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Cheríe S. Blair ◽  
Jack Needleman ◽  
Marjan Javanbakht ◽  
W. Scott Comulada ◽  
Amy Ragsdale ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 003335492110581
Mesfin S. Mulatu ◽  
Jarvis W. Carter ◽  
Stephen A. Flores ◽  
Shaliondel Benton ◽  
Carla A. Galindo ◽  

Objective: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) Implementation, Data to Care, and Evaluation (PrIDE) was a demonstration project implemented by 12 state and local health departments during 2015-2019 to expand PrEP services for men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender persons at risk for HIV infection. We describe findings from the cross-jurisdictional evaluation of the project. Methods: We analyzed work plans, annual progress reports, and aggregate quantitative program data submitted by funded health departments (n = 12) to identify key activities implemented and summarize key project outcomes. Results: PrIDE jurisdictions implemented multiple health equity–focused activities to expand PrEP services to priority populations, including building program capacity, conducting knowledge and awareness campaigns, providing PrEP support services, and addressing barriers to PrEP use. Overall, PrIDE jurisdictions identified 44 813 persons with PrEP indications. Of these, 74.8% (n = 33 500) were referred and 33.1% (n = 14 821) were linked to PrEP providers, and 25.3% (n = 11 356) were prescribed PrEP. Most persons prescribed PrEP were MSM or transgender persons (87.9%) and persons from racial and ethnic minority groups (65.6%). However, among persons with PrEP indications, non-Hispanic Black/African American persons (14.9% of 18 782) were less likely than non-Hispanic White persons (31.0% of 11 633) to be prescribed PrEP ( z = −33.57; P < .001). Conclusions: PrIDE jurisdictions successfully expanded PrEP services for MSM, transgender persons, and racial and ethnic minority groups by implementing health equity–focused activities that addressed barriers to PrEP services. However, PrEP prescription was generally low, with significant disparities by demographic characteristics. Additional targeted interventions are needed to expand PrEP services, achieve equity in PrEP use, and contribute to ending the HIV epidemic in the United States.

10.2196/34885 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. e34885
Thiago Silva Torres ◽  
Emilia Moreira Jalil ◽  
Lara Esteves Coelho ◽  
Daniel Rodrigues Barros Bezerra ◽  
Cristina Moreira Jalil ◽  

Background In many parts of the world, including Brazil, uptake for biomedical interventions has been insufficient to reverse the HIV epidemic among key populations at high risk for HIV, including men who have sex with men. Young MSM (YMSM), particularly Black YMSM, have high HIV incidence, low viral suppression, and low preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake and adherence. Therefore, novel approaches to increase the HIV biomedical interventions uptake by YMSM are urgently needed. Objective We describe the Conectad@s Project, which aims to: (1) estimate the prevalence and incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, the onset of sexual risk behavior, and barriers to biomedical interventions among YMSM aged 18 to 24 years in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; and (2) conduct a technology-based adherence intervention study to promote a rapid linkage of YMSM to HIV care or prevention, and support and sustain adherence. Methods A cross-sectional survey will be conducted with 400 YMSM recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) adapted for social media-based sampling, preceded by a formative phase. HIV and sexually transmitted infections testing will be conducted, including early HIV infection biomarker detection. Behavioral, partnership, network, and structural measures will be collected through structured questionnaires. All individuals recruited for the survey will have access to HIV risk assessment, antiretroviral therapy (ART), PrEP, prevention counseling, and a technology-based adherence intervention. Those who accept the adherence intervention will receive weekly text messages via a social networking app (WhatsApp) for 24 weeks, with follow-up data collected over 48 weeks. Results The Conectad@s project has been approved by our local institutional review board (#CAAE 26086719.0.0000.4262) in accordance with all applicable regulations. Questionnaires for the RDS survey and intervention were developed and tested in 2020, formative interviews were conducted in January and February 2021 to guide the development of the RDS, and enrollment is planned to begin in early 2022. Conclusions The Conectad@s Project is a vanguard study that, for the first time, will apply digital RDS to sample and recruit YMSM in Brazil and rapidly connect them to ART, PrEP, or prevention counseling through a technology-based adherence intervention. RDS will allow us to estimate HIV prevalence among YMSM and measure HIV infection biomarkers in the context of the onset of risky behavior. The data will lay the groundwork to adapt and implement HIV prevention strategies, identify barriers to the earliest HIV infection diagnosis, immediate ART or PrEP initiation, and detect new clusters of HIV transmission. International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) DERR1-10.2196/34885

Liping Wang ◽  
Anwarud Din ◽  
Peng Wu

In this paper, to investigate the synthetic effect of PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) and ART (antiretrovial therapy) on HIV transmission among MSM (men who have sex with men) in heterogenous environment, an realistic HIV epidemic model with spatial diffusion is established. Here, HIV infectious people are divided into three immunity based compartments, i.e., CD4+ T cell count less than 350, between 350 and 500, and more than 500, respectively. The basic reproduction number $R_0$ is established and proved as a threshold parameter: The global asymptotic stability of the disease-free steady state holds for $R_0<1$, and the disease will be present if $R_0>1$. Considering the substantial advantages of PrEP and ART in controlling HIV transmissions among MSM, the optimal control problem is presented for the case of positive constant diffusion coefficients, which minimize the total population of susceptible individual and HIV infected individual, the cost of PrEP and ART thearpy. As an illustration of our theoretical results, we conduct numerical simulations. We also conduct an optimal control case study where model parameters are estimated from the demographic and epidemiological data from China. This work suggests: (1) Spatial factors cannot be ignored during the HIV intervention; (2)Taking the PrEP intervention measure for HIV transmissions among MSM as early as possible will help to improve the control efficiency and reduces its cost; (3) Reducing the PrEP drug costs will promote the efficiency of PrEP treatment in preventing the spread of HIV among MSM.

Erica L. Plummer ◽  
Kate Maddaford ◽  
Gerald L. Murray ◽  
Christopher K. Fairley ◽  
Shivani Pasricha ◽  

Given the role of the oral microbiota in human health, it is important to understand if and how external factors influence its composition. Mouthwash use is common in some populations, and the use of antiseptic mouthwash has been proposed as an alternative intervention to prevent gonorrhea transmission.

Sara Morselli ◽  
Valeria Gaspari ◽  
Alessia Cantiani ◽  
Melissa Salvo ◽  
Claudio Foschi ◽  

We assessed the characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis pharyngeal carriage in a cohort of ‘men having sex with men’, including patients with pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection. In the period 2017-2019, among all the oropharyngeal samples tested for gonorrhoea from MSM attending a STI Clinic in Bologna (Italy), we randomly selected 244 N. gonorrhoeae-positive samples and 403 negatives (n=647). Pharyngeal specimens were tested for N. meningitidis presence, by the detection of sodC gene. N. meningitidis-positive samples were further grouped by PCR tests for the major invasive genogroups (i.e., A, B, C, W, and Y). A molecular assay, targeting capsule transporter gene, was used to determine meningococcal capsular status. Overall, 75.8% (491/647) of samples tested positive for sodC gene, indicating a pharyngeal meningococcal carriage. Meningococcal colonisation was significantly more frequent in younger subjects (P=0.009), with no association with HIV infection. Non-groupable meningococci represented most of pharyngeal carriages (about 71%). The commonest N. meningitidis serogroup was B (23.6%), followed by C (2.1%), Y (1.8%) and W (1.1%). Meningococci were often characterized by the genetic potential of capsule production. Interestingly, a negative association between N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae was found: pharyngeal gonorrhoea was significantly more present in patients without meningococcal carriage (P=0.03). Although preliminary, our data added knowledge on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in MSM communities at high risk of gonococcal infections, gaining new insights into the interactions/dynamics between N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
John Mark Wiginton ◽  
Sarah M. Murray ◽  
Ohemaa Poku ◽  
Jura Augustinavicius ◽  
Kevon-Mark Phillip Jackman ◽  

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

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