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Body Image ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 40 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Mathew D. Marques ◽  
Susan J. Paxton ◽  
Siân A. McLean ◽  
Hannah K. Jarman ◽  
Chris G. Sibley

Retos ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 44 ◽  
pp. 667-675
María Martín Rodríguez ◽  
María Isabel Barriopedro Moro ◽  
María Espada Mateos

  Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron analizar la influencia de la edad y tipo de ocupación relacionada con el empleo y la crianza, en las barreras para la práctica de las mujeres adultas en España. La metodología de carácter cuantitativa, se ha apoyado en el uso de la encuesta mediante el empleo de un cuestionario basado en la teoría bio-ecológica de Bronfenbrenner, con ítems individuales, ocupación crianza-hogar, ocupación empleo-tiempo y oferta de actividad física y deporte, a una muestra representativa de 1.731 mujeres adultas españolas (entre 30 y 64 años). Los resultados evidenciaron efecto multivariado de la ocupación en las barreras ocupación-empleo y tiempo (“No soy capaz de generar tiempo para mí”, “empleo” y “horarios incompatibles”). Las mujeres adultas que concilian maternidad y empleo perciben en mayor grado estas tres barreras mencionadas. Además, se evidenció efecto multivariado de la edad y la ocupación, y de la interacción, en las barreras ocupación maternidad-hogar (“Tengo que cuidar de mi/s hijo/as” y “Tengo que ocuparme de las tareas del hogar”). Las madres adultas, empleadas o no, percibieron la maternidad en mayor grado como barrera. En las empleadas que no son madres, las tareas del hogar como barrera tuvieron mayor prevalencia en las mayores de cincuenta años. Estas evidencias deberían considerarse para diseñar innovaciones y adaptar intervenciones, en el ámbito de la actividad física y el deporte, para estos grupos específicos, de mujeres adultas.  Abstract. The objectives of the present paper were to analyze the age and occupation type related to employment and maternity influencing Spanish adult women’s barriers to practice. A quantitative methodology based on the use of the survey was applied to a representative sample of 1,731 Spanish adult women (between 30 and 64 years old) who filled out a questionnaire based on the Bronfenbrenner´s bioecological theory with individual items, occupation maternity-household, occupation employment-time and physical activity and sport provision through a personal interview. The results showed a multivariate effect of the occupation on the occupation-employment and time barriers (“I can´t generate time for myself”, “employment” and “incompatible timetables”). The adult women who combine maternity and employment perceived the three barriers mentioned to a greater extent. Also, there was found a multivariate effect of age and occupation, and of the interaction, on the occupation maternity-household barriers (“I have to take care of my children” and “I have to do the housework”). The adult mothers, employed or unemployed, perceived maternity as a barrier to a greater degree. In employed women who are not mothers, household chores as a barrier showed a higher prevalence in those over fifty years old. These findings should be considered for designing innovations and tailoring interventions in the field of physical activity and sport to fit these targeted groups of adult women.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
pp. 55-65
A. V. Sukhanov ◽  
S. V. Mustafina ◽  
D. V. Denisova ◽  
O. D. Rymar ◽  
V. V. Gafarov

The aim of the study was to provide a population assessment of cognitive impairment patterns in a representative sample of 25–44-year-old men and women living in Western Siberia with metabolic syndrome (MS). Material and methods. A cross-sectional population survey of a random representative sample of 25–44-year-olds of both sexes (1503 people) permanently residing in Western Siberia (Novosibirsk) was performed. The study of cognitive functions was conducted in 1009 people: 463 men (45.9 %) and 546 women (54.1 %). A 10-word memorization test was performed according to the methodology proposed by A.R. Luria (unified for screening purposes), with subsequent reproduction after interfering tasks (recall), a proof-reading test (a letter modification of the Bourdon test used for screening purposes), as well as the exclusion of concepts (a verbal version of the test). The MS criteria (VNOK, 2009) were used: FROM > 80 cm in women and > 94 cm in men and 2 of the following criteria: blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mmHg, TG content ≥ 1.7 mmol/L, HDL-C < 1.0 mmol/L in men and < 1.2 mmol/L in women, LDL-C > 3.0 mmol/L, plasma hyperglycemia > 6.1 mmol/L. Results. In the surveyed sample of residents of In Novosibirsk, 25–44 years old, MS occurred in every fourth person tested for cognitive functions (26.06 %): 148 men (31.96 %) and 115 women (21.06 %), MS occurred more often in women than in men. With age, there is an increase in the frequency of MS in both sexes (p < 0.05). For MS, statistically significant associations are shown with direct memorization (1st memorization experience, p = 0.025), the number of directly memorized words (p = 0.015) and with delayed reproduction of words after an interfering task (p = 0.015) in the 10-word memorization test by A.R. Luria. The average rank, as well as the average values of these cognitive tests, were higher in individuals without MS compared to those with MS diagnosed. There were no links between MS and the indicators of the proofreading test. There were also no statistically significant associations of MS with the number of animals named in 1 min in the speech activity test when studying semantically mediated associations. Conclusion. In a population study of young people (25–44 years old) for the first time in Russia/A statistically significant deterioration of cognitive memory patterns in individuals with MS components has been proven in Siberia (Novosibirsk). This confirms the importance of the «cerebrovascular continuum» in the genesis of cognitive impairment at a young age.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136843022110621
Sophie Trawalter ◽  
Nana-Bilkisu Habib ◽  
James N. Druckman

Narratives about Africa as dark, depraved, and diseased justified the exploitation of African land and people. Today, these narratives may still have a hold on people’s fears about disease. We test this in three (pre-COVID-19) experiments ( N = 1,803). Across studies, we find that participants report greater worry about a pandemic originating in Africa (vs. elsewhere). In turn, they report greater support for travel bans and for loosening abortion restrictions. We then document these narratives in an archival study of newspaper articles of the 2015–2016 Zika pandemic ( N = 1,475). We find that articles were more negative—for example, they included more death-related words—if they mentioned Africa. Finally, we replicate the experimental results within the COVID-19 context, using a representative sample ( N = 1,200). Taken together, the studies make clear that reactions to pandemics are biased, and in a way consistent with historical narratives about race and Africa.

Radosław Wolniak ◽  
Izabela Jonek-Kowalska

The creative services sector plays an important and constantly growing role in the modern economy. This publication presents the results of extensive research on the functioning of the creative sector in Polish cities, conducted on a representative sample of 287 cities located throughout Poland. The sample was good in such a way as to maintain the structure by province. The survey included questions rated on a 5-point Likert scale. The aim of the research was to study the functioning of the creative sector in Polish cities and to determine whether the active involvement of public administration in its development has a positive impact on this sector. The research was carried out on the example of a medium-sized European country, which is Poland. The original contribution of the authors of the publication is to demonstrate, on a large research sample, the existence of a positive impact of the municipal office’s activities on the creative sector for example using special funds to boost creativity sector in the city, and to ascertain the existence of a linear relationship between the city size and the level of the creative sector functioning in it.

2022 ◽  
pp. 0013189X2110708
Morgan S. Polikoff ◽  
Daniel Silver ◽  
Marshall Garland ◽  
Anna Rosefsky Saavedra ◽  
Amie Rapaport ◽  

Throughout the 2020–2021 school year, families’ access to—and desire to participate in—in-person educational experiences was highly unequal. Concerns about “school hesitancy” in light of COVID-19 have continued into the 2021–2022 school year, driven both by concerns about well-being and concerns about safety. Using a nationally representative sample of families, we tested a messaging intervention aimed at reducing school hesitancy. We found that targeted messaging to address well-being and safety concerns substantially improved parent reports of their likelihood of sending their child back for in-person learning for parents who were previously unsure. The findings suggest the importance of careful COVID-related communication from schools.

2022 ◽  
pp. 019251212110565
Camila Mont’Alverne ◽  
Diego Moraes ◽  
Thaíse Kemer

A significant part of the Western literature on democracy assumes that political participation leads to citizens being more committed to democratic values. However, we do not know to what extent this is true in young democracies with an authoritarian tradition. Hence, this article aims to examine whether politically engaged Brazilians are more democratic. To do so, we analyzed whether there is any association between political participation, support for democracy, and democracy relativization through multivariate regression models. Our database comprises a representative sample of 2417 interviews with the electorate of São Paulo in 2019. The results show a statistically significant association between unconventional political participation and support for democracy. General political participation is associated with non-relativization of democracy only, showing a limited relationship between support for democracy and participation. Other variables, such as political interest, political knowledge, and interpersonal trust, are also associated with higher support for democracy.

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