Risk Factor
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hao Meng ◽  
Yuan Gao ◽  
Peng Lu ◽  
Guang-Min Zhao ◽  
Zhi-Cheng Zhang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: To assess the effects of inter-segment pedicle screw fixation for the treatment of lumbar spondylolysis, and evaluate various risk factors potentially predicting the probability of disc and facet joint degeneration after instrumentation.Methods: The study included 54 male L5 spondylolysis patients who underwent pars repair and inter-segment fixation using pedicle screws. Bony union was evaluated using reconstruction images of computed tomography. Radiographic changes including the disc height, vertebral slip, facet joint and disc degeneration in the grade of adjacent and fixed segments were determined from before to final follow-up. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with the incidence of disc and facet joint degeneration.Results: Bony union was achieved in all cases. Logistic regression analysis revealed that duration of instrumentation of more than 15.5 months and 21.0 months were significant risk factor of the incidence of L4/5 and L5S1 facet degeneration, respectively. Conclusions: Inter-segmental pedicle screw fixation provides good surgical outcomes and good isthmic bony union rates in patients with lumbar spondylolysis. The duration of fixation was confirmed as a risk factor of facet joint degeneration. Once bony union is achieved, remove of the instruments should be recommended.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fatma Nurgül Taşgöz ◽  
Nergis Kender Erturk ◽  
Gulnur Tanrıverdi Kılıç ◽  
Gulay Gokce

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of adenomyosis on the discordance of pathologic findings in patients with endometrial hyperplasia (EH) before hysterectomy.Methods: Two hundred seventeen patients who were diagnosed as having EH via endometrial sampling and underwent hysterectomy within 3 months were included in this retrospective study. The patients’ preoperative and postoperative pathologic findings were compared and discordant results were defined as overdiagnosed and underdiagnosed.Results: The rate of concurrent endometrial carcinoma (EC) among all EH was 22.11%, whereas this rate was 41.4% in EH with atypia. There was no difference between EH subtypes in terms of demographic characteristics and coexisting myometrial lesions. The discordance between preoperative endometrial sampling and final hysterectomy specimen results was evaluated, and patients with underdiagnosis were older (60.5 years, p<0.001), had a higher BMI (30.84 kg/m2, p<0.001), were mostly postmenopausal (p<0.001), had lower parity numbers (median=2, p=0.002), and had a lower rate of co-existing adenomyosis (p=0.009). The rates of co-existing leiomyomas between the groups were not different. No effect of other demographic characteristics was observed in the multivariate regression analysis; however, the presence of adenomyosis was a significant independent risk factor affecting a 5.8-fold increase in overdiagnosis (-1.50; OR: 0.17 (0.05-0.50) p=0.002) and 4.5-fold increase in underdiagnosis (-1.50; p=0.005).Conclusion: Co-existing adenomyosis could lead to discordance of the pathologic findings in women with EH diagnoses before hysterectomy.


Author(s):  
Mohd Mustahsin ◽  
Sanjay Choubey ◽  
Garima Singh ◽  
Madhulika Dubey ◽  
Sachin Khanduri ◽  
...  

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has led to millions of deaths worldwide. Old age, immunocompromised state and multiple comorbidities are described as risk factors. Kyphoscoliosis (KS) is the most common spine abnormality and a risk factor of respiratory failure. Management of pneumonia in a patient with severe kyphoscoliosis is challenging to the intensivist. We report successful management of two patients with severe kyphoscoliosis who developed severe COVID-19 pneumonia.


Author(s):  
Xingbing Wu ◽  
Qingyi Shi ◽  
Shimo Shen ◽  
Chen Huang ◽  
Hongcheng Wu

BackgroundThere is a paucity of studies using clinical characteristics and whole-genome sequencing together to fully identify the risk factors of patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) bloodstream infection (BSI).MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with KP BSI. Isolates were processed using Illumina NGS, and relevant bioinformatics analysis was conducted (multi-locus sequence typing, serotype, phylogenetic reconstruction, detection of antibiotic resistance, and virulence genes). A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the risk factors of hosts and causative KP isolates associated with 30-day mortality in patients infected with KP BSI.ResultsOf the 79 eligible patients, the 30-day mortality rate of patients with KP BSI was 30.4%. Multivariate analysis showed that host-associated factors (increased APACHE II score and septic shock) were strongly associated with increased 30-day mortality. For the pathogenic factors, carriage of iutA (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.11–1.81, p = 0.002) or Kvar_1549 (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.02–1.69, p = 0.043) was an independent risk factor, especially when accompanied by a multidrug-resistant phenotype. In addition, ST11-K64 hypervirulent carbapenem-resistant KP co-harbored acquired blaKPC-2 together with iutA (76.5%, 13/17) and Kvar_1549 (100%, 17/17) genes. Comparative genomic analysis showed that they were clustered together based on a phylogenetic tree, and more virulence genes were observed in the group of ST11-K64 strains compared with ST11-non-K64. The patients infected with ST11-K64 strains were associated with relatively high mortality (47.2%, 7/17).ConclusionThe carriage of iutA and Kvar_1549 was seen to be an independent mortality risk factor in patients with KP BSI. The identification of hypervirulent and carbapenem-resistant KP strains associated with high mortality should prompt surveillance.


Author(s):  
Kristen L Benninger ◽  
Jessica Purnell ◽  
Sara Conroy ◽  
Kenneth Jackson ◽  
Nancy Batterson ◽  
...  

BMC Cancer ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Chen Niu ◽  
Yong Liu ◽  
Jialin Wang ◽  
Yuqin Liu ◽  
Shaokai Zhang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Despite research efforts, the causative factors that contribute to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in high-risk areas have not yet been understood. In this study, we, therefore, aimed to describe the risk factors associated with ESCC and its precursor lesions. Methods We performed an endoscopic examination of 44,857 individuals aged 40–69 years from five high incidence regions of China in 2017–2018. Participants were classified as 4 groups of normal control, esophagitis, low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN) and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia/esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (HGIN/ESCC) using an unconditional logistic regression determine risk factors. Results We identified 4890 esophagitis, 1874 LGIN and 437 HGIN/ESCC cases. Crude odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted odds ratios were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Drinking well and surface water, salty diet, and positive family history of cancer were the common risk factors for esophagitis, LGIN and HGIN/ESCC. History of chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis was the greatest risk factor of esophagitis (adjusted OR 2.96, 95%CI 2.52–3.47) and HGIN/ESCC (adjusted OR 1.91, 95%CI 1.03–3.22). Pesticide exposure (adjusted OR 1.20, 95%CI 1.05–1.37) was essential risk factor of LGIN. Conclusions Among individuals aged 40–69 years in high incidence regions of upper gastrointestinal cancer, the results provided important epidemiological evidence for the prevention of different precancerous lesions of ESCC.


Author(s):  
Swapnali Zore

Severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is currently managed with systemic glucocorticoids. Opportunistic fungal infections are of concern in such patients. While COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis is increasingly recognized, mucormycosis is rare. We describe a case of probable pulmonary mucormycosis in a 55-year-old man with diabetes, end-stage kidney disease, and COVID-19. The index case was diagnosed with pulmonary mucormycosis 21 days following admission for severe COVID-19. He received 5 g of liposomal amphotericin B and was discharged after 54 days from the hospital. We also performed a systematic review of the literature and identified seven additional cases of COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM). Of the eight cases included in our review, diabetes mellitus was the most common risk factor. Three subjects had no risk factor other than glucocorticoids for COVID-19. Mucormycosis usually developed 10–14 days after hospitalization. All except the index case died. In two subjects, CAM was diagnosed postmortem. Mucormycosis is an uncommon but serious infection that complicates the course of severe COVID-19. Subjects with diabetes mellitus and multiple risk factors may be at a higher risk for developing mucormycosis. Concurrent glucocorticoid therapy probably heightens the risk of mucormycosis. A high index of suspicion and aggressive management is required to improve outcomes.


Children ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (9) ◽  
pp. 809
Author(s):  
Dongbum Suh ◽  
Hyuksool Kwon

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of recent antibiotic therapy and probiotics on hospitalisation in children with acute gastroenteritis. Using a retrospective study design, data from the population aged up to 18 years were collected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. The duration of antibiotic therapy within 14 days of the index visit, prescription of probiotics at initial presentation, the effect size of antibiotic exposure on hospitalisation, and its modification by probiotics were assessed. Of 275,395 patients with acute gastroenteritis, 51,008 (18.5%) had prior exposure to antibiotics. Hospitalisation within 7 days of the index visit was positively associated with exposure to antibiotics (p-trend < 0.001). The prescription of probiotics (as a main effect; odds ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.72–0.87) was associated with a decreased risk of hospitalisation. Prior exposure to antibiotics might be a significant risk factor for hospitalisation in children presenting with acute gastroenteritis. This may be favourably modified by administering probiotics at the initial presentation.


Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1682
Author(s):  
Mudit Shah ◽  
Isaac Rhee ◽  
Seung Kyu Lee ◽  
Mohammed Salman Alhassan ◽  
Hyun Woo Kim

Concomitant talocalcaneal coalition (TCC) in idiopathic clubfeet is not well documented in the literature. The purpose of this study was to describe our experience with very early relapsing idiopathic clubfeet associated with TCC. Although cases have been successfully treated with the Ponseti casting method, all recurred within 2 months of removing the final cast. A single-centre cohort of twelve feet in eight patients treated by a single surgeon between 2006 and 2020 was investigated retrospectively. Recurred cavus with variable degrees of equinus was the earliest findings noted. TCC was incidentally detected during the open reduction of the earliest three feet in our series. Afterwards, ultrasonography was advised as a screening tool for detecting an associated anomaly; however, only the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was 100% accurate in diagnosing concurrent TCC. All coalitions were cartilaginous and the posterior facet was most commonly involved facet. The average age was 18 months for the coalition resection and open reduction of a dislocated talonavicular joint, and the average duration of follow-up was 52 months. None of the patients showed clinical signs of relapse at the latest follow-up. We recommend that an associated TCC should be considered in very early relapsing idiopathic clubfoot cases.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ghasem Fakhraie ◽  
Zakieh Vahedian ◽  
Reza Zarei ◽  
Yadollah Eslami ◽  
seyed mehdi tabatabaei ◽  
...  

Abstract PurposeTo evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) trend and risk factors for IOP rise after myopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK).Patients and MethodsOne eye of each patient undergone PRK for myopia was randomly assigned to this study. All eyes underwent tonometry by CorVis Scheimpflug Technology (CST) tonometer (Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany) 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months and 4 months after surgery. The eyes with IOP rise more than 5 mmHg and the risk factors were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier graph and multiple Cox regression analysis.Results348 eyes of 348 patients were enrolled in this study. Forty-three eyes (12.35%) experienced an IOP rise of more than 5 mmHg. Eyes with IOP rise had higher baseline IOP (Median 19 mmHg (IQR 18 – 22) versus. Median 15 mmHg (IQR 14 – 16); p< 0.001). Baseline central corneal thickness (CCT) was higher in eyes without IOP rise (Median 520 µm (IQR 509 – 541) versus. Median 535 µm (IQR 518 – 547); p= 0.009). in multivariate Cox regression analysis higher baseline IOP was a risk factor for IOP rise (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.59 (95% CI 1.43 – 1.77); p< 0.001) while higher baseline CCT was protective (HR 0.97 (95% CI 0.95 – 0.98); p< 0.001).ConclusionEyes with higher baseline IOP and lower baseline CCT are at increased risk of IOP rise after PRK and should be monitored more frequently.


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