codes of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases of the 10th edition: F10, G31.2, G62.1, I42.6, K70, K86.0, and X45 were used to calculate mortality due to alcohol consumption. The share of mortality caused by alcohol consumption in Ukraine in 2008 was 3.52%, and 1.83% in 2018. At the same time, in Poland, there is an increase in this cause of death from 1.72% to 2.36%. Mortality caused by alcohol consumption is the main share of mortality in the section “Mental and behavioral disorders” in both Ukraine, at 73–74%, and Poland, at 82–92%. Changes in the mortality rate in the cities and villages of Ukraine and Poland showed different trends: Poland nated, a significant increase in mortality, while in Ukraine it has halved on average. Overall and alcohol mortality rates in both countries were higher among the male population. The analysis of mortality among people of working age showed that the highest proportion of deaths from alcohol consumption in both countries was among people aged 25–44. Despite the geographical proximity, and similarity of natural and climatic characteristics and population, mortality rates in each country reflect the difference in the medical and demographic situation, and the effectiveness of state social approaches to public health.

2021 ◽  
Lisa Maier ◽  
Ricarda von Krüchten ◽  
Roberto Lorbeer ◽  
Jule Filler ◽  
Johanna Nattenmüller ◽  

Context: Hepatic iron overload can cause severe organ damage. Therefore, an early diagnosis is crucial, and identification of modifiable risk factors could help to prevent manifestations of iron-driven complications. Objective: To investigate the sex–specific distribution of hepatic iron content (HIC) in a population-based sample, and to identify relevant associated factors from a panel of markers. Methods: We analysed N=353 participants from a cross–sectional, population–based cohort in Southern Germany (KORA FF4) who underwent whole–body magnetic resonance imaging. HIC was assessed by single–voxel spectroscopy with a high–speed T2–corrected multi–echo technique. A large panel of markers, including anthropometric, genetic and laboratory values as well as behavioural risk factors were assessed. Relevant factors associated with HIC were identified by variable selection based on LASSO regression with bootstrap resampling. Results: HIC in the study sample (mean age at examination was 56.0 years, 58.4% were men) was significantly lower in women (mean±SD: 39.2±4.1 s−1) than in men (41.8±4.7 s−1, p<0.001). Relevant factors associated with HIC were HbA1c and prediabetes for men, and visceral adipose tissue and age for women. Hepatic fat, alcohol consumption, and a genetic risk score for iron levels were associated with HIC in both sexes. Conclusion: There are sex–specific associations of HIC with markers of body composition, glucose metabolism and alcohol consumption.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Jasmine G. Warren ◽  
Victoria M. Fallon ◽  
Laura Goodwin ◽  
Suzanne H. Gage ◽  
Abigail K. Rose

Women may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol harm, but many current theories fail to acknowledge the unique factors that influence female alcohol use. The biological mechanisms underlying female alcohol consumption have largely been unexplored, although recently the menstrual cycle has been highlighted as a potentially important factor. This systematic review, using a narrative synthesis, examined the association between the menstrual cycle phases on alcohol consumption and aimed to determine whether hormonal contraception influences this association. The review follows PRISMA and SWiM guidelines, registration number: CRD42018112744. Electronic searches were conducted in the relevant databases with keyword (e.g., “menstrua*”; “alcohol”). Thousand six hundred and sixty-two titles were identified, 16 of which were included in the review. Results were inconsistent regarding whether an association between menstrual cycle phase and alcohol consumption was found. Furthermore, there was inconsistency regarding which phase was associated with higher consumption, and different factors were reported to have moderated the direction, e.g., family history of alcohol use disorder (AUD), premenstrual syndrome (PMS). These conflicting results may be partly explained by variability in both study quality and design, and differences in measurement of cycle phase and alcohol consumption. More robust research is needed before conclusions can be drawn with regard to the role of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraception on female drinking behavior. This review provides recommendations to strengthen research in this area.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lasse Brandt ◽  
Ricarda Evens ◽  
Simon Reiche ◽  
Roman M. Marek ◽  
Daa Un Moon ◽  

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic may lead to negative mental health effects but the effect on alcohol consumption among younger adults is unclear. We assess predictors of change in alcohol consumption during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic among younger adults.Methods: This cross-sectional internet-based survey was part of an overarching project, the Corona Drug Survey, which was conducted from April 30 to August 4, 2020. Participants of any sex and ≥18 years old were included. The primary outcome measure was change in alcohol consumption during the early COVID-19 pandemic. We implemented an ordinal logistic regression to assess the effect (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]) of the following predictors: quarantine restrictions on leaving the residence, number of individuals in the household, problematic alcohol consumption before the pandemic (CAGE [cutting down, annoyance by criticism, guilty feeling, and eye-opener] score), personal concern regarding the pandemic, age, and sex.Results: 3,321 participants with a mean age of 32 (SD: 13) years were included in this study. 70.4% of participants reported less or unchanged alcohol consumption in the recent 4 weeks of the pandemic compared to before the pandemic. A higher number of individuals in the household was associated with a reduced alcohol consumption (OR = 0.869; 95% CI = 0.815–0.927). No quarantine restrictions on leaving the residence (OR = 1.593; 95% CI = 1.397–1.817), a higher age (1.006; 1.001-1.011), and female sex (compared to males: 1.206; 1.062–1.371) were associated with an increase in alcohol consumption. The CAGE score before the pandemic (OR = 0.983; 95% CI = 0.931–1.037) and the pandemic concern (0.927; 0.857–1.003) were not associated with a significant change in alcohol consumption. Celebrations were no longer frequent drinking occasions during the pandemic compared to before the pandemic. The majority of participants (60.9%) did not use alcohol drinking as a coping mechanism to mitigate negative effects of the pandemic.Interpretation: In this cohort of younger adults with fewer celebratory drinking occasions, restrictions on leaving the residence and the number of persons in the household were the strongest predictors of reduced alcohol consumption during the early phase of the pandemic.

Mackay Price ◽  
Chris Wilkins ◽  
Sam Trowsdale

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Aysegul Oglakci-Ilhan ◽  
Kevser Kusat-Ol ◽  
Kubilay Uzuner ◽  
Onur Uysal ◽  
Ibrahim Sogut ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sonar Soni Panigoro ◽  
Noorwati Sutandyo ◽  
Fiastuti Witjaksono ◽  
Nurjati Chairani Siregar ◽  
Ramadhan Ramli ◽  

BackgroundThis study aims to evaluate the association and dose-response between triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index and breast cancer.MethodThis is a multicenter case-control study conducted in six public referral hospitals in Indonesia. Cases are individuals aged 19 years or above who were diagnosed with breast cancer within 1 year of diagnosis, based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Controls were recruited from corresponding hospitals. TyG index was determined by the formula: ln (fasting TG [mg/dl] × fasting glucose [mg/dl]).ResultsThere were 212 participants in the breast cancer group and 212 participants in the control group. TyG index was higher in patients with breast cancer (median 8.65 [7.38, 10.9] vs. 8.30 [7.09, 10.84], p &lt; 0.001). When compared with TyG quartile of Q1, Q4 was associated with an OR of 2.42 (1.77, 3.31), p &lt; 0.001, Q3 was associated with an OR of 1.53 (1.21, 1.93), p &lt; 0.001, Q2 was associated with an OR of 1.39 (1.12, 1.73), p = 0.002 for the risk of breast cancer. The dose-response relationship was nonlinear (p &lt; 0.001). On univariate analysis, smoking (OR 2.15 [1.44, 3.22], p &lt; 0.001), use of contraception (1.73 [1.15, 2.60], p = 0.008), alcohol consumption (OR 2.04 [0.96, 4.35], p = 0.064), and TyG Index &gt;8.87 (OR 3.08 [1.93, 4.93], p &lt; 0.001) were associated with risk of breast cancer. Independently associated with increased risk of breast cancer included smoking (OR 1.93 [1.23, 3.01], p = 0.004), use of contraception (OR 1.59 [1.02, 2.48], p = 0.039), and TyG Index &gt;8.87 (OR 2.93 [1.72, 4.98], p &lt; 0.001)ConclusionTyG index was associated with breast cancer in a nonlinear dose-response fashion.

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